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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13606, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984426

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have reported that a high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated with disease severity and poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to investigate the clinical implications of NLR in patients with COVID-19 complicated with cardiovascular diseases and/or its risk factors (CVDRF). In total, 601 patients with known NLR values were selected from the CLAVIS-COVID registry for analysis. Patients were categorized into quartiles (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4) according to baseline NLR values, and demographic and clinical parameters were compared between the groups. Survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. The diagnostic performance of the baseline and follow-up NLR values was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Finally, two-dimensional mapping of patient characteristics was conducted using t-stochastic neighborhood embedding (t-SNE). In-hospital mortality significantly increased with an increase in the baseline NLR quartile (Q1 6.3%, Q2 11.0%, Q3 20.5%; and Q4, 26.6%; p < 0.001). The cumulative mortality increased as the quartile of the baseline NLR increased. The paired log-rank test revealed significant differences in survival for Q1 vs. Q3 (p = 0.017), Q1 vs. Q4 (p < 0.001), Q2 vs. Q3 (p = 0.034), and Q2 vs. Q4 (p < 0.001). However, baseline NLR was not identified as an independent prognostic factor using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. The area under the curve for predicting in-hospital death based on baseline NLR was only 0.682, whereas that of follow-up NLR was 0.893. The two-dimensional patient map with t-SNE showed a cluster characterized by high mortality with high NLR at follow-up, but these did not necessarily overlap with the population with high NLR at baseline. NLR may have prognostic implications in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with CVDRF, but its significance depends on the timing of data collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Circ J ; 86(8): 1237-1244, 2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both pre-existing atrial fibrillation (AF) and new-onset AF (NOAF) are observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the effect of AF on clinical outcomes is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of AF, especially NOAF, on the outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Methods and Results: This study analyzed 673 COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular diseases and risk factors (CVDRF). Patients were divided into 3 groups; pre-existing AF (n=55), NOAF (n=28), and sinus rhythm (SR) (n=590). The baseline characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 68 years, 65.4% were male, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 15.6%. The NOAF group demonstrated a higher in-hospital mortality rate (42.9%) than the pre-existing AF (30.9%) and SR (11.2%) groups (P<0.001). Patients with NOAF had a higher incidence of acute respiratory syndrome, multiple organ disease, hemorrhage, and stroke than those with pre-existing AF and NOAF. NOAF was independently associated with in-hospital mortality after adjusting for pre-existing AF and 4C mortality score (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 4.71 [1.63-13.6], P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with NOAF had significantly worse outcomes as compared to patients with pre-existing AF and SR. The incidence of NOAF would be a useful predictor of clinical outcomes during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Registries , Risk Factors
3.
Circulation reports ; 4(7):315-321, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940120

ABSTRACT

Background: Male sex is associated with a worse clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19, particularly in older patients. However, studies on COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease and/or risk factors (CVDRF), which are representative risk factors of COVID-19, are limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of sex on the outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with CVDRF. Methods and Results: We analyzed 693 COVID-19 patients with CVDRF. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on sex, and baseline characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. The mean age of the 693 patients was 68 years;64.8% were men and 96.1% were Japanese. In a univariate analysis model, sex was not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.22;95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74–2.02;P=0.43). However, men had higher in-hospital mortality than women, especially among older (age ≥80 years) patients (OR 2.21;95% CI 1.11–4.41;P=0.024). After adjusting for age and pivotal risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic kidney disease), multivariate analysis suggested that male sex was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR 2.20;95% CI 1.23–3.92;P=0.008). Conclusions: In this post hoc analysis of a nationwide registry focusing on patients with COVID-19 and CVDRF, men had higher in-hospital mortality than women, especially among older patients.

