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Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:163-164, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008909


Background: Some factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes have been identifed in patients with psoriasis (PsO) and infammatory/autoimmune rheumatic diseases, namely older age, male sex, comorbidity burden, higher disease activity, and certain medications such as rituximab. However, information about specifcities of patients with PsO, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), including disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) specifcally licensed for these conditions, such as IL-17 inhibitors (IL-17i), IL-23/IL-12 + 23 inhibitors (IL-23/IL-12 + 23i), and apremilast, is lacking. Objectives: To determine characteristics associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes in people with PsO, PsA and axSpA. Methods: This study was a pooled analysis of data from two physician-reported registries: the Psoriasis Patient Registry for Outcomes, Therapy and Epidemiology of COVID-19 Infection (PsoProtect), comprising patients with PsO/PsA, and the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance (GRA) registry, comprising patients with PsA/axSpA. Data from the beginning of the pandemic up to 25 October, 2021 were included. An ordinal severity outcome was defned as: 1) not hospitalised, 2) hospitalised without death, and 3) death. A multivariable ordinal logistic regression model was constructed to assess the relationship between COVID-19 severity and demographic characteristics (age, sex, time period of infection), comorbidities (hypertension, other cardiovascular disease [CVD], chronic obstructive lung disease [COPD], asthma, other chronic lung disease, chronic kidney disease, cancer, smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus [DM]), rheumatic/skin disease (PsO, PsA, axSpA), physician-reported disease activity, and medication exposure (methotrexate, lefunomide, sulfasalazine, TNFi, IL17i, IL-23/IL-12 + 23i, Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKi), apremilast, glucocorticoids [GC] and NSAIDs). Age-adjustment was performed employing four-knot restricted cubic splines. Country-adjustment was performed using random effects. Results: A total of 5008 individuals with PsO (n=921), PsA (n=2263) and axSpA (n=1824) were included. Mean age was 50 years (SD 13.5) and 51.8% were male. Hospitalisation (without death) was observed in 14.6% of cases and 1.8% died. In the multivariable model, the following variables were associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes: older age (Figure 1), male sex (OR 1.53, 95%CI 1.29-1.82), CVD (hypertension alone: 1.26, 1.02-1.56;other CVD alone: 1.89, 1.22-2.94;vs no hypertension and no other CVD), COPD or asthma (1.75, 1.32-2.32), other lung disease (2.56, 1.66-3.97), chronic kidney disease (2.32, 1.50-3.59), obesity and DM (obesity alone: 1.36, 1.07-1.71;DM alone: 1.85, 1.39-2.47;obesity and DM: 1.89, 1.34-2.67;vs no obesity and no DM), higher disease activity and GC intake (remission/low disease activity and GC intake: 1.96, 1.36-2.82;moderate/severe disease activity and no GC intake: 1.35, 1.05-1.72;moderate/severe disease activity and GC intake 2.30, 1.41-3.74;vs remission/low disease activity and no GC intake). Conversely, the following variables were associated with less severe COVID-19 outcomes: time period after 15 June 2020 (16 June 2020-31 December 2020: 0.42, 0.34-0.51;1 January 2021 onwards: 0.52, 0.41-0.67;vs time period until 15 June 2020), a diagnosis of PsO (without arthritis) (0.49, 0.37-0.65;vs PsA), and exposure to TNFi (0.58, 0.45-0.75;vs no DMARDs), IL17i (0.63, 0.45-0.88;vs no DMARDs), IL-23/IL-12 + 23i (0.68, 0.46-0.997;vs no DMARDs) and NSAIDs (0.77, 0.60-0.98;vs no NSAIDs). Conclusion: More severe COVID-19 outcomes in PsO, PsA and axSpA are largely driven by demographic factors (age, sex), comorbidities, and active disease. None of the DMARDs typically used in PsO, PsA and axSpA, were associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes, including IL-17i, IL-23/IL-12 + 23i, JAKi and apremilast.

