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1.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):9-15, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2305597

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of the combination of abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir plus recombinant interferon alpha-2b (rIFNalpha-2b) and the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir plus rIFNalpha-2b for patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Method(s): A multicenter prospective study was carried out to compare the efficacy of triple combination antiviral therapy and dual combination antiviral therapy in 15 medical institutions of Zhejiang province during January 22 to February 16, 2020. All patients were treated with rIFNalpha-2b (5 million U, 2 times/d) aerosol inhalation, in addition 196 patients were treated with abidol (200 mg, 3 times/d) + lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (triple combination group) and 41 patients were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (dual combination group). The patients who received triple combination antiviral therapy were further divided into three subgroups: <48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d according the time from the symptom onset to medication starting. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between triple combination group and dual combination group, and compared among 3 subgroups of patients receiving triple combination antiviral therapy. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Result(s): The virus nucleic acid-negative conversion time in respiratory tract specimens was (12.2+/-4.7) d in the triple combination group, which was shorter than that in the dual combination group [(15.0+/-5.0) d] (t=6.159, P<0.01). The length of hospital stay in the triple combination group [12.0 (9.0, 17.0) d] was also shorter than that in the dual combination group [15.0 (10.0, 18.0) d] (H=2.073, P<0.05). Compared with the antiviral treatment which was started within after the symptom onset of in the triple combination group, the time from the symptom onset to the viral negative conversion was 13.0 (10.0, 17.0), 17.0 (13.0, 22.0) and 21.0 (18.0, 24.0) d in subgroups of 48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d, respectively (Z=32.983, P<0.01), while the time from antiviral therapy to viral negative conversion was (11.8+/-3.9), (13.5+/-5.1) and (11.2+/-4.3) d, respectively(Z=6.722, P<0.05). Conclusion(s): The triple combination antiviral therapy of abidol, lopinavir/litonavir and rIFNalpha-2b shows shorter viral shedding time and shorter hospitalization time, compared with the dual combination antiviral therapy;and the earlier starting triple combination antiviral therapy will result in better antiviral efficacy.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

2.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):9-15, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2286480

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of the combination of abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir plus recombinant interferon alpha-2b (rIFNalpha-2b) and the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir plus rIFNalpha-2b for patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Method(s): A multicenter prospective study was carried out to compare the efficacy of triple combination antiviral therapy and dual combination antiviral therapy in 15 medical institutions of Zhejiang province during January 22 to February 16, 2020. All patients were treated with rIFNalpha-2b (5 million U, 2 times/d) aerosol inhalation, in addition 196 patients were treated with abidol (200 mg, 3 times/d) + lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (triple combination group) and 41 patients were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (dual combination group). The patients who received triple combination antiviral therapy were further divided into three subgroups: <48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d according the time from the symptom onset to medication starting. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between triple combination group and dual combination group, and compared among 3 subgroups of patients receiving triple combination antiviral therapy. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Result(s): The virus nucleic acid-negative conversion time in respiratory tract specimens was (12.2+/-4.7) d in the triple combination group, which was shorter than that in the dual combination group [(15.0+/-5.0) d] (t=6.159, P<0.01). The length of hospital stay in the triple combination group [12.0 (9.0, 17.0) d] was also shorter than that in the dual combination group [15.0 (10.0, 18.0) d] (H=2.073, P<0.05). Compared with the antiviral treatment which was started within after the symptom onset of in the triple combination group, the time from the symptom onset to the viral negative conversion was 13.0 (10.0, 17.0), 17.0 (13.0, 22.0) and 21.0 (18.0, 24.0) d in subgroups of 48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d, respectively (Z=32.983, P<0.01), while the time from antiviral therapy to viral negative conversion was (11.8+/-3.9), (13.5+/-5.1) and (11.2+/-4.3) d, respectively(Z=6.722, P<0.05). Conclusion(s): The triple combination antiviral therapy of abidol, lopinavir/litonavir and rIFNalpha-2b shows shorter viral shedding time and shorter hospitalization time, compared with the dual combination antiviral therapy;and the earlier starting triple combination antiviral therapy will result in better antiviral efficacy.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

