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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early antiviral therapy was effective in the treatment of COVID-19. We assessed the efficacy and safety of combined interferon beta-1b and remdesivir treatment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, prospective open-label, randomized-controlled trial involving high-risk adults hospitalized for COVID-19. Patients were randomly assigned to a 5-day interferon beta-1b 16 million units daily and remdesivir 200mg loading on day 1 followed by 100mg daily on day 2 to 5 (combination-group), or to remdesivir only of similar regimen (control-group) (1:1). The primary end-point was the time to complete alleviation of symptoms (NEWS2 = 0). RESULTS: Two-hundred and twelve patients were enrolled. The median days of starting treatment from symptom-onset was 3 days. The median age was 65 years and 159 patients (75%) had chronic disease. The baseline demographics were similar. There was no mortality. For the primary-endpoint, the combination-group was significantly quicker to NEWS2 = 0 (4 versus 6.5 days; hazard-ratio [HR],6.59; 95% confidence-interval [CI],6.1-7.09; p < 0.0001) when compared to the control-group. For the secondary endpoints, the combination-group was quicker to negative NPS VL (6 versus 8 days; HR,8.16; 95% CI,7.79-8.52; p < 0.0001) and develop seropositive IgG (8 versus 10 days; HR,10.78; 95% CI,9.98-11.58; p < 0.0001). All adverse events resolved upon follow-up. Combination group (HR,4.1 95%CI,1.9-8.6, p < 0.0001), was the most significant independent factor associated with NEWS2 = 0 on day 4. CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment with interferon beta-1b and remdesivir was safe and better than remdesivir only in alleviating symptoms, shorten viral shedding and hospitalization with earlier seropositivity in high-risk COVID-19 patients.

2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-6, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air dispersal of respiratory viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 has not been systematically reported. The incidence and factors associated with air dispersal of respiratory viruses are largely unknown. METHODS: We performed air sampling by collecting 72,000 L of air over 6 hours for pediatric and adolescent patients infected with parainfluenza virus 3 (PIF3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, and adenovirus. The patients were singly or 2-patient cohort isolated in airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) from December 3, 2021, to January 26, 2022. The viral load in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and air samples were measured. Factors associated with air dispersal were investigated and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 20 singly isolated patients with median age of 30 months (range, 3 months-15 years), 7 (35%) had air dispersal of the viruses compatible with their NPA results. These included 4 (40%) of 10 PIF3-infected patients, 2 (66%) of 3 RSV-infected patients, and 1 (50%) of 2 adenovirus-infected patients. The mean viral load in their room air sample was 1.58×103 copies/mL. Compared with 13 patients (65%) without air dispersal, these 7 patients had a significantly higher mean viral load in their NPA specimens (6.15×107 copies/mL vs 1.61×105 copies/mL; P < .001). Another 14 patients were placed in cohorts as 7 pairs infected with the same virus (PIF3, 2 pairs; RSV, 3 pairs; rhinovirus, 1 pair; and adenovirus, 1 pair) in double-bed AIIRs, all of which had air dispersal. The mean room air viral load in 2-patient cohorts was significantly higher than in rooms of singly isolated patients (1.02×104 copies/mL vs 1.58×103 copies/mL; P = .020). CONCLUSION: Air dispersal of common respiratory viruses may have infection prevention and public health implications.

3.
Viruses ; 14(8):1714, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1969516

ABSTRACT

Formulating termination of isolation (de-isolation) policies requires up-to-date knowledge about viral shedding dynamics. However, current de-isolation policies are largely based on viral load data obtained before the emergence of Omicron variant. In this retrospective cohort study involving adult patients hospitalised for COVID-19 between January and February 2022, we sought to determine SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding kinetics and to investigate the risk factors associated with slow viral decline during the 2022 Omicron wave. A total of 104 patients were included. The viral load was highest (Ct value was lowest) on days 1 post-symptom-onset (PSO) and gradually declined. Older age, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and chronic kidney disease were associated with slow viral decline in the univariate analysis on both day 7 and day 10 PSO, while incomplete or no vaccination was associated with slow viral decline on day 7 PSO only. However, older age was the only risk factor that remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, older age is an independent risk factor associated with slow viral decline in this study conducted during the Omicron-dominant 2022 COVID-19 wave. Transmission-based precaution guidelines should take age into consideration when determining the timing of de-isolation.

