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1.
Management Decision ; 60(4):893-915, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-20245059

ABSTRACT

Purpose: First, the key vulnerability factors from the literature are identified. Second, using the vulnerability factors as indicators, a composite index is developed. Last, from the index values, a set of vulnerability knowledge maps, showing the vulnerability hotspots, are prepared. Design/methodology/approach: This study aims to develop a pandemic vulnerability knowledge visualisation index to support the strategic decision-making efforts of authorities. Findings: Ten indicators are identified as vulnerability factors that could significantly impact the virus spread risks. Verifying the identified hotspots against the recorded infected cases and deaths has evidenced the usefulness of the index. Determining and visualising the high-vulnerability locations and communities could help in informed strategic decision-making and responses of the authorities to the pandemic. Originality/value: The study demonstrates that the developed pandemic vulnerability knowledge visualisation index is particularly appropriate in the context of Australia. Nonetheless, by replicating the methodologic steps of the study, customised versions can be developed for other country contexts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

2.
Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity ; 7(4):238-238, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2232537

ABSTRACT

The right to the city concept is widely debated in academic discourse yet ambiguously executed in public discourse. In much of the discussion, the right to the city is advocated as a right that humans should claim—i.e., participating in urban space living. Nonetheless, constraints and limits are imposed on such advocacy, resulting in a tokenized implementation state. With such a background surmounting the COVID-19 pandemic era, this study is aimed at understanding the right to the city propagation and revealing the possible wrongs of such civic advocacy. Multiple cases in Malaysia were selected for analysis and as the discussion context representing the state-of-the-art aspect of right to the city in the context of an emerging country. Two potential misconceptions through the action of right to the city were identified: first, the concept of right to the city has the potential to infringe the centrality of power, which both citizens and the authority have to make clear;second, the lack of a sign of contribution from citizens poses a severe challenge to build a co-created urban space for all. This paper contributes to removing a blind spot—the possible wrong to the right to the city—and provides ideas to achieve authentic citizen participation.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737012

ABSTRACT

Several factors are motivating the development of preventive, personalized, connected, virtual, and ubiquitous healthcare services. These factors include declining public health, increase in chronic diseases, an ageing population, rising healthcare costs, the need to bring intelligence near the user for privacy, security, performance, and costs reasons, as well as COVID-19. Motivated by these drivers, this paper proposes, implements, and evaluates a reference architecture called Imtidad that provides Distributed Artificial Intelligence (AI) as a Service (DAIaaS) over cloud, fog, and edge using a service catalog case study containing 22 AI skin disease diagnosis services. These services belong to four service classes that are distinguished based on software platforms (containerized gRPC, gRPC, Android, and Android Nearby) and are executed on a range of hardware platforms (Google Cloud, HP Pavilion Laptop, NVIDIA Jetson nano, Raspberry Pi Model B, Samsung Galaxy S9, and Samsung Galaxy Note 4) and four network types (Fiber, Cellular, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth). The AI models for the diagnosis include two standard Deep Neural Networks and two Tiny AI deep models to enable their execution at the edge, trained and tested using 10,015 real-life dermatoscopic images. The services are evaluated using several benchmarks including model service value, response time, energy consumption, and network transfer time. A DL service on a local smartphone provides the best service in terms of both energy and speed, followed by a Raspberry Pi edge device and a laptop in fog. The services are designed to enable different use cases, such as patient diagnosis at home or sending diagnosis requests to travelling medical professionals through a fog device or cloud. This is the pioneering work that provides a reference architecture and such a detailed implementation and treatment of DAIaaS services, and is also expected to have an extensive impact on developing smart distributed service infrastructures for healthcare and other sectors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Software
4.
Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity ; 7(4):238, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1554898

ABSTRACT

The right to the city concept is widely debated in academic discourse yet ambiguously executed in public discourse. In much of the discussion, the right to the city is advocated as a right that humans should claim—i.e., participating in urban space living. Nonetheless, constraints and limits are imposed on such advocacy, resulting in a tokenized implementation state. With such a background surmounting the COVID-19 pandemic era, this study is aimed at understanding the right to the city propagation and revealing the possible wrongs of such civic advocacy. Multiple cases in Malaysia were selected for analysis and as the discussion context representing the state-of-the-art aspect of right to the city in the context of an emerging country. Two potential misconceptions through the action of right to the city were identified: first, the concept of right to the city has the potential to infringe the centrality of power, which both citizens and the authority have to make clear;second, the lack of a sign of contribution from citizens poses a severe challenge to build a co-created urban space for all. This paper contributes to removing a blind spot—the possible wrong to the right to the city—and provides ideas to achieve authentic citizen participation.

