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1.
Am J Pathol ; 2023 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274189

ABSTRACT

Ophthalmic manifestations and tissue tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the pathology and cellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 are not well characterized. The objective of this study was to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic changes and investigate cellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 across ocular tissues at autopsy. Ocular tissues were obtained from 25 patients with COVID-19 at autopsy. SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid gene RNA was previously quantified by droplet digital PCR from one eye. Herein, contralateral eyes from 21 patients were fixed in formalin and subject to histopathologic examination. Sections of the droplet digital PCR-positive eyes from four other patients were evaluated by in situ hybridization to determine the cellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 spike gene RNA. Histopathologic abnormalities, including cytoid bodies, vascular changes, and retinal edema, with minimal or no inflammation in ocular tissues were observed in all 21 cases evaluated. In situ hybridization localized SARS-CoV-2 RNA to neuronal cells of the retinal inner and outer layers, ganglion cells, corneal epithelia, scleral fibroblasts, and oligodendrocytes of the optic nerve. In conclusion, a range of common histopathologic alterations were identified within ocular tissue, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA was localized to multiple cell types. Further studies will be required to determine whether the alterations observed were caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, the host immune response, and/or preexisting comorbidities.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(17): 12424-12430, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000844

ABSTRACT

Behavioral and medical control measures have not been effective in containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in large part due to the unwillingness of populations to adhere to "best practices". Ultraviolet light with wavelengths of between 200 and 280 nm (UV-C) and, in particular, germicidal ultraviolet light, which refers to wavelengths around 254 nm, have the potential to unobtrusively reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in enclosed spaces. We investigated the effectiveness of a strategy using UV-C light to prevent airborne transmission of the virus in a hamster model. Treatment of environmental air with 254 nm UV-C light prevented transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between individuals in a model using highly susceptible Syrian golden hamsters. The prevention of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a natural system by treating elements of the surrounding environment is one more weapon in the arsenal to combat COVID. The results presented indicate that coupling mitigation strategies utilizing UV-C light, along with current methods to reduce transmission risk, have the potential to allow a return to normal indoor activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Ultraviolet Rays
3.
Elife ; 102021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389776

ABSTRACT

Ambient temperature and humidity strongly affect inactivation rates of enveloped viruses, but a mechanistic, quantitative theory of these effects has been elusive. We measure the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on an inert surface at nine temperature and humidity conditions and develop a mechanistic model to explain and predict how temperature and humidity alter virus inactivation. We find SARS-CoV-2 survives longest at low temperatures and extreme relative humidities (RH); median estimated virus half-life is >24 hr at 10°C and 40% RH, but ∼1.5 hr at 27°C and 65% RH. Our mechanistic model uses fundamental chemistry to explain why inactivation rate increases with increased temperature and shows a U-shaped dependence on RH. The model accurately predicts existing measurements of five different human coronaviruses, suggesting that shared mechanisms may affect stability for many viruses. The results indicate scenarios of high transmission risk, point to mitigation strategies, and advance the mechanistic study of virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Hot Temperature , Humidity , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Virus Inactivation , COVID-19 , Humans
4.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066819

ABSTRACT

Bats host many viruses pathogenic to humans, and increasing evidence suggests that rotavirus A (RVA) also belongs to this list. Rotaviruses cause diarrheal disease in many mammals and birds, and their segmented genomes allow them to reassort and increase their genetic diversity. Eighteen out of 2,142 bat fecal samples (0.8%) collected from Europe, Central America, and Africa were PCR-positive for RVA, and 11 of those were fully characterized using viral metagenomics. Upon contrasting their genomes with publicly available data, at least 7 distinct bat RVA genotype constellations (GCs) were identified, which included evidence of reassortments and 6 novel genotypes. Some of these constellations are spread across the world, whereas others appear to be geographically restricted. Our analyses also suggest that several unusual human and equine RVA strains might be of bat RVA origin, based on their phylogenetic clustering, despite various levels of nucleotide sequence identities between them. Although SA11 is one of the most widely used reference strains for RVA research and forms the backbone of a reverse genetics system, its origin remained enigmatic. Remarkably, the majority of the genotypes of SA11-like strains were shared with Gabonese bat RVAs, suggesting a potential common origin. Overall, our findings suggest an underexplored genetic diversity of RVAs in bats, which is likely only the tip of the iceberg. Increasing contact between humans and bat wildlife will further increase the zoonosis risk, which warrants closer attention to these viruses.IMPORTANCE The increased research on bat coronaviruses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) allowed the very rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2. This is an excellent example of the importance of knowing viruses harbored by wildlife in general, and bats in particular, for global preparedness against emerging viral pathogens. The current effort to characterize bat rotavirus strains from 3 continents sheds light on the vast genetic diversity of rotaviruses and also hints at a bat origin for several atypical rotaviruses in humans and animals, implying that zoonoses of bat rotaviruses might occur more frequently than currently realized.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Rotavirus Infections/transmission , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Rotavirus/genetics , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Diarrhea/virology , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Horses , Humans , Metagenomics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Environmental Science & Technology Letters ; 2020.
Article in English | ACS | ID: covidwho-841912

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is frequently detected in the feces of infected individuals. While infectious SARS-CoV-2 has not previously been identified in wastewater, infectious SARS-CoV-2 has been isolated from the feces of at least one patient, raising concerns about the presence of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. The fate and inactivation characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 in water and wastewater are unknown, with current inactivation estimates based on surrogate models. In this study, the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and RNA signal was determined in water and wastewater. The times for 90% reduction (T90) of viable SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and tap water at room temperature were 1.5 and 1.7 days, respectively. In high-starting titer (105 TCID50 mL–1) experiments, infectious virus persisted for the entire 7-day sampling time course. In wastewater at 50 and 70 °C, the observed T90 values for infectious SARS-CoV-2 were decreased to 15 and 2 min, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found to be significantly more persistent than infectious SARS-CoV-2, indicating that the environmental detection of RNA alone does not substantiate risk of infection.

6.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721088

ABSTRACT

Decontamination helps limit environmental transmission of infectious agents. It is required for the safe re-use of contaminated medical, laboratory and personal protective equipment, and for the safe handling of biological samples. Heat treatment is a common decontamination method, notably used for viruses. We show that for liquid specimens (here, solution of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture medium), virus inactivation rate under heat treatment at 70°C can vary by almost two orders of magnitude depending on the treatment procedure, from a half-life of 0.86 min (95% credible interval: [0.09, 1.77]) in closed vials in a heat block to 37.00 min ([12.65, 869.82]) in uncovered plates in a dry oven. These findings suggest a critical role of evaporation in virus inactivation via dry heat. Placing samples in open or uncovered containers may dramatically reduce the speed and efficacy of heat treatment for virus inactivation. Given these findings, we reviewed the literature temperature-dependent coronavirus stability and found that specimen containers, and whether they are closed, covered, or uncovered, are rarely reported in the scientific literature. Heat-treatment procedures must be fully specified when reporting experimental studies to facilitate result interpretation and reproducibility, and must be carefully considered when developing decontamination guidelines.

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