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2.
J Clin Microbiol ; : e0244621, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949964

ABSTRACT

Nearly 40 years have elapsed since the invention of the PCR, with its extremely sensitive and specific ability to detect nucleic acids via in vitro enzyme-mediated amplification. In turn, more than 2 years have passed since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, during which time molecular diagnostics for infectious diseases have assumed a larger global role than ever before. In this context, we review broadly the progression of molecular techniques in clinical microbiology, to their current prominence. Notably, these methods now entail both the detection and quantification of microbial nucleic acids, along with their sequence-based characterization. Overall, we seek to provide a combined perspective on the techniques themselves, as well as how they have come to shape health care at the intersection of technologic innovation, pathophysiologic knowledge, clinical/laboratory logistics, and even financial/regulatory factors.

4.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We described the set-up of a new multidisciplinary psoriatic arthritis-psoriasis (PsA-PsO) clinic incorporating service, education, and research between rheumatologists and dermatologists for PsA. We describe the patients' and learners' experience of this shared-care model. METHODS: A PsA-PsO clinic was newly set up in 2019. Each patient was first seen by a trainee, followed by both a dermatologist and a rheumatologist simultaneously in the same consultation room. We collected patients' and learners' experience through self-administered surveys. RESULTS: From May 2019 to January 2020, we collected data from 44 visits (55% new referrals, 45% follow up) from 30 patients: 22.7% were referred for diagnostic doubts, 77.3% were for therapeutic issues. Eight of the 10 patients referred for diagnosis had PsA confirmed. Medication changes occurred in 63.6% of visits; 63.6% of patients continued follow up in the PsA-PsO clinic, and 36.4% were discharged back to the original respective care. The median (interquartile range) rating of patient satisfaction of the care was 8 (7-8) out of 10; 96.1% of patients would "probably" or "definitely recommend" the care to others. From 20 learners, 95% reported the experience as "extremely" or "very" beneficial to training. The PsA-PsO clinic was suspended during the COVID-19 pandemic from February 2020 because of lack of available staff. The service was resumed gradually from May 2021. CONCLUSION: Despite challenges, we report the set-up of a new care model between dermatologists and rheumatologists for care of patients with psoriatic disease. The care model was well received by patients. Learners from various levels reported benefit from the learning experience.

5.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0124822, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909613

ABSTRACT

This study compares three of the most inclusive and widely used panels for respiratory syndromic testing in the United States, namely, Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RPP), BioFire FilmArray Respiratory Panel (RP), and GenMark eSensor Respiratory Viral Panel (RVP). We compared the three assays using nasopharyngeal swab samples (n = 350) collected from symptomatic patients (n = 329) in the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era. There was no significant difference in the overall accuracies of BioFire and Luminex assays (P = 0.6171); however, significant differences were found between BioFire and GenMark (P = 0.0003) and between GenMark and Luminex (P = 0.0009). The positive percent agreement of the BioFire RP assay was 94.1%, compared to 97.3% for GenMark RVP and 96.5% for Luminex RPP. Overall negative percent agreement values were high for all three assays, i.e., 99.9% for BioFire and Luminex and 99.5% for GenMark. The three assays were equivalent for adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza A, and respiratory syncytial virus. Increased false-positive results were seen with BioFire for the endemic coronaviruses and with GenMark for influenza B and the parainfluenza viruses. IMPORTANCE Clinical laboratories have multiple choices when it is comes to syndromic respiratory testing. Here, the Luminex NxTAG RPP is compared to the BioFire FilmArray RP and GenMark eSensor RVP for overall and per-target accuracy. As new tests come to market, it is important to ascertain their performance characteristics, compared to other widely used in vitro diagnostic products.

6.
Viral Immunol ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908729

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 in the past 2 years has aroused great attention to infectious diseases, and emerging virus outbreaks have brought huge challenges to the global health system. Viruses are specific pathogens that completely rely on host cells for their own survival and disease transmission. At present, a growing number of studies have proved that inducing the death of virus-infected cells can prevent the spread of virus and promote disease recovery. Therefore, many ways to induce the death of infected cells are considered to be beneficial to host immunity. Cell death is a basic biological phenomenon. Programmed cell death (PCD), as an important part of the host's innate immune response, provides effective protection against virus transmission. Pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis are the most commonly studied pathways of PCD. Recent studies have found that three pathways of cell death can be activated during virus infection. More and more studies have shown the existence of extensive connections between PCDs, and this complex relationship is defined as PANoptosis, an inflammatory PCD pathway regulated by the PANoptosome complex, whose characteristics cannot be explained by any of the three PCD pathways. During viral infection, PANoptosis can promote inflammatory response by inducing the production of inflammatory cytokines and cell death to exert an antiviral mechanism. This article reviews the various effects of cell death pathways during viral infection and provides new ideas for clinical antiviral therapy and related immunotherapy.

