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1.
Med ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796324

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019, viral variants with greater transmissibility or immune-evasion properties have arisen, which could jeopardize recently deployed vaccine- and antibody-based countermeasures. Methods Here, we evaluated in mice and hamsters the efficacy of a pre-clinical version of the Moderna mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273) and the Johnson & Johnson recombinant adenoviral-vectored vaccine (Ad26.COV2.S) against the B.1.621 (Mu) variant of SARS-CoV-2, which contains spike mutations T95I, Y144S, Y145N, R346K, E484K, N501Y, D614G, P681H, and D950N. Findings Immunization of 129S2 and K18-human ACE2 transgenic mice with the mRNA-1273 vaccine protected against weight loss, lung infection, and lung pathology after challenge with the B.1.621 or WA1/2020 N501Y/D614G SARS-CoV-2 strain. Similarly, immunization of 129S2 mice and Syrian hamsters with a high dose of Ad26.COV2.S reduced lung infection after B.1.621 virus challenge. Conclusions Thus, immunity induced by the mRNA-1273 or Ad26.COV2.S vaccine can protect against the B.1.621 variant of SARS-CoV-2 in multiple animal models. Funding This study was supported by the NIH (R01 AI157155 and U01 AI151810), NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Response [CEIRR] contracts 75N93021C00014 and 75N93021C00016, and the Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Centers [CIVIC] contract 75N93019C00051. It was also supported, in part, by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Center for Research on Influenza Pathogenesis (HHSN272201400008C) and the Japan Program for Infectious Diseases Research and Infrastructure (JP21wm0125002) from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).

2.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabn1252, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784766

ABSTRACT

New variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to arise and prolong the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here we used a cell-free expression workflow to rapidly screen and optimize constructs containing multiple computationally designed miniprotein inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. We found the broadest efficacy with a homo-trimeric version of the 75-residue angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mimic AHB2 (TRI2-2) designed to geometrically match the trimeric spike architecture. In the cryo-electron microscopy structure, TRI2 formed a tripod on top of the spike protein which engaged all three receptor binding domains (RBDs) simultaneously as in the design model. TRI2-2 neutralized Omicron (B.1.1.529), Delta (B.1.617.2), and all other variants tested with greater potency than that of monoclonal antibodies used clinically for the treatment of COVID-19. TRI2-2 also conferred prophylactic and therapeutic protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge when administered intranasally in mice. Designed miniprotein receptor mimics geometrically arrayed to match pathogen receptor binding sites could be a widely applicable antiviral therapeutic strategy with advantages over antibodies and native receptor traps. By comparison, the designed proteins have resistance to viral escape and antigenic drift by construction, precisely tuned avidity, and greatly reduced chance of autoimmune responses.

3.
Cell ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1763613

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The large number of spike substitutions in Omicron lineage variants (BA.1, BA.1.1. and BA.2) could jeopardize the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We evaluated in mice the protective efficacy of the Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine against BA.1 before or after boosting. Whereas two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies against historical WA1/2020 strains, lower levels against BA.1 were associated with breakthrough infection and inflammation in the lung. A primary vaccination series with mRNA-1273.529, an Omicron-matched vaccine, potently neutralized BA.1 but inhibited historical or other SARS-CoV-2 variants less effectively. However, boosting with either mRNA-1273 or mRNA-1273.529 vaccines increased neutralizing titers and protection against BA.1 and BA.2 infection. Nonetheless, the neutralizing antibody titers were higher, and lung viral burden and cytokines were slightly lower in mice boosted with mRNA-1273.529 and challenged with BA.1. Thus, boosting with mRNA-1273 or mRNA-1273.529 enhances protection against Omicron infection with limited differences in efficacy measured.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(630): eabm3302, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691437

ABSTRACT

Although mRNA vaccines encoding the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prevent COVID-19, the emergence of new viral variants jeopardizes their efficacy. Here, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective activity of historical (mRNA-1273, designed for Wuhan-1 spike protein) or modified (mRNA-1273.351, designed for B.1.351 spike protein) Moderna mRNA vaccines in 129S2 and K18-hACE2 mice. Mice were immunized with either high-dose or low-dose formulations of the mRNA vaccines, where low-dose vaccination modeled suboptimal immune responses. Immunization with formulations at either dose induced neutralizing antibodies in serum against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 WA1/2020 and several virus variants, although serum titers were lower against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) virus. Protection against weight loss and lung pathology was observed with all high-dose vaccines against all viruses. However, low-dose formulations of the vaccines, which produced lower magnitude antibody and T cell responses, showed breakthrough lung infections with B.1.617.2 and development of pneumonia in K18-hACE2 mice. Thus, in individuals with reduced immunity after mRNA vaccination, breakthrough infection and disease may occur with some SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327488