4.
Science ; 377(6604): 428-433, 2022 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901908

ABSTRACT

The in vivo pathogenicity, transmissibility, and fitness of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant are not well understood. We compared these virological attributes of this new variant of concern (VOC) with those of the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant in a Syrian hamster model of COVID-19. Omicron-infected hamsters lost significantly less body weight and exhibited reduced clinical scores, respiratory tract viral burdens, cytokine and chemokine dysregulation, and lung damage than Delta-infected hamsters. Both variants were highly transmissible through contact transmission. In noncontact transmission studies Omicron demonstrated similar or higher transmissibility than Delta. Delta outcompeted Omicron without selection pressure, but this scenario changed once immune selection pressure with neutralizing antibodies-active against Delta but poorly active against Omicron-was introduced. Next-generation vaccines and antivirals effective against this new VOC are therefore urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of SARS-CoV-2 in the pathogenesis of testicular damage is uncertain. METHODS: We investigated the virological, pathological, and immunological changes in testes of hamsters challenged by SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and its variants by intranasal or direct testicular inoculation using influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 as control. RESULTS: Besides self-limiting respiratory tract infection, intranasal SARS-CoV-2 challenge caused acute decrease in sperm count, and serum testosterone and inhibin B at 4 to 7 days post-infection (dpi), and subsequently reduced testicular size and weight, and serum sex hormone level at 42 to 120 dpi. Acute histopathological damage with varying degree of testicular inflammation, haemorrhage, and necrosis, degeneration of seminiferous tubules and disruption of orderly spermatogenesis were seen with increasing virus inoculum. Degeneration and necrosis of Sertoli and Leydig cells were found. Though viral loads and SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapid (N) protein expression were markedly lower in testicular than lung tissues, direct intra-testicular injection showed N expressing interstitial cells and epididymal epithelial cells. Control intranasal or intra-testicular challenge by A(H1N1)pdm09 showed no testicular infection or damage. From 7 to 120 dpi, degeneration and apoptosis of seminiferous tubules, immune complex deposition and depletion of spermatogenic cell and spermatozoa persisted. Intranasal challenge with Omicron and Delta variants could also induce similar testicular changes. These testicular damages can be prevented by vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 can cause acute testicular damage with subsequent chronic asymmetric testicular atrophy and associated hormonal changes despite a self-limiting pneumonia in hamsters. Awareness of possible hypogonadism and subfertility is important in managing convalescent COVID-19 males.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 can infect human and other mammals, including hamsters. Syrian (Mesocricetus auratus) and dwarf (Phodopus sp.) hamsters are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the laboratory setting. However, pet shop-related COVID-19 outbreaks have not been reported. METHODS: We conducted an investigation of a pet shop-related COVID-19 outbreak due to Delta variant AY.127 involving at least three patients in Hong Kong. We tested samples collected from the patients, environment, and hamsters linked to this outbreak and performed whole genome sequencing analysis of the RT-PCR-positive samples. RESULTS: The patients included a pet shop keeper (Patient 1), a female customer of the pet shop (Patient 2), and the husband of Patient 2 (Patient 3). Investigation showed that 17.2% (5/29) and 25.5% (13/51) environmental specimens collected from the pet shop and its related warehouse, respectively, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. Among euthanized hamsters randomly collected from the storehouse, 3% (3/100) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR and seropositive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody by ELISA. Whole genome analysis showed that although all genomes from the outbreak belonged to the Delta variant AY.127, there were at least 3 nucleotide differences among the genomes from different patients and the hamster cages. Genomic analysis suggests that multiple strains have emerged within the hamster population, and these different strains have likely transmitted to human either via direct contact or via the environment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated probable hamster-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2. As pet trading is common around the world, this can represent a route of international spread of this pandemic virus.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, designated as a Variant of Concern(VOC) by the World Health Organization, carries numerous spike mutations which have are known to evade neutralizing antibodies elicited by COVID-19 vaccines. A deeper understanding of the susceptibility of Omicron variant to vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies is urgently needed for risk assessment. METHODS: Omicron variant strains HKU691 and HKU344-R346K were isolated from patients using TMPRSS2-overexpressing VeroE6 cells. Whole genome sequence was determined using nanopore sequencing. Neutralization susceptibility of ancestral lineage A virus and the Omicron, Delta and Beta variants to sera from 25 BNT162b2 and 25 Coronavac vaccine recipients was determined using a live virus microneutralization assay. RESULTS: The Omicron variant strain HKU344-R346K has an additional spike R346K mutation, which is present in 8.5% of strains deposited in GISAID database. Only 20% and 24% of BNT162b2 recipients had detectable neutralizing antibody against the Omicron variant HKU691 and HKU344-R346K, respectively, while none of the Coronavac recipients had detectable neutralizing antibody titer against either Omicron isolate. For BNT162b2 recipients, the geometric mean neutralization antibody titers(GMT) of the Omicron variant isolates(5.43 and 6.42) were 35.7-39.9-fold lower than that of the ancestral virus(229.4), and the GMT of both Omicron variant isolates were significantly lower than those of the Beta and Delta variants. There was no significant difference in the GMT between HKU691 and HKU344-R346K. CONCLUSIONS: Omicron variant escapes neutralizing antibodies elicited by BNT162b2 or Coronavac. The additional R346K mutation did not affect the neutralization susceptibility. Our data suggest that the Omicron variant may be associated with lower COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(8): 1485-1488, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816023

