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1.
Laryngoscope ; 131(6): E2013-E2017, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Intracellular entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) depends on the interaction between its spike protein with the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and depends on Furin-mediated spike protein cleavage and spike protein priming by host cell proteases, including transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). As the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in the middle and inner ear remain unclear, we analyzed the expression of these proteins in mouse ear tissues. STUDY DESIGN: Animal Research. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine the distribution of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in the Eustachian tube, middle ear spaces, and cochlea of mice. RESULTS: ACE2 was present in the nucleus of the epithelium of the middle ear and Eustachian tube, as well as in some nuclei of the hair cells in the organ of Corti, in the stria vascularis, and the spiral ganglion cells. ACE2 was also expressed in the cytoplasm of the stria vascularis. TMPRSS2 was expressed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in the middle spaces, with the expression being stronger in the nucleus in the mucosal epithelium of the middle ear spaces and Eustachian tube. TMPRSS2 was present in the cytoplasm in the organ of Corti and stria vascularis and in the nucleus and cytoplasm in the spiral ganglion. Furin was expressed in the cytoplasm in the middle ear spaces, Eustachian tube, and cochlea. CONCLUSIONS: ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin are diffusely present in the Eustachian tube, middle ear spaces, and cochlea, suggesting that these tissues are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 131:E2013-E2017, 2021.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Ear, Inner/pathology , Ear, Middle/pathology , Eustachian Tube/pathology , Furin/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Animals , Cochlea/pathology , Epithelium/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Organ of Corti/pathology , Spiral Ganglion/pathology , Stria Vascularis/pathology , Temporal Bone/pathology
2.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20237917

ABSTRACT

Decontaminating N95 respirators for reuse could mitigate shortages during the COVID-19 pandemic. We tested a portable UV-C light-emitting diode disinfection chamber and found that decontamination efficacy depends on mask model, material and location on the mask. This emphasizes the need for caution when interpreting efficacy data of UV-C decontamination methods.

3.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-164335

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesIntracellular entry of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) depends on the interaction between its spike protein to a cellular receptor named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and depends on Furin-mediated spike 23 protein cleavage and spike protein priming by host cell proteases including 24 transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Tmprss1, Tmprss3, and Tmprss5 are expressed in the spiral ganglion neurons and the organ of Corti in the inner ear; however, Ace2, Tmprss2, and Furin expression profiles in the middle ear remain unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze Ace2, Tmprss2, and Furin expression in the middle and inner ear of mice. Study DesignAnimal research. SettingDepartment of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, University of Tokyo. MethodsWe performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine the distribution of Ace2, Tmprss2, and Furin in the eustachian tube, middle ear space, and cochlea of mice. ResultsAce2 was expressed in the cytoplasm in the middle ear epithelium, eustachian tube epithelium, stria vascularis, and spiral ganglion. Tmprss2 and Furin were widely expressed in the middle ear spaces and the cochlea. ConclusionCo-expression of Ace2, Tmprss2, and Furin in the middle ear indicates that the middle ear is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infections, thus warranting the use of personal protective equipment during mastoidectomy for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients.

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