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1.
J Clin Virol Plus ; 2(3): 100080, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819525

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 antigen-based tests are well-calibrated to infectiousness and have a critical role to play in the COVID-19 public health response. We report the development and performance of a unique lateral flow immunoassay (LFA). Methods: Combinations of several monoclonal antibodies targeting multiple antigenic sites on the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) were isolated, evaluated, and chosen for the development of a LFA termed CoV-SCAN (BioMedomics, Inc.). Clinical point-of-care studies in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals were conducted to evaluate positive predictive agreement (PPA) and negative predictive agreement (NPA) with RT-PCR as comparator. Results: In laboratory testing, CoV-SCAN detected 14 recombinant N-proteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants with sensitivity in the range of 0.2-3.2 ng/mL, and 10 authentic SARS-CoV-2 variants with sensitivity in the range of 1.6-12.5 TCID50/swab. No cross reactivity was observed with other human coronaviruses or other respiratory pathogens. In clinical point-of-care testing on 148 individuals over age 2 with symptoms of ≤5 days, PPA was 87.2% (CI 95: 78.3-94.8%) and NPA was 100% (CI 95: 94.2-100%). In another 884 asymptomatic individuals, PPA was 85.7% (CI 95: 42.1-99.6%) and 99.7% (99.0-99.9%). Overall, CoV-SCAN detected over 97.2% of specimens with CT values <30 and 93.8% of nasal swab specimens with the Omicron variant, even within the first 2 days after symptom onset. Conclusions: The unique construction of CoV-SCAN using two pairs of monoclonal antibodies has resulted in a test with high performance that remains durable across multiple variants in both laboratory and clinical evaluations. CoV-SCAN should identify almost all individuals harboring infectious SARS-CoV-2. Summary: Unique construction of a point-of-care rapid antigen test using two pairs of monoclonal antibodies has led to good performance that remained durable across multiple variants in laboratory and clinical evaluations. Test should identify almost all individuals harboring infectious SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(646): eabn6859, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794534

ABSTRACT

The devastation caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has made clear the importance of pandemic preparedness. To address future zoonotic outbreaks due to related viruses in the sarbecovirus subgenus, we identified a human monoclonal antibody, 10-40, that neutralized or bound all sarbecoviruses tested in vitro and protected against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in vivo. Comparative studies with other receptor-binding domain (RBD)-directed antibodies showed 10-40 to have the greatest breadth against sarbecoviruses, suggesting that 10-40 is a promising agent for pandemic preparedness. Moreover, structural analyses on 10-40 and similar antibodies not only defined an epitope cluster in the inner face of the RBD that is well conserved among sarbecoviruses but also uncovered a distinct antibody class with a common CDRH3 motif. Our analyses also suggested that elicitation of this class of antibodies may not be overly difficult, an observation that bodes well for the development of a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Nature ; 604(7906): 553-556, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721546

ABSTRACT

The identification of the Omicron (B.1.1.529.1 or BA.1) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Botswana in November 20211 immediately caused concern owing to the number of alterations in the spike glycoprotein that could lead to antibody evasion. We2 and others3-6 recently reported results confirming such a concern. Continuing surveillance of the evolution of Omicron has since revealed the rise in prevalence of two sublineages, BA.1 with an R346K alteration (BA.1+R346K, also known as BA.1.1) and B.1.1.529.2 (BA.2), with the latter containing 8 unique spike alterations and lacking 13 spike alterations found in BA.1. Here we extended our studies to include antigenic characterization of these new sublineages. Polyclonal sera from patients infected by wild-type SARS-CoV-2 or recipients of current mRNA vaccines showed a substantial loss in neutralizing activity against both BA.1+R346K and BA.2, with drops comparable to that already reported for BA.1 (refs. 2,3,5,6). These findings indicate that these three sublineages of Omicron are antigenically equidistant from the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and thus similarly threaten the efficacies of current vaccines. BA.2 also exhibited marked resistance to 17 of 19 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies tested, including S309 (sotrovimab)7, which had retained appreciable activity against BA.1 and BA.1+R346K (refs. 2-4,6). This finding shows that no authorized monoclonal antibody therapy could adequately cover all sublineages of the Omicron variant, except for the recently authorized LY-CoV1404 (bebtelovimab).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
Nature ; 602(7898): 676-681, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616993