ABSTRACT

A false-positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction result can lead to unnecessary public health measures. We report 2 individuals whose respiratory specimens were contaminated by an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strain (CoronaVac), likely at vaccination premises. Incidentally, whole genome sequencing of CoronaVac showed adaptive deletions on the spike protein, which do not result in observable changes of antigenicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(9): 1623-1630, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineages with mutations at the spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) have reduced susceptibility to antibody neutralization, and have been classified as variants of concern (VOCs) or variants of interest (VOIs). Here we systematically compared the neutralization susceptibility and RBD binding of different VOCs/VOIs, including B.1.617.1 (kappa variant) and P.3 (theta variant), which were first detected in India and the Philippines, respectively. METHODS: The neutralization susceptibility of the VOCs/VOIs (B.1.351, B.1.617.1, and P.3) and a non-VOC/VOI without RBD mutations (B.1.36.27) to convalescent sera from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients or BNT162b2 vaccinees was determined using a live virus microneutralization (MN) assay. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding to wild-type and mutant RBDs were determined using an enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: The geometric mean neutralization titers (GMT) of B.1.351, P.3, and B.1.617.1 were significantly lower than that of B.1.36.27 for COVID-19 patients infected with non-VOCs/VOIs (3.4- to 5.7-fold lower) or individuals who have received 2 doses of BNT162b2 vaccine (4.4- to 7.3-fold lower). The GMT of B.1.351 or P.3 were lower than that of B.1.617.1. For the 4 patients infected with B.1.351 or B.1.617.1, the MN titer was highest for their respective lineage. RBD with E484K or E484Q mutation, either alone or in combination with other mutations, showed greatest reduction in serum IgG binding. CONCLUSIONS: P.3 and B.1.617.1 escape serum neutralization induced by natural infection or vaccine. Infection with 1 variant does not confer cross-protection for heterologous lineages. Immunogenicity testing for second generation COVID-19 vaccines should include multiple variant and "nonvariant" strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(11): 1933-1950, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-vaccination myopericarditis is reported after immunization with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines. The effect of inadvertent intravenous injection of this vaccine on the heart is unknown. METHODS: We compared the clinical manifestations, histopathological changes, tissue mRNA expression, and serum levels of cytokine/chemokine and troponin in Balb/c mice at different time points after intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) vaccine injection with normal saline (NS) control. RESULTS: Although significant weight loss and higher serum cytokine/chemokine levels were found in IM group at 1-2 days post-injection (dpi), only IV group developed histopathological changes of myopericarditis as evidenced by cardiomyocyte degeneration, apoptosis, and necrosis with adjacent inflammatory cell infiltration and calcific deposits on visceral pericardium, although evidence of coronary artery or other cardiac pathologies was absent. Serum troponin level was significantly higher in IV group. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike antigen expression by immunostaining was occasionally found in infiltrating immune cells of the heart or injection site, in cardiomyocytes and intracardiac vascular endothelial cells, but not skeletal myocytes. The histological changes of myopericarditis after the first IV-priming dose persisted for 2 weeks and were markedly aggravated by a second IM- or IV-booster dose. Cardiac tissue mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, interferon (IFN)-ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α increased significantly from 1 dpi to 2 dpi in the IV group but not the IM group, compatible with presence of myopericarditis in the IV group. Ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes was consistently found in the IV group. All other organs appeared normal. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided in vivo evidence that inadvertent intravenous injection of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines may induce myopericarditis. Brief withdrawal of syringe plunger to exclude blood aspiration may be one possible way to reduce such risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Chemokines , Cytokines , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Mice , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325339