7.
Clinics in Laboratory Medicine ; 42(2):i, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1867935
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 741083, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775896

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the association between passive smoking and physical and psychological health in Chinese nurses. Participants of this cross-sectional study comprised 2,484 non-smoking nurses. Passive smoking and demographic information were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical, psychological, and overall health status of nurses were measured using the Cornell Medical Index (CMI) health questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for nurses' health were estimated by exposure to passive smoking using unconditional logistic regression models. A total of 1,219 nurses (49.07%) were exposed to passive smoking. Of these, 609 (24.52%), 160 (6.44%), and 587 (23.63%) nurses had poorer physical, mental, and overall health, respectively. After adjusting for other confounding factors, compared with the non-passive smoking group, passive smoking was associated with poor physical (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.25-1.83), mental (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.07-2.07), and overall (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.30-1.93) health of nurses, respectively. We also carried out subgroup analyses stratified by age, department, and professional title, which showed that most findings supported the main results. This study demonstrated that exposure to passive smoking was a risk factor for overall decreased physical and mental health status among Chinese nurses.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Nurses , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0181421, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745800

ABSTRACT

Most of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) targeted the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. However, mutations at RBD sequences found in the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants greatly reduced the effectiveness of nAbs. Here we showed that four nAbs, S2-4D, S2-5D, S2-8D, and S2-4A, which recognized a conserved epitope in the S2 subunit of the S protein, can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection through blocking the S protein-mediated membrane fusion. Notably, these four nAbs exhibited broadly neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 Alpha, Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon variants. Antisera collected from mice immunized with the identified epitope peptides of these four nAbs also exhibited potent virus neutralizing activity. Discovery of the S2-specific nAbs and their unique antigenic epitopes paves a new path for development of COVID-19 therapeutics and vaccines. IMPORTANCE The spike (S) protein on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 mediates receptor binding and virus-host cell membrane fusion during virus entry. Many neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), which targeted the receptor binding domain (RBD) of S protein, lost the neutralizing activity against the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants with sequence mutations at the RBD. In contrast, the nAb against the highly conserved S2 subunit, which plays the key role in virus-host cell membrane fusion, was poorly discovered. We showed that four S2-specific nAbs, S2-4D, S2-5D, S2-8D, and S2-4A, inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection through blocking the S protein-mediated membrane fusion. These nAbs exhibited broadly neutralizing activity against Alpha, Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon variants. Antisera induced by the identified epitope peptides also possessed potent neutralizing activity. This work not only unveiled the S2-specific nAbs but also discovered an immunodominant epitope in the S2 subunit that can be rationally designed as the broad-spectrum vaccine against the SARS-like coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Immune Sera , Membrane Fusion , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
10.
Antiviral Res ; 200: 105290, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734185

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are believed to be promising prophylactic and therapeutic treatment against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we reported two mouse monoclonal antibodies 7 Eb-4G and 1Ba-3H that specifically recognized the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein without exhibiting cross-reactivity with the S proteins of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The binding epitopes of 7 Eb-4G and 1Ba-3H were respectively located in the regions of residues 457-476 and 477-496 in the S protein. Only 1Ba-3H exhibited the neutralizing activity for preventing the pseudotyped lentivirus from binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-transfected HEK293T cells. The competitive ELISA further showed that 1Ba-3H interfered with the binding between RBD and ACE2. Epitope mapping experiments demonstrated that a single alanine replacement at residues 480, 482, 484, 485, and 488-491 in the RBD abrogated 1Ba-3H binding. 1Ba-3H exhibited the neutralizing activity against the wild-type, Alpha, Delta, and Epsilon variants of SARS-CoV-2, but lost the neutralizing activity against Gamma variant in the plaque reduction assay. On the contrary, 1Ba-3H enhanced the cellular infection of Gamma variant in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that the antibody-dependent enhancement of infection mediated by the RBD-specific antibody for different SARS-CoV-2 variants must be considered while developing the NAb.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Epitopes , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730494