3.
Infectious Diseases and Immunity ; 2(2):100-108, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2212970

ABSTRACT

Background:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease and has spread worldwide. Clinical risk factors associated with the severity in COVID-19 patients have not yet been well delineated. The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors related with the progression of severe COVID-19 and establish a prediction model for severity in COVID-19 patients.Methods:We retrospectively recruited patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted in Enze Hospital, Taizhou Enze Medical Center (Group) and Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital between January 24 and March 12, 2020. Take the Taizhou cohort as the training set and the Nanjing cohort as the validation set. Severe case was defined based on the World Health Organization Interim Guidance Report criteria for severe pneumonia. The patients were divided into severe and non-severe groups. Epidemiological, laboratory, clinical, and imaging data were recorded with data collection forms from the electronic medical record. The predictive model of severe COVID-19 was constructed, and the efficacy of the predictive model in predicting the risk of severe COVID-19 was analyzed by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC).Results:A total of 402 COVID-19 patients were included in the study, including 98 patients in the training set (Nanjing cohort) and 304 patients in the validation set (Nanjing cohort). There were 54 cases (13.43%) in severe group and 348 cases (86.57%) in non-severe group. Logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index (BMI) and lymphocyte count were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19 (all P < 0.05). Logistic regression equation based on risk factors was established as follows: Logit (BL)=-5.552-5.473 ×L + 0.418 × BMI. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the training set and the validation set were 0.928 and 0.848, respectively (all P < 0.001). The model was simplified to get a new model (BMI and lymphocyte count ratio, BLR) for predicting severe COVID-19 patients, and the AUC in the training set and validation set were 0.926 and 0.828, respectively (all P < 0.001).Conclusions:Higher BMI and lower lymphocyte count are critical factors associated with severity of COVID-19 patients. The simplified BLR model has a good predictive value for the severe COVID-19 patients. Metabolic factors involved in the development of COVID-19 need to be further investigated. © 2021 The Chinese Medical Association, Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

4.
Innov Aging ; 6(Suppl 1):748-9, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2189038

ABSTRACT

While gerotranscendence theories postulate that older adults tend to orient themselves toward solitude, activity theories highlight the importance of continuing social and meaningful engagement for well-being across lifespan. The distinction between loneliness and social isolation is particularly observable in older adults of advanced age who are often facing accelerated decline in physical and functional health, therefore restricting their opportunities to interact with others. This has been particularly disturbing during the previous two years under COVID. This study utilized data from the 2nd Hong Kong Centenarian Study which interviewed 120 family caregivers of older adults aged 95 or above in 2021–2022 when the city experienced almost an entire year of the outbreak. Using family or friend proxy information as well as caregiver ratings of whether older adults expressed feelings of social isolation and loneliness, we found that 10.7% of older adults reported high levels of loneliness and isolation;26.7% feeling low in both;11.5% were isolated but not lonely, and 38.2% were lonely but not isolated. Loneliness ratings were more strongly associated with psychological well-being (Patient Health Questionnaire-4), autonomy, happiness, perceived usefulness, worries, and death anxiety than did isolation, with the latter negatively correlated with optimism. Participants rated in the low isolation/loneliness group were least (death) anxious than the other three groups. Our findings underscore the divergence of isolation and loneliness for adults of advanced age and call for psychological support for oldest-old adults who continue to face social isolation, especially when society gradually recovers from COVID.

5.
Progress in Microbes and Molecular Biology ; 5(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2206363

ABSTRACT

Chemotherapeutics and biotherapeutics agents have been explored as a potential treatment for COVID-19. This study was aimed to elucidate latest update related to biotherapeutics and chemotherapeutics against COVID-19 and its variants as well as the product specifications and marketing dynamics of its pharmacotherapies. There are several chemotherapeutics that have been studied for the treatment of COVID-19, including Paxlovid (Nirmatrelvir & Ritonavir) fixed dose combination, nirmatrelvir and ritonavir fixed dose combination, Remdesivir (Vekulary/Covifor) fixed dose combination, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, molnupiravir, favipiravir, Infliximab (Remsima®) fixed dose combination tocilizumab (Actimera), casirivimab+imdevimab (Ronapreve) fixed dose combination, ivermectin, methylprednisole. These drugs have been repurposed for use in COVID-19 due to their antiviral properties and ability to reduce inflammation. The COVID-19 death cases have significantly reduced because of tested efficacy of advanced biotherapeutics and chemotherapeutics. As for marketing dynamics, the demand for chemotherapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 has increased significantly since the outbreak of the pandemic. Hence, the prices of anti-viral and monoclonal antibodies in top COVID-19 affected countries is also presented here. Considering the molecular interactions, therapeutic activity, efficacy, and adverse effects, the USFDA and the WHO recommended the aforementioned drugs. The chances of approval seems favouring biotherapeutics as these have the best characteristics among the chemotherapeutics. Overall, this review contributes to the scientific understanding of the COVID-19. This can help to inform future research and development efforts and contribute to the overall advancement of knowledge in the field of medicine. © 2022, HH Publisher. All rights reserved.

