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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 42, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683981

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants have evolved a variety of critical mutations, leading to antigenicity changes and immune escape. The recent emerging SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant attracted global attention due to its significant resistance to current antibody therapies and vaccines. Here, we profiled the mutations of Omicron and other various circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants in parallel by computational interface analysis and in vitro experimental assays. We identified critical mutations that lead to antigenicity changes and diminished neutralization efficiency of a panel of 14 antibodies due to diverse molecular mechanisms influencing the antigen-antibody interaction. Our study identified that Omicron exhibited extraordinary potency in immune escape compared to the other variants of concern, and explores the application of computational interface analysis in SARS-CoV-2 mutation surveillance and demonstrates its potential for the early identification of concerning variants, providing preliminary guidance for neutralizing antibody therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
2.
J Med Chem ; 65(1): 876-884, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606194

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a global health threat, was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro) was recognized as a promising drug target because of multiple functions in virus maturation and antiviral immune responses. Inhibitor GRL0617 occupied the interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) C-terminus-binding pocket and showed an effective antiviral inhibition. Here, we described a novel peptide-drug conjugate (PDC), in which GRL0617 was linked to a sulfonium-tethered peptide derived from PLpro-specific substrate LRGG. The EM-C and EC-M PDCs showed a promising in vitro IC50 of 7.40 ± 0.37 and 8.63 ± 0.55 µM, respectively. EC-M could covalently label PLpro active site C111 and display anti-ISGylation activities in cellular assays. The results represent the first attempt to design PDCs composed of stabilized peptide inhibitors and GRL0617 to inhibit PLpro. These novel PDCs provide promising opportunities for antiviral drug design.


Subject(s)
Aniline Compounds/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Benzamides/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Drug Design , Naphthalenes/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Aniline Compounds/metabolism , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides/metabolism , Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Cytokines/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Naphthalenes/metabolism , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ubiquitins/chemistry
3.
ACS Omega ; 6(26): 16826-16836, 2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305358

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a worldwide health emergency. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 present with diverse symptoms related to the severity of the disease. Determining the proteomic changes associated with these diverse symptoms and in different stages of infection is beneficial for clinical diagnosis and management. Here, we performed a tandem mass tag-labeling proteomic study on the plasma of healthy controls and COVID-19 patients, including those with asymptomatic infection (NS), mild syndrome, and severe syndrome in the early phase and the later phase. Although the number of patients included in each group is low, our comparative proteomic analysis revealed that complement and coagulation cascades, cholesterol metabolism, and glycolysis-related proteins were affected after infection with SARS-CoV-2. Compared to healthy controls, ELISA analysis confirmed that SOD1, PRDX2, and LDHA levels were increased in the patients with severe symptoms. Both gene set enrichment analysis and receiver operator characteristic analysis indicated that SOD1 could be a pivotal indicator for the severity of COVID-19. Our results indicated that plasma proteome changes differed based on the symptoms and disease stages and SOD1 could be a predictor protein for indicating COVID-19 progression. These results may also provide a new understanding for COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 677027, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282385

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus that is common among the global population, causing an enormous disease burden. EBV can directly cause infectious mononucleosis and is also associated with various malignancies and autoimmune diseases. In order to prevent primary infection and subsequent chronic disease, efforts have been made to develop a prophylactic vaccine against EBV in recent years, but there is still no vaccine in clinical use. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the global cooperation in vaccine development against SARS-CoV-2 provide insights for next-generation antiviral vaccine design and opportunities for developing an effective prophylactic EBV vaccine. With improvements in antigen selection, vaccine platforms, formulation and evaluation systems, novel vaccines against EBV are expected to elicit dual protection against infection of both B lymphocytes and epithelial cells. This would provide sustainable immunity against EBV-associated malignancies, finally enabling the control of worldwide EBV infection and management of EBV-associated diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
6.
ACS Nano ; 15(2): 2738-2752, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036015