4.
Thromb Res ; 216: 90-96, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907824

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRF) have been reported to develop coagulation abnormalities frequently. However, there are limitations in conventional predictive models for the occurrence of thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19 and CVDRF. METHODS: Among data on 1518 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 registered with CLAVIS-COVID, a Japanese nationwide cohort study, 693 patients with CVDRF were subjected to least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analysis; a method of shrinking coefficients for reducing variance and minimizing bias to increase predictive accuracy. LASSO analysis was performed to identify risk factors for systemic thromboembolic events; occurrence of arterial and venous thromboembolism during the index hospitalization as the primary endpoint. RESULTS: LASSO analysis identified a prior systemic thromboembolism, male sex, hypoxygenemia requiring invasive mechanical ventilation support, C-reactive protein levels and D-dimer levels at admission, and congestion on chest X-ray at admission as potential risk factors for the primary endpoint. The developed risk model consisting of these risk factors showed good discriminative performance (AUC-ROC: 0.83, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.90), which was significantly better than that shown by D-dimer (AUC-ROC: 0.70, 95 % CI: 0.60-0.80) (p < 0.001). Furthermore, systemic embolic events were independently associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 3.29; 95 % CI: 1.31-8.00). CONCLUSIONS: Six parameters readily available at the time of admission were identified as risk factors for thromboembolic events, and these may be capable of stratifying the risk of in-hospital thromboembolic events, which are associated with in-hospital mortality, in patients with COVID-19 and CVDRF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
5.
Circ Rep ; 4(7): 315-321, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869131

ABSTRACT

Background: Male sex is associated with a worse clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19, particularly in older patients. However, studies on COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease and/or risk factors (CVDRF), which are representative risk factors of COVID-19, are limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of sex on the outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with CVDRF. Methods and Results: We analyzed 693 COVID-19 patients with CVDRF. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on sex, and baseline characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. The mean age of the 693 patients was 68 years; 64.8% were men and 96.1% were Japanese. In a univariate analysis model, sex was not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-2.02; P=0.43). However, men had higher in-hospital mortality than women, especially among older (age ≥80 years) patients (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.11-4.41; P=0.024). After adjusting for age and pivotal risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic kidney disease), multivariate analysis suggested that male sex was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.23-3.92; P=0.008). Conclusions: In this post hoc analysis of a nationwide registry focusing on patients with COVID-19 and CVDRF, men had higher in-hospital mortality than women, especially among older patients.

6.
J Cardiol ; 79(4): 501-508, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and underlying cardiovascular comorbidities have poor prognoses. Our aim was to identify the impact of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is associated with mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome, on the prognoses of patients with COVID-19 and underlying cardiovascular comorbidities. METHODS: Among 1518 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 enrolled in the CLAVIS-COVID (Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Infection in Hospitalized Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and/or Risk Factors study), 515 patients with cardiovascular comorbidities were analyzed. Patients were divided into tertiles based on LDH levels at admission [tertile 1 (T1), <235 U/L; tertile 2 (T2), 235-355 U/L; and tertile 3 (T3); ≥356 U/L]. We investigated the impact of LDH levels on the in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The mean age was 70.4 ± 30.0 years, and 65.3% were male. There were significantly more in-hospital deaths in T3 than in T1 and T2 [n = 50 (29.2%) vs. n = 15 (8.7%), and n = 24 (14.0%), respectively; p < 0.001]. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, comorbidities, vital signs, and laboratory data including D-dimer and high-sensitivity troponin showed T3 was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-6.13; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: High serum LDH levels at the time of admission are associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19 and known cardiovascular disease and may aid in triage of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Cardiol ; 79(4): 476-481, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is reported to be a predictor of adverse clinical events in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Western countries. However, there are limited data reported regarding the prognostic impact of obesity in Asian patients. We investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and in-hospital outcomes in 580 Japanese patients with cardiovascular disease and/or risk factors and who were admitted for COVID-19 infection using data from 49 hospitals in Japan. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Infection in Hospitalized Patients with Cardiovascular Disease and/or Risk Factors (CLAVIS-COVID) registry. BMI was classified into four groups accordance with the definition of the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity, as follows: underweight, <18.5 kg/m2; normal range, 18.5 to <25 kg/m2; pre-obese, 25 to 30 kg/m2; and obese, ≥30 kg/m2. RESULTS: In-hospital death occurred in 15.0% (n=87) of the patients and intubation was performed for 139 (24.0%) patients. In a multivariate analysis, we found a significant association between higher BMI and in-hospital mortality [underweight: hazard ratio (HR) 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.97; p=0.041; pre-obese: HR 1.46, 95%CI 0.84-2.55; p=0.18; and obese: HR 3.28, 95%CI 1.34-8.02; p=0.009 vs. normal range]. In contrast, the association between BMI and the intubation rate was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity was associated with a stepwise increase in the risk of in-hospital mortality in Japanese patients with COVID-19 infection. The threshold BMI for the increased risk of a worse outcome was 30, which was much lower in comparison to Western countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Circ J ; 85(11): 2111-2115, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine whether disease severity varied according to whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients had multiple or single cardiovascular diseases and risk factors (CVDRFs).Methods and Results:COVID-19 patients with single (n=281) or multiple (n=412) CVDRFs were included retrospectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed no significant difference in the risk of in-hospital death between groups, but patients with multiple CVDRFs had a significantly higher risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio: 1.75, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.81). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with multiple CVDRFs have a higher risk of complications than those with a single CDVRF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Female , Health Status , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e052708, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Predictive algorithms to inform risk management decisions are needed for patients with COVID-19, although the traditional risk scores have not been adequately assessed in Asian patients. We aimed to evaluate the performance of a COVID-19-specific prediction model, the 4C (Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium) Mortality Score, along with other conventional critical care risk models in Japanese nationwide registry data. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease or coronary risk factors from January to May 2020 in 49 hospitals in Japan. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two different types of outcomes, in-hospital mortality and a composite outcome, defined as the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality. RESULTS: The risk scores for 693 patients were tested by predicting in-hospital mortality for all patients and composite endpoint among those not intubated at baseline (n=659). The number of events was 108 (15.6%) for mortality and 178 (27.0%) for composite endpoints. After missing values were multiply imputed, the performance of the 4C Mortality Score was assessed and compared with three prediction models that have shown good discriminatory ability (RISE UP score, A-DROP score and the Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS)). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the 4C Mortality Score was 0.84 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.88) for in-hospital mortality and 0.78 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.81) for the composite endpoint. It showed greater discriminatory ability compared with other scores, except for the RISE UP score, for predicting in-hospital mortality (AUC: 0.82, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.86). Similarly, the 4C Mortality Score showed a positive net reclassification improvement index over the A-DROP and REMS for mortality and over all three scores for the composite endpoint. The 4C Mortality Score model showed good calibration, regardless of outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The 4C Mortality Score performed well in an independent external COVID-19 cohort and may enable appropriate disposition of patients and allocation of medical resources.Trial registration number UMIN000040598.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Clin Med ; 10(14)2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314671