6.
23rd ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, MobiHoc 2022 ; : 141-150, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2079040

ABSTRACT

We consider the problem of controlling a mutated diffusion process with an unknown mutation time. The problem is formulated as the quickest intervention problem with the mutation modeled by a change-point, which is a generalization of the quickest change-point detection (QCD). Our goal is to intervene in the mutated process as soon as possible while maintaining a low intervention cost with optimally chosen intervention actions. This model and the proposed algorithms can be applied to pandemic prevention (such as Covid-19) or misinformation containment. We formulate the problem as a partially observed Markov decision process (POMDP) and convert it to an MDP through the belief state of the change-point. We first propose a grid-approximation approach to calculate the optimal intervention policy, whose computational complexity could be very high when the number of grids is large. In order to reduce the computational complexity, we further propose a low-complexity threshold-based policy through the analysis of the first-order approximation of the value functions in the "local intervention"regime. Simulation results show the low-complexity algorithm has a similar performance as the grid-approximation approach and both perform much better than the QCD-based algorithms. © 2022 ACM.

7.
Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine ; 22(1):56-67, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1904219

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 and its subsequent public health measures have carried a significant psychological burden on many parents worldwide. This study aimed to: (1) determine the frequency and factors associated with psychological distress experienced by mothers of children with behavioural problems, and (2) ascertain their concerns and personal views on parenting during the first lockdown period in Malaysia. The respondents (N = 55) were mothers of children aged 6–12 years with behavioural problems. The mother-child dyads were recruited through clinicians’ referrals at the paediatrics and child and adolescent psychiatric clinics in Kajang, Kuala Lumpur, and Selayang Hospitals. Children with total difficulties score of ≥ 15 in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were considered to have behavioural problems. The respondents completed an online survey assessing sociodemographic information and psychological distress (stress, anxiety, and depression) using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 21 Items (DASS-21). The frequency of mothers with stress, anxiety, and depression were 36.4%, 43.6%, and 30.9%, respectively. Stress was significantly associated with the household size, while depression was associated with household size and the respondents’ work status during the lockdown. Despite a primary concern about contracting COVID-19, the participating mothers had positive views about their own parenting experience during the lockdown. Mothers at risk of psychological distress should be offered mental health support to prevent or reduce the symptoms and enhance their coping skills during this trying time. © 2022. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine. All Rights Reserved.

8.
Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University ; 42(12):1449-1454, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893453

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the influence of negative emotions on risk perception in frontline medical staff at the early stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Methods An online questionnaire survey was conducted on the dispatched medical staff of Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital and the frontline anti-epidemic medical staff of Changhai Hospital of Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University) from Feb. 3 to 5, 2020. The negative emotions were measured by the reduced version of negative affection scale composed of 7 negative emotions. The risk perception level was evaluated by the risk perception questionnaire of frontline anti-epidemic medical staff adapted from nursing staff risk perception questionnaire. Results A total of 220 valid questionnaires were collected, with an effective rate of 85.94%. The total score of negative emotions of frontline medical staff at the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak was 11.18±4.58, and the scores of 7 negative emotions from high to low were tension (1.92±0.90), upset (1.75±0.92), fear (1.61±0.84), impatience (1.58±0.84), sadness (1.51±0.83), trembling (1.50±00.83) and guilt (1.31±0.64). The scores of impatience, sadness, upset and guilt of non-nursing staff were significantly higher than those of nursing staff (all P<0.05). The total score of risk perception of medical staff was 17.68±4.60, and the score of time risk dimension was the highest (3.20±1.20). The organizational risk score (3.39±1.01 vs 2.88±1.01) and time risk score (3.46±1.22 vs 3.09±1.18) of the non-nursing staff were significantly higher than those of the nursing staff (P<0.01 or P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between the total score of negative emotions and the total score of risk perception (r=0.499, P<0.01). The score of each negative emotion classification had an indicating effect on different risk perception tendencies, and impatience had the most obvious indicating effect on time risk (β=0.227, P=0.033). Conclusion Medical staff with high negative emotions have high risk perception. The negative emotion management at the early stage of the epidemic can help frontline anti-epidemic medical staff to correctly understand the risk. © 2021 Second Military Medical University Press. All rights reserved.