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus resulted in economic losses and threatened human health worldwide. The pandemic highlights an urgent need for a stable, easily produced, and effective vaccine. SARS-CoV-2 uses the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) to bind its cognate receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and initiate membrane fusion. Thus, the RBD is an ideal target for vaccine development. In this study, we designed three different RBD-conjugated nanoparticle vaccine candidates, namely, RBD-Ferritin (24-mer), RBD-mi3 (60-mer), and RBD-I53-50 (120-mer), via covalent conjugation using the SpyTag-SpyCatcher system. When mice were immunized with the RBD-conjugated nanoparticles (NPs) in conjunction with the AddaVax or Sigma Adjuvant System, the resulting antisera exhibited 8- to 120-fold greater neutralizing activity against both a pseudovirus and the authentic virus than those of mice immunized with monomeric RBD. Most importantly, sera from mice immunized with RBD-conjugated NPs more efficiently blocked the binding of RBD to ACE2 in vitro, further corroborating the promising immunization effect. Additionally, the vaccine has distinct advantages in terms of a relatively simple scale-up and flexible assembly. These results illustrate that the SARS-CoV-2 RBD-conjugated nanoparticles developed in this study are a competitive vaccine candidate and that the carrier nanoparticles could be adopted as a universal platform for a future vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells
7.
Nat Metab ; 2(12): 1391-1400, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947555

ABSTRACT

Responsible for the ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects host cells through binding of the viral spike protein (SARS-2-S) to the cell-surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here we show that the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) scavenger receptor B type 1 (SR-B1) facilitates ACE2-dependent entry of SARS-CoV-2. We find that the S1 subunit of SARS-2-S binds to cholesterol and possibly to HDL components to enhance viral uptake in vitro. SR-B1 expression facilitates SARS-CoV-2 entry into ACE2-expressing cells by augmenting virus attachment. Blockade of the cholesterol-binding site on SARS-2-S1 with a monoclonal antibody, or treatment of cultured cells with pharmacological SR-B1 antagonists, inhibits HDL-enhanced SARS-CoV-2 infection. We further show that SR-B1 is coexpressed with ACE2 in human pulmonary tissue and in several extrapulmonary tissues. Our findings reveal that SR-B1 acts as a host factor that promotes SARS-CoV-2 entry and may help explain viral tropism, identify a possible molecular connection between COVID-19 and lipoprotein metabolism, and highlight SR-B1 as a potential therapeutic target to interfere with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Cell Line , Cholesterol/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Tropism , Virus Attachment
8.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-366138

ABSTRACT

The ongoing of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, resulting in economic losses and seriously threating the human health in worldwide, highlighting the urgent need of a stabilized, easily produced and effective preventive vaccine. The SARS-COV-2 spike protein receptor binding region (RBD) plays an important role in the process of viral binding receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and membrane fusion, making it an ideal target for vaccine development. In this study, we designed three different RBD-conjugated nanoparticles vaccine candidates, RBD-Ferritin (24-mer), RBD-mi3 (60-mer) and RBD-I53-50 (120-mer), with the application of covalent bond linking by SpyTag-SpyCatcher system. It was demonstrated that the neutralizing capability of sera from mice immunized with three RBD-conjugated nanoparticles adjuvanted with AddaVax or Sigma Systerm Adjuvant (SAS) after each immunization was ~8-to 120-fold greater than monomeric RBD group in SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and authentic virus neutralization assay. Most importantly, sera from RBD-conjugated NPs groups more efficiently blocked the binding of RBD to ACE2 or neutralizing antibody in vitro, a further proof of promising immunization effect. Besides, high physical stability and flexibility in assembly consolidated the benefit for rapid scale-up production of vaccine. These results supported that our designed SARS-CoV-2 RBD-conjugated nanoparticle was competitive vaccine candidate and the carrier nanoparticles could be adopted as universal platform for future vaccine development.

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