ABSTRACT

The B.1.1.529/Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 was only recently detected in southern Africa, but its subsequent spread has been extensive, both regionally and globally1. It is expected to become dominant in the coming weeks2, probably due to enhanced transmissibility. A striking feature of this variant is the large number of spike mutations3 that pose a threat to the efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines and antibody therapies4. This concern is amplified by the findings of our study. Here we found that B.1.1.529 is markedly resistant to neutralization by serum not only from patients who recovered from COVID-19, but also from individuals who were vaccinated with one of the four widely used COVID-19 vaccines. Even serum from individuals who were vaccinated and received a booster dose of mRNA-based vaccines exhibited substantially diminished neutralizing activity against B.1.1.529. By evaluating a panel of monoclonal antibodies against all known epitope clusters on the spike protein, we noted that the activity of 17 out of the 19 antibodies tested were either abolished or impaired, including ones that are currently authorized or approved for use in patients. Moreover, we also identified four new spike mutations (S371L, N440K, G446S and Q493R) that confer greater antibody resistance on B.1.1.529. The Omicron variant presents a serious threat to many existing COVID-19 vaccines and therapies, compelling the development of new interventions that anticipate the evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immune Evasion/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Convalescence , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 196-200, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468315

ABSTRACT

We report severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in semen by using quantitative reverse transcription PCR during the late convalescent phase. Virus was associated with adequate humoral and cell-mediated responses, suggesting possible seeding of the immune-privileged testes. We provide longitudinal semen quality data for 6 other men, including 3 who had oligozoospermia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oligospermia , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen , Semen Analysis , Virus Shedding
6.
AIChE J ; 67(12): e17440, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427045

ABSTRACT

Antiviral monoclonal antibody (mAb) discovery enables the development of antibody-based antiviral therapeutics. Traditional antiviral mAb discovery relies on affinity between antibody and a viral antigen to discover potent neutralizing antibodies, but these approaches are inefficient because many high affinity mAbs have no neutralizing activity. We sought to determine whether screening for anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs at reduced pH could provide more efficient neutralizing antibody discovery. We mined the antibody response of a convalescent COVID-19 patient at both physiological pH (7.4) and reduced pH (4.5), revealing that SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were preferentially enriched in pH 4.5 yeast display sorts. Structural analysis revealed that a potent new antibody called LP5 targets the SARS-CoV-2 N-terminal domain supersite via a unique binding recognition mode. Our data combine with evidence from prior studies to support antibody screening at pH 4.5 to accelerate antiviral neutralizing antibody discovery.

7.
American Journal of Transplantation ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1408328

ABSTRACT

Abstract Unlike immunocompetent hosts, the duration of viral persistence after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be prolonged in immunosuppressed patients. Here, we present a case of viral persistence for over 19 weeks in a patient with a history of solid organ transplant and explore the clinical, virologic, and immunologic course. Our patient still demonstrated viral persistence at 138 days with low polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold values and evidence of continuing viral sequence evolution indicative of ongoing virus replication. These findings have important implications for infection prevention and control recommendations in immunosuppressed patients. Immune response, including neutralizing antibody titers, T cell activity, and cytokine levels, peaked around days 44-72 after diagnosis. Anti-S trimer antibodies were low at all time points, and T cell response was attenuated by day 119. As immune response waned and viral load increased, increased genetic diversity emerged, suggesting a mechanism for the development of viral variants.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The progression of clinical manifestations in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlights the need to account for symptom duration at the time of hospital presentation in decision-making algorithms. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control analysis of 4103 adult patients with COVID-19 and at least 28 days of follow-up who presented to a New York City medical center. Multivariable logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis were used to identify predictors of poor outcome. RESULTS: Patients presenting to the hospital earlier in their disease course were older, had more comorbidities, and a greater proportion decompensated (<4 days, 41%; 4-8 days, 31%; >8 days, 26%). The first recorded oxygen delivery method was the most important predictor of decompensation overall in CART analysis. In patients with symptoms for <4, 4-8, and >8 days, requiring at least non-rebreather, age ≥ 63 years, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio ≥ 5.1; requiring at least non-rebreather, IL-6 ≥ 24.7 pg/mL, and D-dimer ≥ 2.4 µg/mL; and IL-6 ≥ 64.3 pg/mL, requiring non-rebreather, and CRP ≥ 152.5 mg/mL in predictive models were independently associated with poor outcome, respectively. CONCLUSION: Symptom duration in tandem with initial clinical and laboratory markers can be used to identify patients with COVID-19 at increased risk for poor outcomes.