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is more infectious and transmissible in humans than SARS-CoV, despite the genetic relatedness and sharing the same cellular receptor. We sought to assess whether human airway organoids can model SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human airway and elucidate the cellular basis underlying its higher transmissibility. We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 can establish a productive infection in human airway organoids, in which ciliated cell and basal cell are infected. Wildtype SARS-CoV-2 carrying a furin cleavage motif exhibits comparable replication kinetics to a mutant virus without the motif. Human airway organoids sustain higher replication of SARS-CoV-2 than SARS-CoV, whereas interferon response is more potently induced in the latter than the former. Overall, human airway organoids can model SARS-CoV-2 infection and recapitulate the disposable role of furin cleavage motif for virus transmission in humans. SARS-CoV-2 stealth growth and evasion of interferon response may underlie pre-symptomatic virus shedding in COVID-19 patients, leading to its high infectiousness and transmissibility.

12.
COVID ; 1(4):775-783, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1580971

ABSTRACT

Antigen detection rapid diagnostic tests have been developed for first-line large-scale screening given their rapidity, simplicity, and accuracy. This study evaluates the diagnostic performance of an antigen detection rapid diagnostic test (BLOK BioScience, London, UK) detecting SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. Serially diluted SARS-CoV-2 isolate and 110 NPS from COVID-19 patients were tested to determine the test’s sensitivity, and other viral isolates and 20 NPS from non-infected individuals were, for specificity, also tested. Ten clinical samples from COVID-19 patients with SARS-CoV-2 variants, including alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and eta variants, were collected to evaluate the test’s potential application in detecting emerging variants. Overall sensitivity was 92%, and stratifying into viral loads yielded 100% for Ct < 25 samples including SARS-CoV-2 variants, but 11.11% for Ct ≥30 samples. The analytical sensitivity of log10 TCID50/mL 2.0 was identified for SARS-CoV-2. Ninety-seven percent specificity with only SARS-CoV cross-reactivity lead to the Youden index of 0.89. The rapid diagnostic test has a high sensitivity for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in high viral load samples, possibly including emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, but reduced sensitivity in low viral load samples suggests its optimized usage as a complementary testing method to other tests, including RT-PCR or a point-of-care test for large-scale screening, particularly for pandemic areas or airport border infection control.

13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542450

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) have diminished the effectiveness of vaccines and are associated with a rebound in the number of COVID-19 cases globally. These variants contain mutations at the spike (S) protein receptor binding site (RBD), which affect antibody binding. Current commercially available antibody assays were developed before the VOCs emerged. It is unclear whether the levels of these commercially available antibody assays can predict the neutralizing antibody titers against the VOCs. In this study, we sought to determine the correlation between the binding antibody concentration and microneutralization antibody titer against the beta variant. METHODS: This study included 58 COVID-19 patients. The concentrations of IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein RBD and nucleocapsid (N) protein were measured using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay and the SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay, respectively. The neutralization antibody titer against the wild type lineage A SARS-CoV-2 and against the beta variant (B.1.351) was determined using a conventional live virus neutralization test. RESULTS: The geometric mean MN titer (GMT) against the beta variant was significantly lower than that against the wild type lineage A virus (5.6 vs. 47.3, p < 0.0001). The anti-RBD IgG had a better correlation with the neutralizing antibody titer than that of the anti-N IgG assay against the wild type lineage A virus (Spearman rho, 0.5901 vs. 0.3827). However, the correlation between the anti-RBD or the anti-N IgG and the MN titer against the beta variant was poor. CONCLUSIONS: Currently available commercial antibody assays may not predict the level of neutralizing antibodies against the variants. A new generation of antibody tests specific for variants are required.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(8): 1485-1488, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402369