9.
8th International Conference on Computational Science and Technology, ICCST 2021 ; 835:867-879, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1787765

ABSTRACT

Due to the continuing impact of COVID-19, people spend an increasing amount of time on working or studying from home. The indoor light environment became quite important since it can affect people's physical and mental health. In order to reduce human fatigue resulting from continuous indoor working or studying and to improve work efficiency, and also hope to contribute to the research of indoor light environment design, this paper explores the correlation between indoor light environments and fatigue. Through laboratory simulation of indoor light environment. Participants are asked to complete the task stimulation test and filled in the subjective fatigue questionnaire with three different illumination levels. Their EEG (ElectroEncephaloGraphy), eye movement, and other physiological data are also monitored at the same time. The participants’ fatigue degree is statistically analyzed under the 300 lx, 570 lx, and 870 lx illumination. The results showed that the lighting environment has a strong correlation with human fatigue. Fatigue degree varies the most from 570 to 870 lx. There is a largest error rate gap of task test up to 20% under 300 lx and 870 lx illumination. As the illuminance increases, the fatigue degree has a visible trend of increase as well, and it is the most obvious under the 870 lx illumination. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

10.
Semiconductor Science and Technology ; 37(5):7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1758594

ABSTRACT

Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) plays an essential role in deep ultra-violet light emitting diodes and high electron mobility transistors etc. For example, 2 nm - 5 nm AlGaN nanofilms consist of the quantum wells in ultra-violet light emitting diodes, which have been attracting extensive attention since the rise of COVID 2019. Since most photons and heat are generated in these AlGaN nanofilms, the thermal properties of AlGaN nanofilms are strongly influenced by the heat dissipation of devices. In this paper, utilizing elastic theory and the Boltzmann transport equation, the phonon dispersion relations, density of states, specific heat capacities and thermal conductivities of 2 nm Al (delta) Ga1-delta N nanofilms with various delta are theoretically calculated at different temperatures. The thermal conductivity of nanofilm is significantly smaller than that of its bulk counterpart. In contrast with bulk AlGaN, due to the dominance of boundary scattering and alloy disorder scattering, the thermal conductivity of Al (delta) Ga1-delta N exhibits a similar dependence on Al concentration to bulk Al (delta) Ga1-delta N. Meanwhile, since the screening of Umklapp scattering, the saturation temperature of thermal conductivity is delayed from 50 to 100 K in bulks to about 300 K in nanofilms. The shrinkage of nanofilms' thermal conductivity is also slower than for bulks. We believe that our work will be helpful in controlling the self-heating effect of devices based on AlGaN nanofilms.

11.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(1):9-15, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1143641

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of the combination of abidol, lopinavir/ritonavir plus recombinant interferon α-2b (rIFNα-2b) and the combination of lopinavir/ritonavir plus rIFNα-2b for patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Methods: A multicenter prospective study was carried out to compare the efficacy of triple combination antiviral therapy and dual combination antiviral therapy in 15 medical institutions of Zhejiang province during January 22 to February 16, 2020. All patients were treated with rIFNα-2b (5 million U, 2 times/d) aerosol inhalation, in addition 196 patients were treated with abidol (200 mg, 3 times/d) + lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (triple combination group) and 41 patients were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (2 tablets, 1 time/12 h) (dual combination group). The patients who received triple combination antiviral therapy were further divided into three subgroups: <48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d according the time from the symptom onset to medication starting. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between triple combination group and dual combination group, and compared among 3 subgroups of patients receiving triple combination antiviral therapy. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: The virus nucleic acid-negative conversion time in respiratory tract specimens was (12.2±4.7) d in the triple combination group, which was shorter than that in the dual combination group [(15.0±5.0) d] (t=6.159, P<0.01). The length of hospital stay in the triple combination group [12.0 (9.0, 17.0) d] was also shorter than that in the dual combination group [15.0 (10.0, 18.0) d] (H=2.073, P<0.05). Compared with the antiviral treatment which was started within after the symptom onset of in the triple combination group, the time from the symptom onset to the viral negative conversion was 13.0 (10.0, 17.0), 17.0 (13.0, 22.0) and 21.0 (18.0, 24.0) d in subgroups of 48 h, 3-5 d and >5 d, respectively (Z=32.983, P<0.01), while the time from antiviral therapy to viral negative conversion was (11.8±3.9), (13.5±5.1) and (11.2±4.3) d, respectively(Z=6.722, P<0.05). Conclusions: The triple combination antiviral therapy of abidol, lopinavir/litonavir and rIFNα-2b shows shorter viral shedding time and shorter hospitalization time, compared with the dual combination antiviral therapy;and the earlier starting triple combination antiviral therapy will result in better antiviral efficacy. Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

12.
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