9.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 16: 100315, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330655

ABSTRACT

A developing finding from the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the burden of neuropsychiatric symptoms seen in COVID-19 survivors. While studies have shown clinically significant rates of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and trauma-related symptoms such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after COVID-19, little is known about how these symptoms evolve over time. Here, we report findings from a cohort study of 52 participants recruited from the greater New York City area following acute COVID-19 infection. Participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depressive symptoms, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) for anxiety-related symptoms, the Insomnia Severity Scale (ISS) for sleep-related symptoms, and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C) for trauma-related symptoms both at baseline and at long-term (24-60 weeks post-infection) follow-up. We found a high degree of correlation between psychiatric symptom scales within participants. More participants met established cutoffs for clinically significant insomnia and post-traumatic stress at follow-up compared to baseline. Symptom scales for depression, insomnia, and PTSD were increased at long-term follow-up, with only increased PCL-C scores surviving correction for multiple comparisons (Z â€‹= â€‹2.92, W â€‹= â€‹434, p â€‹= â€‹0.004). Our results present evidence from a small cohort that neuropsychiatric symptoms, particularly those related to PTSD, may worsen over time in COVID-19 survivors. Future studies should continue to investigate these questions in broader populations, while additionally exploring the potential biological and sociological mechanisms that may contribute to neuropsychiatric pathology after COVID-19 infection.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14390, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309469

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected people at all ages. Whereas pregnant women seemed to have a worse course of disease than age-matched non-pregnant women, the risk of feto-placental infection is low. Using a cohort of 66 COVID-19-positive women in late pregnancy, we correlated clinical parameters with disease severity, placental histopathology, and the expression of viral entry and Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) antiviral transcripts. All newborns were negative for SARS-CoV-2. None of the demographic parameters or placental histopathological characteristics were associated with disease severity. The fetal-maternal transfer ratio for IgG against the N or S viral proteins was commonly less than one, as recently reported. We found that the expression level of placental ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 or Furin, was higher in women with severe COVID-19. Placental expression of IFITM1 and IFITM3, which have been implicated in antiviral response, was higher in participants with severe disease. We also showed that IFITM3 protein expression, which localized to early and late endosomes, was enhanced in severe COVID-19. Our data suggest an association between disease severity and placental SARS-CoV-2 processing and antiviral pathways, implying a role for these proteins in placental response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Female , Furin/metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Young Adult
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e049488, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the long-term outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to a large New York City medical centre at 3 and 6 months after hospitalisation and describe their healthcare usage, symptoms, morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort through manual chart review of the electronic medical record. SETTING: NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, a quaternary care academic medical centre in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: The first 1190 consecutive patients with symptoms of COVID-19 who presented to the hospital for care between 1 March and 8 April 2020 and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on reverse transcriptase PCR assay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type and frequency of follow-up encounters, self-reported symptoms, morbidity and mortality at 3 and 6 months after presentation, respectively; patient disposition information prior to admission, at discharge, and at 3 and 6 months after hospital presentation. RESULTS: Of the 1190 reviewed patients, 929 survived their initial hospitalisation and 261 died. Among survivors, 570 had follow-up encounters (488 at 3 months and 364 at 6 months). An additional 33 patients died in the follow-up period. In the first 3 months after admission, most encounters were telehealth visits (59%). Cardiopulmonary symptoms (35.7% and 28%), especially dyspnoea (22.1% and 15.9%), were the most common reported symptoms at 3-month and 6-month encounters, respectively. Additionally, a large number of patients reported generalised (26.4%) or neuropsychiatric (24.2%) symptoms 6 months after hospitalisation. Patients with severe COVID-19 were more likely to have reduced mobility, reduced independence or a new dialysis requirement in the 6 months after hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 infection reported persistent symptoms up to 6 months after diagnosis. These results highlight the long-term morbidity of COVID-19 and its burden on patients and healthcare resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249349, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor blocker, has been used in the inflammatory phase of COVID-19, but its impact independent of corticosteroids remains unclear in patients with severe disease. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of patients with COVID-19 admitted between March 2 and April 14, 2020 to a large academic medical center in New York City, we describe outcomes associated with tocilizumab 400 mg (without methylprednisolone) compared to a propensity-matched control. The primary endpoints were change in a 7-point ordinal scale of oxygenation and ventilator free survival, both at days 14 and 28. Secondary endpoints include incidence of bacterial superinfections and gastrointestinal perforation. Primary outcomes were evaluated using t-test. RESULTS: We identified 33 patients who received tocilizumab and matched 74 controls based on demographics and health measures upon admission. After adjusting for illness severity and baseline ordinal scale, we failed to find evidence of an improvement in hypoxemia based on an ordinal scale at hospital day 14 in the tocilizumab group (OR 2.2; 95% CI, 0.7-6.5; p = 0.157) or day 28 (OR 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-3.6; p = 0.82). There also was no evidence of an improvement in ventilator-free survival at day 14 (OR 0.8; 95% CI, 0.18-3.5; p = 0.75) or day 28 (OR 1.1; 95% CI, 0.1-1.8; p = 0.23). There was no increase in secondary bacterial infection rates in the tocilizumab group compared to controls (OR 0.37; 95% CI, 0.09-1.53; p = 0.168). CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence to support an improvement in hypoxemia or ventilator-free survival with use of tocilizumab 400 mg in the absence of corticosteroids. No increase in secondary bacterial infections was observed in the group receiving tocilizumab.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals, Teaching , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2294-2297, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153179