ABSTRACT

Artemisia argyi is a widely distributed and inexpensive plant resource, and study on its chemical compositions and biological activities will provide an important basis for its food applications and pharmaceutical developments. In this study, fourteen known guaiane-type sesquiterpenes (1-14), four known eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes (15-18), two known germacranolide-type sesquiterpenes (19, 20), and eight other types of terpenoids (20-28) were isolated from the leaves of A. argyi by polyamide and ODS CC and HPLC. The structures of all compounds are determined by 1 D NMR (1H-NMR、13C-NMR) and literature comparison. Among them, compounds 1 and 8 were isolated from Chinese folk medicine A. argyi for the first time. Besides, the LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell model has been evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities in vitro by the Griess reagent. The results indicated that the guaianolide sesquiterpenoids obtained from A. argyi have an excellent ability to inhibit NO production, especially Argyin A, a guaianolide sesquiterpenoid with isovaleryloxy substitution.

12.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
13.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328866

ABSTRACT

Data on the viral loads in respiratory aerosols from patients infected with Delta and Omicron variants are limited. In this study, we used an exhaled breath bioaerosol collector to collect aerosol samples in coarse (> 5µm) and fine (≤ 5µm) fractions from COVID-19 patients infected with these VOCs while doing various respiratory activities. Samples were tested via SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR and virus culture. Nine patients (4 Delta and 5 Omicron) were included. Viral RNA was detectable in seven participants, with greater viral loads in fine aerosols. Notably SARS-CoV-2 RNA was consistently detectable in respiratory samples of all Omicron patients despite them being fully vaccinated and mostly asymptomatic in contrast with Delta patients. Singing and talking without mask generated the greatest viral loads underscoring the transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants via respiratory aerosols. The more consistent detection of viral RNA in Omicron-infected patients may account for its greater transmissibility.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323673

ABSTRACT

Background: To explore the kinetic changes in virology, specific antibody response and imaging during the clinical course of COVID-19. Methods: : This observational study enrolled 20 patients with COVID-19, who were hospitalized between January 20-April 6, 2020, in the two COVID-19 designated hospitals of Zhoushan, Zhejiang and Rushan, Shandong, China, The laboratory findings, imaging, serum response to viral infection, and viral RNA level in the throat and stool samples were assessed from onset to recovery phase in patients with COVID-19. Results: : SARS-COV-2 RNA was positive as early as day four. It remained positive until day 55 post-onset in the sputum-throat swabs and became negative in most cases (55%) within 14 days after onset. Lymphocytopenia occurred in 40% (8/20) of patients during the peak infection period and returned to normal at week five. The most severe inflammation in the lungs appeared in week 2 or 3 after onset, and this was completely absorbed between week 6 and 8 in 85.7% of patients. All patients had detectable antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD), and 95% of these patients had IgG to viral N proteins. The antibody titer peaked at week four. Anti-S IgM was positive in 7 of 20 patients after week three. Conclusions: : All COVID-19 patients in this study were self-limiting and recovered well though it may take as long as 6-8 weeks. Our findings on the kinetic changes in imaging, serum response to viral infection and viral RNA level may help understand pathogenesis and define clinical course of COVID-19.

16.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(7): 1342-1347, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654733

ABSTRACT

A 75-year-old previously healthy female became severely ill, functionally dependent, and required long-term home oxygen therapy, after recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with acute respiratory failure and extensive pulmonary fibrosis. After two months of respiratory muscle training and a comprehensive cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program, her dyspnea, physical performance, pulmonary function parameters, and activities of daily living rapidly improved. This Case highlights the importance of a timely active rehabilitation program for COVID-19 survivors experiencing the long-term effects of coronavirus (long COVID).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Quality of Life
17.
Frontiers in medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610043

ABSTRACT

The temporal association had been reported between vaccination and exacerbation of psoriasis, and episodes of psoriasis flare-up have recently been attributed to COVID-19 vaccines. We recruited 32 unimmunized controls and 51 vaccinated psoriasis patients, 49 of whom were under biological therapy, with regular clinic visits receiving a total of 63 shots of vaccines, including 30 doses of Moderna mRNA-1273 and 33 doses of AstraZeneca-Oxford AZD1222. Fifteen episodes of exacerbation attacked within 9.3 ± 4.3 days, which is higher than two episodes in the control group (p = 0.047). The mean post-vaccination severity of the worsening episodes increased from PASI 3.1 to 8.0 (p < 0.001). Three patients showed morphologic change from chronic plaque-type to guttate psoriasis. Deterioration of psoriasis following COVID-19 vaccination was not associated with age, sex, disease duration, psoriatic arthritis, family history of psoriasis, history of erythroderma, current biologics use, comorbidities, vaccine types, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C genotypes, baseline PASI nor pre-vaccination PASI. For those who received two doses of vaccination, all but one patient aggravated after the first shot but not the second. The mechanism of psoriasis exacerbation in immunized individuals is unclear, but Th17 cells induced by COVID-19 vaccines may play a role. In the pandemic era, psoriasis patients and physicians should acknowledge the possibility of fluctuation of disease activity when vaccinated against COVID-19. Nevertheless, compared to a treatable dermatologic disease with rapid resolution of exacerbation, psoriasis patients who do not have contraindications to vaccination should benefit from COVID-19 vaccines in the prevention of severe COVID-19 infection and fatality.