ABSTRACT

A false-positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction result can lead to unnecessary public health measures. We report 2 individuals whose respiratory specimens were contaminated by an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strain (CoronaVac), likely at vaccination premises. Incidentally, whole genome sequencing of CoronaVac showed adaptive deletions on the spike protein, which do not result in observable changes of antigenicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(6): ofaa210, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Posterior oropharyngeal saliva is increasingly recognized as a valid respiratory specimen for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. It is easy to collect and suitable for community-wide screening. The optimal timing of collection is currently unknown, and we speculate that an early-morning specimen before oral hygiene and breakfast would increase the diagnostic yield. METHODS: Posterior oropharyngeal saliva was collected at 5 different time points within the same day from 18 patients with previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by molecular testing. Cycle threshold (Ct) values were compared. RESULTS: There was an overall trend of lower Ct values from specimens collected in the early morning, with a gradual decrease of viral load towards nighttime, but reaching statistical significance only when compared with the specimens collected at bedtime. Eight out of 13 subjects had a higher viral load in the early morning than the rest of the 4 time points (before lunch, before teatime at 3 pm, before dinner, before bedtime). CONCLUSIONS: The result suggests a diurnal variation of viral shedding from the upper respiratory tract with a trend showing higher viral load in the early morning. For community screening purposes, posterior oropharyngeal saliva could be taken throughout the day, but preferably in the early morning to maximize the yield.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(11): 1933-1950, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-vaccination myopericarditis is reported after immunization with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines. The effect of inadvertent intravenous injection of this vaccine on the heart is unknown. METHODS: We compared the clinical manifestations, histopathological changes, tissue mRNA expression, and serum levels of cytokine/chemokine and troponin in Balb/c mice at different time points after intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) vaccine injection with normal saline (NS) control. RESULTS: Although significant weight loss and higher serum cytokine/chemokine levels were found in IM group at 1-2 days post-injection (dpi), only IV group developed histopathological changes of myopericarditis as evidenced by cardiomyocyte degeneration, apoptosis, and necrosis with adjacent inflammatory cell infiltration and calcific deposits on visceral pericardium, although evidence of coronary artery or other cardiac pathologies was absent. Serum troponin level was significantly higher in IV group. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike antigen expression by immunostaining was occasionally found in infiltrating immune cells of the heart or injection site, in cardiomyocytes and intracardiac vascular endothelial cells, but not skeletal myocytes. The histological changes of myopericarditis after the first IV-priming dose persisted for 2 weeks and were markedly aggravated by a second IM- or IV-booster dose. Cardiac tissue mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, interferon (IFN)-ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α increased significantly from 1 dpi to 2 dpi in the IV group but not the IM group, compatible with presence of myopericarditis in the IV group. Ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes was consistently found in the IV group. All other organs appeared normal. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided in vivo evidence that inadvertent intravenous injection of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines may induce myopericarditis. Brief withdrawal of syringe plunger to exclude blood aspiration may be one possible way to reduce such risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Chemokines , Cytokines , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Mice , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(9): 1623-1630, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineages with mutations at the spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) have reduced susceptibility to antibody neutralization, and have been classified as variants of concern (VOCs) or variants of interest (VOIs). Here we systematically compared the neutralization susceptibility and RBD binding of different VOCs/VOIs, including B.1.617.1 (kappa variant) and P.3 (theta variant), which were first detected in India and the Philippines, respectively. METHODS: The neutralization susceptibility of the VOCs/VOIs (B.1.351, B.1.617.1, and P.3) and a non-VOC/VOI without RBD mutations (B.1.36.27) to convalescent sera from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients or BNT162b2 vaccinees was determined using a live virus microneutralization (MN) assay. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding to wild-type and mutant RBDs were determined using an enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: The geometric mean neutralization titers (GMT) of B.1.351, P.3, and B.1.617.1 were significantly lower than that of B.1.36.27 for COVID-19 patients infected with non-VOCs/VOIs (3.4- to 5.7-fold lower) or individuals who have received 2 doses of BNT162b2 vaccine (4.4- to 7.3-fold lower). The GMT of B.1.351 or P.3 were lower than that of B.1.617.1. For the 4 patients infected with B.1.351 or B.1.617.1, the MN titer was highest for their respective lineage. RBD with E484K or E484Q mutation, either alone or in combination with other mutations, showed greatest reduction in serum IgG binding. CONCLUSIONS: P.3 and B.1.617.1 escape serum neutralization induced by natural infection or vaccine. Infection with 1 variant does not confer cross-protection for heterologous lineages. Immunogenicity testing for second generation COVID-19 vaccines should include multiple variant and "nonvariant" strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(1): 137-142, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291923