ABSTRACT

We describe the characteristics of 31 people living with human immunodeficiency virus hospitalized for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. All patients were on antiretroviral therapy and virologically suppressed at the time of admission. Clinical course and outcomes were similar to those reported in other hospitalized cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Registries , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Radiography , SARS-CoV-2 , Sustained Virologic Response , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
14.
Nature ; 593(7857): 130-135, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120052

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had widespread effects across the globe, and its causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread. Effective interventions need to be developed to end this pandemic. Single and combination therapies with monoclonal antibodies have received emergency use authorization1-3, and more treatments are under development4-7. Furthermore, multiple vaccine constructs have shown promise8, including two that have an approximately 95% protective efficacy against COVID-199,10. However, these interventions were directed against the initial SARS-CoV-2 virus that emerged in 2019. The recent detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 in the UK11 and B.1.351 in South Africa12 is of concern because of their purported ease of transmission and extensive mutations in the spike protein. Here we show that B.1.1.7 is refractory to neutralization by most monoclonal antibodies against the N-terminal domain of the spike protein and is relatively resistant to a few monoclonal antibodies against the receptor-binding domain. It is not more resistant to plasma from individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 or sera from individuals who have been vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. The B.1.351 variant is not only refractory to neutralization by most monoclonal antibodies against the N-terminal domain but also by multiple individual monoclonal antibodies against the receptor-binding motif of the receptor-binding domain, which is mostly due to a mutation causing an E484K substitution. Moreover, compared to wild-type SARS-CoV-2, B.1.351 is markedly more resistant to neutralization by convalescent plasma (9.4-fold) and sera from individuals who have been vaccinated (10.3-12.4-fold). B.1.351 and emergent variants13,14 with similar mutations in the spike protein present new challenges for monoclonal antibody therapies and threaten the protective efficacy of current vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immune Evasion/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Resistance, Viral/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immunization, Passive , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vero Cells
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(2): ofab003, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load and patient symptom duration in both in- and outpatients, and the impact of these factors on patient outcomes, are currently unknown. Understanding these associations is important to clinicians caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted an observational study between March 10 and May 30, 2020 at a large quaternary academic medical center in New York City. Patient characteristics, laboratory values, and clinical outcomes were abstracted from the electronic medical records. Of all patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 during this time (N = 16 384), there were 5467 patients with positive tests, 4254 of which had available cycle threshold (Ct) values and were included in further analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to test associations between Ct values, duration of symptoms before testing, patient characteristics, and mortality. The primary outcome is defined as death or discharge to hospice. RESULTS: Lower Ct values at diagnosis (ie, higher viral load) were associated with significantly higher mortality among both in- and outpatients. It is interesting to note that patients with a shorter time since the onset of symptoms to testing had a worse prognosis, with those presenting less than 3 days from symptom onset having 2-fold increased odds of death. After adjusting for time since symptom onset and other clinical covariates, Ct values remained a strong predictor of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction Ct value and duration of symptoms are strongly associated with mortality. These 2 factors add useful information for clinicians to risk stratify patients presenting with COVID-19.

16.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(2): ofab029, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among people with HIV (PWH) remains unclear. In this retrospective cohort study of COVID-19, we compared clinical outcomes and laboratory parameters among PWH and controls. METHODS: Sixty-eight PWH diagnosed with COVID-19 were matched 1:4 to patients without known HIV diagnosis, drawn from a study population of all patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 at an academic urban hospital. The primary outcome was death/discharge to hospice within 30 days of hospital presentation. RESULTS: PWH were more likely to be admitted from the emergency department than patients without HIV (91% vs 71%; P = .001). We observed no statistically significant difference between admitted PWH and patients without HIV in terms of 30-day mortality rate (19% vs 13%, respectively) or mechanical ventilation rate (18% vs 20%, respectively). PWH had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rates than controls on admission but did not differ in other inflammatory marker levels or nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral load estimated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction cycle thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection status was associated with a higher admission rate; however, among hospitalized patients, PWH did not differ from HIV-uninfected controls by rate of mechanical ventilation or death/discharge to hospice.

