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1.
Occup Environ Med ; 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disinfectants are widely used in the medical field, particularly recently because of the coronavirus pandemic, which has led to an increase in their use by both medical professionals and the general population. The objective of this study was to examine whether occupational disinfectant use during pregnancy was associated with the development of allergic disease in offspring at 3 years. METHODS: We used data from 78 915 mother/child pairs who participated in the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which is a prospective birth cohort recruited between January 2011 and March 2014. We examined the associations between maternal disinfectant use during pregnancy and allergic diseases (asthma, eczema and food allergies) in children after adjustment for covariates including maternal postnatal return to work when the child was 1 year old by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared with those who never used disinfectants, participants who used disinfectant every day had a significantly higher risk of asthma in their offspring (adjusted OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.33 for 1-6 times a week; adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.52 for every day). The associations between disinfectant exposure and eczema were similar to those of asthma (adjusted OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.31 for 1-6 times a week; adjusted OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.57 for every day). We found a significant exposure-dependent relationship (p for trend <0.01). There were no significant associations between disinfectant use and food allergies. CONCLUSION: Disinfectant use by pregnant women may be a risk factor for asthma and eczema in offspring. As disinfectants are an effective tool in the prevention of infectious diseases, replication of this study and further research into the mechanisms are warranted.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633311

ABSTRACT

The eligibility of COVID-19 vaccines has been expanded to children aged 12 and above in several countries including Japan, and there is a plan to further lower the age. This study aimed to assess factors related to parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. A nationwide internet-based cross-sectional study was conducted between May 25 and June 3, 2021 in Japan. The target population was parents of children aged 3-14 years who resided in Japan, and agreed to answer the online questionnaire. Parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (their intention to vaccinate their child) and related factors were analyzed using logistic regression models. Interaction effects of gender of parents and their level of social relationship satisfaction related to parental vaccine hesitancy was tested using log likelihood ratio test (LRT). Social media as the most trusted information source increased parental vaccine hesitancy compared to those who trusted official information (Adjusted Odds Ratio: aOR 2.80, 95% CI 1.53-5.12). Being a mother and low perceived risk of infection also increased parental vaccine hesitancy compared to father (aOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.57-3.74) and those with higher perceived risk of infection (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.04-2.32) respectively. People with lower satisfaction to social relationships tended to be more hesitant to vaccinate their child among mothers in contrast to fathers who showed constant intention to vaccinate their child regardless of the level of satisfaction to social relationship (LRT p = 0.021). Our findings suggest that dissemination of targeted information about COVID-19 vaccine by considering means of communication, gender and people who are isolated during measures of social distancing may help to increase parental vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
J Epidemiol ; 31(11): 573-580, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease is suspected to be triggered by previous infection. The prevention measures for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have reportedly reduced transmission of certain infectious diseases. Under these circumstances, the prevention measures for COVID-19 may reduce the incidence of Kawasaki disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using registration datasets of patients with Kawasaki disease who were diagnosed in all 11 inpatient pediatric facilities in Yamanashi Prefecture. The eligible cases were 595 cases that were diagnosed before the COVID-19 pandemic (from January 2015 through February 2020) and 38 cases that were diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic (from March through November 2020). Incidence of several infectious disease were evaluated using data from the Infectious Disease Weekly Report conducted by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. RESULTS: Epidemics of various infectious diseases generally remained at low levels during the first 9 months (March through November 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the incidence of COVID-19 was 50-80 times lower than the incidence in European countries and the United States. The total number of 38 cases with Kawasaki disease for the 9 months during the COVID-19 pandemic was 46.3% (-3.5 standard deviations [SDs] of the average [82.0; SD, 12.7 cases] for the corresponding 9 months of the previous 5 years. None of the 38 cases was determined to be triggered by COVID-19 based on their medical histories and negative results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 testing at admission. CONCLUSION: These observations provide a new epidemiological evidence for the notion that Kawasaki disease is triggered by major infectious diseases in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
4.
Dig Endosc ; 2021 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402913

ABSTRACT

AIM: To elucidate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the practice of high-resolution manometry (HRM) and peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in Japan. METHODS: We utilized a large-scale database involving 14 high-volume centers in Japan to investigate changes in the numbers of HRM and POEM procedures performed and outcomes of POEM between 2019 and 2020. A questionnaire survey was also conducted to analyze pandemic-associated changes in the HRM and POEM protocols. RESULTS: Compared to that in 2019, the number of HRM and POEM procedures decreased by 17.2% (1587-1314) and 20.9% (630-498), respectively. These declines were prominent during the state of emergency from April to May 2020, particularly in pandemic areas. HRM and POEM in nonpandemic areas were relatively unaffected. From 2019 to 2020, there was a 0.4% (254-248) decrease in POEM cases within the prefecture, but the number outside the prefecture decreased by 33.6% (372-247). During the pandemic, the safety and efficacy of POEM were maintained. The implementation of personal protective equipment (PPE) measures varied among facilities, and PPE for POEM was relatively insufficient compared to that for HRM. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic influenced HRM and POEM practices in Japan. It is necessary to establish a sufficient system for HRM and POEM in each hospital as well as countrywide to overcome the effects of the pandemic.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256034

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243702.].

6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172887

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243702.].

7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243702, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967103

ABSTRACT

To clarify the physical and mental conditions of children during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and consequent social distancing in relation to the mental condition of their caregivers. This internet-based nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted between April 30 and May 13, 2020. The participants were 1,200 caregivers of children aged 3-14 years. Child health issues were categorized into "at least one" or "none" according to caregivers' perception. Caregivers' mental status was assessed using the Japanese version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-6. The association between caregivers' mental status and child health issues was analyzed using logistic regression models. Among the participants, 289 (24.1%) had moderate and 352 (29.3%) had severe mental distress and 69.8% of children in their care had health issues. The number of caregivers with mental distress was more than double that reported during the 2016 national survey. After adjusting for covariates, child health issues increased among caregivers with moderate mental distress (odds ratio 2.24, 95% confidence interval 1.59-3.16) and severe mental distress (odds ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 2.17-4.29) compared with caregivers with no mental distress. The results highlight parents' psychological stress during the pandemic, suggesting the need for adequate parenting support. However, our study did not consider risk factors of caregivers' mental distress such as socioeconomic background. There is an urgent need for further research to identify vulnerable populations and children's needs to develop sustainable social support programs for those affected by the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Child Health , Mental Disorders/etiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Stress, Psychological/psychology
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