British Journal of Dermatology ; 183(SUPPL 1):200, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1093710


Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease with frequent multimorbidity, and immunosuppressants are the mainstay of treatment in moderate-to-severe disease. An understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on individuals with psoriasis and the effect of psoriasis therapies on the course of COVID-19 is urgently required to inform clinical decision-making. This study sought to characterize the clinical course of COVID-19 in patients with psoriasis and to identify factors associated with hospitalization. Clinicianreported cases of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 in psoriasis were collected via an international online registry. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression identified factors associated with hospitalization. Patient risk-mitigating behaviours were characterized using an independent global selfreport registry. In total, 334 clinician-reported cases (median age 50 years, 62% male, median body mass index 28 kg m-2, 85% white) from 22 countries [most frequently, the U.K. (35%), Italy (22%) and Spain (16%)] were available between 27 March and 20 June 2020. Altogether, 245 (73.3%) patients were receiving a biologic, 54 (16.2%) a nonbiologic and 31 (9.3%) no systemic treatment. Overall, 311 (93.1%) achieved a full recovery, 71 (21.2%) were hospitalized and nine (2.7%) died. Risk factors associated with hospitalization were older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-2.32], male sex (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.11-5.04) and nonwhite ethnicity (aOR 3.40, 95% CI 1.27-9.11), in addition to chronic lung disease (aOR 4.37, 95% CI 1.62-11.74) and hypertension (aOR 2.23, 95% CI 1.05-4.74). Reduced risk of hospitalization was associated with use of a biologic (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-0.98) vs. nonbiological systemic therapy. There was no difference in risk of hospitalization between classes of biologics. An independent selfreport psoriasis registry (1167 patients from 39 countries) suggested increased social isolation (76% vs. 66%;P < 0.05) but similar nonadherence to medication (18% vs 22%) in patients receiving biologics vs. nonbiological systemic treatments. In this international moderate-to-severe psoriasis case series, most patients fully recovered from COVID-19;older age, being male and being of nonwhite ethnicity increased risk of hospitalization. Use of biologics, when compared with nonbiological systemic therapies, was associated with reduced risk of hospitalization;however, this requires further study owing to potential selection bias and unmeasured confounding such as a difference in risk-mitigating behaviours.

Br J Dermatol ; 185(1): 80-90, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991224


BACKGROUND: Registry data suggest that people with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) receiving targeted systemic therapies have fewer adverse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes compared with patients receiving no systemic treatments. OBJECTIVES: We used international patient survey data to explore the hypothesis that greater risk-mitigating behaviour in those receiving targeted therapies may account, at least in part, for this observation. METHODS: Online surveys were completed by individuals with psoriasis (globally) or rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) (UK only) between 4 May and 7 September 2020. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the association between treatment type and risk-mitigating behaviour, adjusting for clinical and demographic characteristics. We characterized international variation in a mixed-effects model. RESULTS: Of 3720 participants (2869 psoriasis, 851 RMDs) from 74 countries, 2262 (60·8%) reported the most stringent risk-mitigating behaviour (classified here under the umbrella term 'shielding'). A greater proportion of those receiving targeted therapies (biologics and Janus Kinase inhibitors) reported shielding compared with those receiving no systemic therapy [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1·63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·35-1·97]. The association between targeted therapy and shielding was preserved when standard systemic therapy was used as the reference group (OR 1·39, 95% CI 1·23-1·56). Shielding was associated with established risk factors for severe COVID-19 [male sex (OR 1·14, 95% CI 1·05-1·24), obesity (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·23-1·54), comorbidity burden (OR 1·43, 95% CI 1·15-1·78)], a primary indication of RMDs (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·27-1·48) and a positive anxiety or depression screen (OR 1·57, 95% CI 1·36-1·80). Modest differences in the proportion shielding were observed across nations. CONCLUSIONS: Greater risk-mitigating behaviour among people with IMIDs receiving targeted therapies may contribute to the reported lower risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. The behaviour variation across treatment groups, IMIDs and nations reinforces the need for clear evidence-based patient communication on risk-mitigation strategies and may help inform updated public health guidelines as the pandemic continues.

COVID-19 , Joint Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2