ABSTRACT

After 2 months of relative quiescence, a large coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak occurred in Hong Kong in July 2020 after gradual relaxation of social distancing policy. Unique severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) phylogenetic clusters have been identified among locally acquired cases, with most genomes belonging to cluster HK1, which is phylogenetically related to SARS-CoV-2 reported overseas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks , Hong Kong , Humans , Phylogeny
19.
J Gen Virol ; 102(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218064

ABSTRACT

Host cell lipids play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of respiratory virus infection. However, a direct comparison of the lipidomic profile of influenza virus and rhinovirus infections is lacking. In this study, we first compared the lipid profile of influenza virus and rhinovirus infection in a bronchial epithelial cell line. Most lipid features were downregulated for both influenza virus and rhinovirus, especially for the sphingomyelin features. Pathway analysis showed that sphingolipid metabolism was the most perturbed pathway. Functional study showed that bacterial sphingomyelinase suppressed influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication, but promoted rhinovirus replication. These findings suggest that sphingomyelin pathway can be a potential target for antiviral therapy, but should be carefully evaluated as it has opposite effects on different respiratory viruses. Furthermore, the differential effect of sphingomyelinase on rhinovirus and influenza virus may explain the interference between rhinovirus and influenza virus infection.


Subject(s)
Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Rhinovirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sphingomyelins/pharmacology , Animals , Bronchial Diseases/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Dogs , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human , Lipidomics , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase , Virus Replication/drug effects
20.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167764

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR with pooled specimens has been implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic as a cost- and manpower-saving strategy for large-scale testing. However, there is a paucity of data on the efficiency of different nucleic acid extraction platforms on pooled specimens. This study compared a novel automated high-throughput liquid-based RNA extraction (LRE) platform (PHASIFY™) with a widely used magnetic bead-based total nucleic acid extraction (MBTE) platform (NucliSENS® easyMAG®). A total of 60 pools of nasopharyngeal swab and 60 pools of posterior oropharyngeal saliva specimens, each consisting of 1 SARS-CoV-2 positive and 9 SARS-CoV-2 negative specimens, were included for the comparison. Real-time RT-PCR targeting the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp/Hel gene was performed, and GAPDH RT-PCR was used to detect RT-PCR inhibitors. No significant differences were observed in the Ct values and overall RT-PCR positive rates between LRE and MBTE platforms (92.5% (111/120] vs. 90% (108/120]), but there was a slightly higher positive rate for LRE (88.3% (53/60]) than MBTE (81.7% (49/60]) among pooled saliva. The automated LRE method is comparable to a standard MBTE method for the detection of SAR-CoV-2 in pooled specimens, providing a suitable alternative automated extraction platform. Furthermore, LRE may be better suited for pooled saliva specimens due to more efficient removal of RT-PCR inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/instrumentation
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