5.
Buildings ; 11(12):570, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1542421

ABSTRACT

Aged care communities have been under the spotlight since the beginning of 2020. Energy is essential to ensure reliable operation and quality care provision in residential aged care communities (RAC). The aim of this study is to determine how RAC’s yearly energy use and peak demand changed in Australia and what this might mean for RAC design, operation and energy asset investment and ultimately in the healthcare plan for elderly residents. Five years of electricity demand data from four case study RACs in the same climate zone are analyzed. Statistical tools are used to analyze the data, and a clustering algorithm is used to identify typical demand profiles. A number of energy key performance indicators (KPIs) are evaluated, highlighting their respective benefits and limitations. The results show an average 8% reduction for yearly energy use and 7% reduction for yearly peak demands in the COVID-19 year compared with the average of the previous four years. Typical demand profiles for the four communities were mostly lower in the pandemic year. Despite these results, the KPI analysis shows that, for these four communities, outdoor ambient temperature remains a very significant correlation factor for energy use.

6.
Sustainability ; 12(24):10492, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-977768

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has made many urban policymakers, planners, and scholars, all around the globe, rethink conventional, neoliberal growth strategies of cities. The trend of rapid urbanization, particularly around capital cities, has been questioned, and alternative growth models and locations have been the subjects of countless discussions. This is particularly the case for the Australian context: The COVID-19 pandemic heightened the debates in urban circles on post-pandemic urban growth strategies and boosting the growth of towns and cities across regional Australia is a popular alternative strategy. While some scholars argue that regional Australia poses an invaluable opportunity for post-pandemic growth by ‘taking off the pressure from the capital cities’;others warn us about the risks of growing regional towns and cities without carefully designed national, regional, and local planning, design, and development strategies. Superimposing planning and development policies meant for metropolitan cities could simply result in transferring the ills of capital cities to regions and exacerbate unsustainable development and heightened socioeconomic inequalities. This opinion piece, by keeping both of these perspectives in mind, explores approaches to regional community and economic development of Australia’s towns and cities, along with identifying sustainable urban growth locations in the post-pandemic era. It also offers new insights that could help re-shape the policy debate on regional growth and development.

7.
Health Inf Sci Syst ; 8(1): 37, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Due to COVID-19, various countries introduced lockdowns and limited citizen movements. These restrictions triggered an increased use of digital technologies and platforms by the public. This provides an opportunity for the authorities to capture public perceptions on COVID-19 from social media channels to make informed decisions. The use of social media analytics during pandemics for decision-making, however, is an understudied area of research. Thus, this study aims to generate insights into how social media analytics can assist authorities in pandemic-related policy decisions. METHODS: This study involved a social media analysis approach-i.e., systematic geo-Twitter analysis-that contains descriptive, content, sentiment, and spatial analyses. Australian states and territories are selected as the case study context for the empirical investigation. This study collected 96,666 geotagged tweets (originated from Australia between 1 January and 4 May 2020), and analysed 35,969 of them after data cleaning. RESULTS: The findings disclose that: (a) Social media analytics is an efficient approach to capture the attitudes and perceptions of the public during a pandemic; (b) Crowdsourced social media data can guide interventions and decisions of the authorities during a pandemic, and; (c) Effective use of government social media channels can help the public to follow the introduced measures/restrictions. CONCLUSION: The findings are invaluable for authorities to understand community perceptions and identify communities in needs and demands in a pandemic situation, where authorities are not in a position to conduct direct and lengthily public consultations.

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(10)2020 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-361467

ABSTRACT

In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has started to manifest itself at an unprecedented pace. With highly sophisticated capabilities, AI has the potential to dramatically change our cities and societies. Despite its growing importance, the urban and social implications of AI are still an understudied area. In order to contribute to the ongoing efforts to address this research gap, this paper introduces the notion of an artificially intelligent city as the potential successor of the popular smart city brand-where the smartness of a city has come to be strongly associated with the use of viable technological solutions, including AI. The study explores whether building artificially intelligent cities can safeguard humanity from natural disasters, pandemics, and other catastrophes. All of the statements in this viewpoint are based on a thorough review of the current status of AI literature, research, developments, trends, and applications. This paper generates insights and identifies prospective research questions by charting the evolution of AI and the potential impacts of the systematic adoption of AI in cities and societies. The generated insights inform urban policymakers, managers, and planners on how to ensure the correct uptake of AI in our cities, and the identified critical questions offer scholars directions for prospective research and development.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Natural Disasters , Pandemics , Cities , Humans , Prospective Studies
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