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The B.1.1.529 Omicron variant jeopardizes vaccines designed with early pandemic spike antigens. Here, we evaluated in mice the protective activity of the Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine against B.1.1.529 before or after boosting with preclinical mRNA-1273 or mRNA-1273.529, an Omicron-matched vaccine. Whereas two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine induced high levels of serum neutralizing antibodies against historical WA1/2020 strains, levels were lower against B.1.1.529 and associated with infection and inflammation in the lung. A primary vaccination series with mRNA-1273.529 potently neutralized B.1.1.529 but showed limited inhibition of historical or other SARS-CoV-2 variants. However, boosting with mRNA-1273 or mRNA-1273.529 vaccines increased serum neutralizing titers and protection against B.1.1.529 infection. Nonetheless, the levels of inhibitory antibodies were higher, and viral burden and cytokines in the lung were slightly lower in mice given the Omicron-matched mRNA booster. Thus, in mice, boosting with mRNA-1273 or mRNA-1273.529 enhances protection against B.1.1.529 infection with limited differences in efficacy measured.

6.
Nature ; 603(7902): 687-692, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641974

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of B.1.1.529, the Omicron variant1,2, has raised concerns of escape from protection by vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. A key test for potential countermeasures against B.1.1.529 is their activity in preclinical rodent models of respiratory tract disease. Here, using the collaborative network of the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) programme of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), we evaluated the ability of several B.1.1.529 isolates to cause infection and disease in immunocompetent and human ACE2 (hACE2)-expressing mice and hamsters. Despite modelling data indicating that B.1.1.529 spike can bind more avidly to mouse ACE2 (refs. 3,4), we observed less infection by B.1.1.529 in 129, C57BL/6, BALB/c and K18-hACE2 transgenic mice than by previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, with limited weight loss and lower viral burden in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. In wild-type and hACE2 transgenic hamsters, lung infection, clinical disease and pathology with B.1.1.529 were also milder than with historical isolates or other SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Overall, experiments from the SAVE/NIAID network with several B.1.1.529 isolates demonstrate attenuated lung disease in rodents, which parallels preliminary human clinical data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Viral Load
7.
Cell Rep ; 36(4): 109452, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306891

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants that attenuate antibody neutralization could jeopardize vaccine efficacy. We recently reported the protective activity of an intranasally administered spike protein-based chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S) in animals, which has advanced to human trials. Here, we assessed its durability, dose response, and cross-protective activity in mice. A single intranasal dose of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induced durably high neutralizing and Fc effector antibody responses in serum and S-specific IgG and IgA secreting long-lived plasma cells in the bone marrow. Protection against a historical SARS-CoV-2 strain was observed across a 100-fold vaccine dose range and over a 200-day period. At 6 weeks or 9 months after vaccination, serum antibodies neutralized SARS-CoV-2 strains with B.1.351, B.1.1.28, and B.1.617.1 spike proteins and conferred almost complete protection in the upper and lower respiratory tracts after challenge with variant viruses. Thus, in mice, intranasal immunization with ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S provides durable protection against historical and emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Administration, Intranasal/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Mice , Vaccination/methods , Viral Vaccines/immunology
8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(7): 1151-1161.e5, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283986

ABSTRACT

Despite the introduction of public health measures and spike protein-based vaccines to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infections and deaths continue to have a global impact. Previously, we used a structural design approach to develop picomolar range miniproteins targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain. Here, we investigated the capacity of modified versions of one lead miniprotein, LCB1, to protect against SARS-CoV-2-mediated lung disease in mice. Systemic administration of LCB1-Fc reduced viral burden, diminished immune cell infiltration and inflammation, and completely prevented lung disease and pathology. A single intranasal dose of LCB1v1.3 reduced SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lung when given as many as 5 days before or 2 days after virus inoculation. Importantly, LCB1v1.3 protected in vivo against a historical strain (WA1/2020), an emerging B.1.1.7 strain, and a strain encoding key E484K and N501Y spike protein substitutions. These data support development of LCB1v1.3 for prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Lung/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pandemics/prevention & control , Serine C-Palmitoyltransferase , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Load
9.
Nature ; 596(7870): 103-108, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275940