17.
Endocr Res ; 46(2): 66-73, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003410

ABSTRACT

Context: Populations severely affected by COVID-19 are also at risk for vitamin D deficiency. Common risk factors include older age, chronic illness, obesity, and non-Caucasian race. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with risk for respiratory infections and failure, susceptibility and response to therapy for enveloped virus infection, and immune-mediated inflammatory reaction.Objective: To test the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D] deficiency is a risk factor for severity of COVID-19 respiratory and inflammatory complications.Design: We examined the relationship between prehospitalization 25(OH)D levels (obtained 1-365 days prior to admission) and COVID-19 clinical outcomes in 700 COVID-19 positive hospitalized patients.Primary Outcomes: Discharge status, mortality, length of stay, intubation status, renal replacement.Secondary Outcomes: Inflammatory markers.Results: 25(OH)D levels were available in 93 patients [25(OH)D:25(IQR:17-33)ng/mL]. Compared to those without 25(OH)D levels, those with measurements did not differ in age, BMI or distribution of sex and race, but were more likely to have comorbidities. Those with 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL (n = 35) did not differ from those with 25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/mL in terms of age, sex, race, BMI, or comorbidities. Low 25(OH)D tended to be associated with younger age and lower frequency of preexisting pulmonary disease. There were no significant between-group differences in any outcome. Results were similar in those ≥50 years, in male/female-only cohorts, and when differing 25(OH)D thresholds were used (<15 ng/mL and <30 ng/mL). There was no relationship between 25(OH)D as a continuous variable and any outcome, even after controlling for age and pulmonary disease.Conclusions: These preliminary data do not support a relationship between prehospitalization vitamin D status and COVID-19 clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(7): ofaa252, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was a new emerging disease with high infectiousness. Its diagnosis primarily depended on real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results. This study investigated epidemiological, clinical, and radiological characteristics of COVID-19 with negative RT-PCR results before confirmation. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: a negative group with negative RT-PCR results before confirmation and a positive group with positive results at the first detection. Epidemiological and clinical features were compared. Dynamic chest computerized tomography (CT) images of the negative group were evaluated. RESULTS: Ninety-nine laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 including 8 patients (8%) with negative RT-PCR results were included. Patients from the negative group had similar epidemiological features: the average age (50.25 ±â€…13.27 years in the negative group and 53.70 ±â€…16.64 years in the positive group) and gender distribution (males made up 50% of the negative group and 62.6% of the positive group) were comparable. No significant differences were observed in clinical symptoms between the 2 groups. We found that fever was the most common symptom for both groups, followed by cough, expectoration, chest distress, fatigue, and gastroenterological symptoms. Moreover, ground-glass opacities and consolidations were the main manifestation in chest CT of patients with COVID-19 with or without confirmed RT-PCR results. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of initial RT-PCR results, patients with COVID-19 had similar epidemiological, clinical, and chest CT features. Our study suggests value from early chest CT scans in COVID-19 screening and dynamic significance of radiology in disease monitoring should guide clinical decisions.

19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2091-2093, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759868

ABSTRACT

We studied plasma antibody responses of 35 patients about 1 month after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Titers of antibodies binding to the viral nucleocapsid and spike proteins were significantly higher in patients with severe disease. Likewise, mean antibody neutralization titers against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and live virus were higher in the sicker patients, by ∼5-fold and ∼7-fold, respectively. These findings have important implications for those pursuing plasma therapy, isolation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, and determinants of immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology
20.
Nature ; 584(7821): 450-456, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664494

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues, with devasting consequences for human lives and the global economy1,2. The discovery and development of virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies could be one approach to treat or prevent infection by this coronavirus. Here we report the isolation of sixty-one SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies from five patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and admitted to hospital with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Among these are nineteen antibodies that potently neutralized authentic SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, nine of which exhibited very high potency, with 50% virus-inhibitory concentrations of 0.7 to 9 ng ml-1. Epitope mapping showed that this collection of nineteen antibodies was about equally divided between those directed against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and those directed against the N-terminal domain (NTD), indicating that both of these regions at the top of the viral spike are immunogenic. In addition, two other powerful neutralizing antibodies recognized quaternary epitopes that overlap with the domains at the top of the spike. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of one antibody that targets the RBD, a second that targets the NTD, and a third that bridges two separate RBDs showed that the antibodies recognize the closed, 'all RBD-down' conformation of the spike. Several of these monoclonal antibodies are promising candidates for clinical development as potential therapeutic and/or prophylactic agents against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/ultrastructure , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Disease Models, Animal , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/ultrastructure , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/ultrastructure , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure
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