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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324311

ABSTRACT

With a two-layer contact-dispersion model and data in China, we analyze the cost-effectiveness of three types of antiepidemic measures for COVID-19: regular epidemiological control, local social interaction control, and inter-city travel restriction. We find that: 1) intercity travel restriction has minimal or even negative effect compared to the other two at the national level;2) the time of reaching turning point is independent of the current number of cases, and only related to the enforcement stringency of epidemiological control and social interaction control measures;3) strong enforcement at the early stage is the only opportunity to maximize both antiepidemic effectiveness and cost-effectiveness;4) mediocre stringency of social interaction measures is the worst choice. Subsequently, we cluster countries/regions into four groups based on their control measures and provide situation assessment and policy suggestions for each group.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309638

ABSTRACT

CTSL is one of the SARS-entry-associated CoV-2's proteases and plays a key role in the virus's entry into the cell and subsequent infection. We investigated the association between the expression level of CTSL and overall survival in TCGA and CGGA databases, in order to better understand the possible route and risks of new coronavirus infection for patients with GBM. Meanwhile, the relationship between CTSL and immune infiltration levels was analyzed by means of the TIMER database. The impact of CTSL inhibitors on GBM biological activity was tested. The findings revealed that GBM tissues had higher CTSL expression levels than that of normal brain tissues, which was associated with a significantly lower survival rate in GBM patients. Meanwhile, CTSL was very negatively correlated with purity, B cell and CD8 + T cell in GBM. CTSL inhibitor significantly reduced U251 cell growth and invasion in vitro and induced mitochondrial apoptosis. According to the findings of this study, CTSL acts as an independent prognostic factor and can be considered as promising therapeutic target for GBM.

3.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 148(3): 599-608, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527467

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cathepsin L (CTSL) is a kind of the SARS-entry-associated CoV-2's proteases, which plays a key role in the virus's entry into the cell and subsequent infection. We investigated the association between the expression level of CTSL and overall survival in Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients, to better understand the possible route and risks of new coronavirus infection for patients with GBM. METHODS: The expression level of CTSL in GBM was analyzed using TCGA and CGGA databases. The relationship between CTSL and immune infiltration levels was analyzed by means of the TIMER database. The impact of CTSL inhibitors on GBM biological activity was tested. RESULTS: The findings revealed that GBM tissues had higher CTSL expression levels than that of normal brain tissues, which was associated with a significantly lower survival rate in GBM patients. Meanwhile, the expression level of CTSL negatively correlated with purity, B cell and CD8+ T cell in GBM. CTSL inhibitor significantly reduced growth and induced mitochondrial apoptosis. CONCLUSION: According to the findings, CTSL acts as an independent prognostic factor and can be considered as promising therapeutic target for GBM.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Dipeptides/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Glioblastoma/pathology , Apoptosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Proliferation , Female , Glioblastoma/drug therapy , Glioblastoma/enzymology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Rate , Tumor Cells, Cultured
8.
Viruses ; 12(1):43-43, 2020.
Article | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-823613

ABSTRACT

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), caused by virulent feline coronavirus, is the leading infectious cause of death in cats. The type I interferon (type I IFN)-mediated immune responses provide host protection from infectious diseases. Several coronaviruses have been reported to evolve diverse strategies to evade host IFN response. However, whether feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) antagonizes the type I IFN signaling remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that FIPV strain DF2 infection not only failed to induce interferon-β (IFN-β) and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) production, but also inhibited Sendai virus (SEV) or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C))-induced IFN-β production. Subsequently, we found that one of the non-structural proteins encoded by the FIPV genome, nsp5, interrupted type I IFN signaling in a protease-dependent manner by cleaving the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) essential modulator (NEMO) at three sites—glutamine132 (Q132), Q205, and Q231. Further investigation revealed that the cleavage products of NEMO lost the ability to activate the IFN-β promoter. Mechanistically, the nsp5-mediated NEMO cleavage disrupted the recruitment of the TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) to NEMO, which reduced the phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), leading to the inhibition of type I IFN production. Our research provides new insights into the mechanism for FIPV to counteract host innate immune response. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Viruses (1999-4915) is the property of MDPI Publishing and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

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