ABSTRACT

Rapidly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants jeopardize antibody-based countermeasures. Although cell culture experiments have demonstrated a loss of potency of several anti-spike neutralizing antibodies against variant strains of SARS-CoV-21-3, the in vivo importance of these results remains uncertain. Here we report the in vitro and in vivo activity of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which correspond to many in advanced clinical development by Vir Biotechnology, AbbVie, AstraZeneca, Regeneron and Lilly, against SARS-CoV-2 variant viruses. Although some individual mAbs showed reduced or abrogated neutralizing activity in cell culture against B.1.351, B.1.1.28, B.1.617.1 and B.1.526 viruses with mutations at residue E484 of the spike protein, low prophylactic doses of mAb combinations protected against infection by many variants in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice, 129S2 immunocompetent mice and hamsters, without the emergence of resistance. Exceptions were LY-CoV555 monotherapy and LY-CoV555 and LY-CoV016 combination therapy, both of which lost all protective activity, and the combination of AbbVie 2B04 and 47D11, which showed a partial loss of activity. When administered after infection, higher doses of several mAb cocktails protected in vivo against viruses with a B.1.351 spike gene. Therefore, many-but not all-of the antibody products with Emergency Use Authorization should retain substantial efficacy against the prevailing variant strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus/immunology , Mesocricetus/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
10.
Res Sq ; 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237037

ABSTRACT

Rapidly-emerging variants jeopardize antibody-based countermeasures against SARS-CoV-2. While recent cell culture experiments have demonstrated loss of potency of several anti-spike neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variant strains1-3, the in vivo significance of these results remains uncertain. Here, using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) corresponding to many in advanced clinical development by Vir Biotechnology, AbbVie, AstraZeneca, Regeneron, and Lilly we report the impact on protection in animals against authentic SARS-CoV-2 variants including WA1/2020 strains, a B.1.1.7 isolate, and chimeric strains with South African (B.1.351) or Brazilian (B.1.1.28) spike genes. Although some individual mAbs showed reduced or abrogated neutralizing activity against B.1.351 and B.1.1.28 viruses with E484K spike protein mutations in cell culture, low prophylactic doses of mAb combinations protected against infection in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice, 129S2 immunocompetent mice, and hamsters without emergence of resistance. Two exceptions were mAb LY-CoV555 monotherapy which lost all protective activity in vivo, and AbbVie 2B04/47D11, which showed partial loss of activity. When administered after infection as therapy, higher doses of mAb cocktails protected in vivo against viruses displaying a B.1.351 spike gene. Thus, many, but not all, of the antibody products with Emergency Use Authorization should retain substantial efficacy against the prevailing SARS-CoV-2 variant strains.

11.
Sci Immunol ; 6(59)2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234281

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic, resulting millions of infections and deaths with few effective interventions available. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 evades interferon (IFN) activation in respiratory epithelial cells, resulting in a delayed response in bystander cells. Since pretreatment with IFNs can block viral infection, we reasoned that pharmacological activation of innate immune pathways could control SARS-CoV-2 infection. To identify potent antiviral innate immune agonists, we screened a panel of 75 microbial ligands that activate diverse signaling pathways and identified cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), canonical STING agonists, as antiviral. Since CDNs have poor bioavailability, we tested the small molecule STING agonist diABZI, and found that it potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection of diverse strains including variants of concern (B.1.351) by transiently stimulating IFN signaling. Importantly, diABZI restricts viral replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells and in mice in vivo. Our study provides evidence that activation of STING may represent a promising therapeutic strategy to control SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Interferons/immunology , Membrane Proteins/agonists , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
12.
Cell ; 184(8): 2183-2200.e22, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086819

ABSTRACT

Antibodies are crucial to immune protection against SARS-CoV-2, with some in emergency use as therapeutics. Here, we identify 377 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the virus spike and focus mainly on 80 that bind the receptor binding domain (RBD). We devise a competition data-driven method to map RBD binding sites. We find that although antibody binding sites are widely dispersed, neutralizing antibody binding is focused, with nearly all highly inhibitory mAbs (IC50 < 0.1 µg/mL) blocking receptor interaction, except for one that binds a unique epitope in the N-terminal domain. Many of these neutralizing mAbs use public V-genes and are close to germline. We dissect the structural basis of recognition for this large panel of antibodies through X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy of 19 Fab-antigen structures. We find novel binding modes for some potently inhibitory antibodies and demonstrate that strongly neutralizing mAbs protect, prophylactically or therapeutically, in animal models.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Binding Sites, Antibody , CHO Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Epitopes , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells
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