18.
Neuro-oncology advances ; 3(Suppl 6):vi15-vi15, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602624

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recurrent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is intractable. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a treatment using tumor-selective particle radiation, and is indicated for medical treatment for head and neck cancer, and also used for malignant glioma and malignant meningioma.<Case>20-year-old woman who has MPNST that extends from the subcutaneous tissue of the right neck to the posterior fossa. <Medical History>Chemotherapy and local irradiation(50.4Gy/28fr) for primary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the right ear canal at the age six.<Current medical history>Right cervical tumor developed at 17-year-old, some chemotherapy regimens and tumor resections were performed as recurrence of rhabdomyosarcoma at the previous hospital. After she was diagnosed with MPNST in the pathology consultation at our hospital, she was irradiated with heavy ion beam 70.8Gy(RBE)/16fr and received additional chemotherapies at our department, but her tumor was refractory. Although BNCT for MPNST is not covered by health insurance in Japan, she wanted to try to be treated for BNCT. After confirming boron accumulation in the tumor (SUVmax 4.28) by FBPA-PET, tumor growth and hydrocephalus occurred while waiting for travel to Taiwan due to the spread of COVID-19 infection. She was performed tumor resection(NTR) and irradiated with SRS 20Gy/fr for the residual lesion, but tumor had a rapid recurrence from the margin of the excision cavity. Finally, she could travel about 3 months after the operation and underwent BNCT, that used neutrons and 10B-boronophenylalanine from the Tsinghua University research reactor in Taiwan. No serious adverse events including cerebral edema were observed, and dramatic tumor shrinkage was maintained after treatment. FBPA-PET of 3 months later showed accumulation in the part of the margin of the cavity, the recurrence was observed on MRI after 3 and a half months. Discussion: BNCT for refractory/recurrent MPNST showed acceptable safety and was able to prolong progression-free survival.

19.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 114(1): 47-55, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592286

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in a global health emergency. In addition to common respiratory symptoms, some patients with COVID-19 infections may experience a range of extra-pulmonary manifestations, such as digestive system involvement. Patients with COVID-19 have been reported to suffer from acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) that is associated with disease-related severity and mortality. However, in the context of COVID-19, the exact cause of AMI has yet to be clearly defined. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the available data and elucidates the possible underlying mechanisms linking COVID-19 to AMI, in addition to highlighting therapeutic approaches for clinicians. Finally, given the severe global impact of COVID-19, we emphasize the importance of coordinated vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenteric Ischemia , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung , Mesenteric Ischemia/etiology , Mesenteric Ischemia/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Hypertens ; 2021: 6594863, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582879

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence has shown an unusual relationship between hypertension and COVID-19, which may not be as simple as previously thought. The purpose of our study was to determine the association of hypertension with the onset and development of COVID-19. A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the prevalence of hypertension in COVID-19 patients, as well as the usage of ACEIs/ARBs. Metaregression analyses were used to evaluate the association of hypertension with disease severity and mortality. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant studies. A total of 42 studies including 14138 patients were enrolled in the study. The proportion of hypertension in COVID-19 patients in China was 17.7% according to the enrolled studies, while it was 6.0% in a study containing 72314 confirmed cases, which are both much lower than in the general population. All of the data from the 11 provinces in China showed the same tendency. The proportions of hypertension were higher in severe/ICU patients and nonsurvivors than in nonsevere/ICU patients and survivors. The metaregression analyses suggested that both disease severity and risk of death were associated with the incidence of hypertension. A total of 27.6% of COVID-19 patients with hypertension received ACEI/ARB therapy. The proportion of deaths in COVID-19 patients with hypertension treated with ACEIs/ARBs was significantly lower than that in nonuse patients treated with ACEIs/ARBs. In conclusion, hypertension may reduce the infection risk of COVID-19 but increase the risk of developing worse clinical outcomes. The use of ACEIs/ARBs may benefit COVID-19 patients with hypertension.

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