ABSTRACT

Systemic inflammation and hypercoagulopathy are known pathophysiological processes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly in patients with known cardiovascular disease or its risk factors (CVD). However, whether a cumulative assessment of these biomarkers at admission could contribute to the prediction of in-hospital outcomes remains unknown. The CLAVIS-COVID registry was a Japanese nationwide retrospective multicenter observational study, supported by the Japanese Circulation Society. Consecutive hospitalized patients with pre-existing CVD and COVID-19 were enrolled. Patients were stratified by the tertiles of CRP and D-dimer values at the time of admission. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were constructed. In 461 patients (65.5% male; median age, 70.0), the median baseline CRP and D-dimer was 58.3 (interquartile range, 18.2-116.0) mg/L and 1.5 (interquartile range, 0.8-3.0) mg/L, respectively. Overall, the in-hospital mortality rate was 16.5%, and the rates steadily increased in concordance with both CRP (5.0%, 15.0%, and 28.2%, respectively p < 0.001) and D-dimer values (6.8%, 19.6%, and 22.5%, respectively p = 0.001). Patients with the lowest tertiles of both biomarkers (CRP, 29.0 mg/L; D-dimer, 1.00 mg/L) were at extremely low risk of in-hospital mortality (0% until day 50, and 1.4% overall). Conversely, the elevation of both CRP and D-dimer levels was a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (Hazard ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-5.60). A similar trend was observed when the biomarker threshold was set at a clinically relevant threshold. In conclusion, the combination of these abnormalities may provide a framework for rapid risk estimation for in-hospital COVID-19 patients with CVD.

11.
Circ Rep ; 3(7): 375-380, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286857

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged healthcare systems, at times overwhelming intensive care units (ICUs). We aimed to describe the length and rate of ICU admission, and explore the clinical variables influencing ICU use, for COVID-19 patients with known cardiovascular diseases or their risk factors (CVDRF). Methods and Results: A post hoc analysis was performed of 693 Japanese COVID-19 patients with CVDRF enrolled in the nationwide CLAVIS-COVID registration system between January and May 2020 (mean [±SD] age 68.3±14.9 years; 35% female); 199 patients (28.7%) required ICU management. The mean (±SD) ICU length of stay (LOS) was 19.3±18.5 days, and the rate of in-hospital death and hospital LOS were significantly higher (P<0.001) and longer (P<0.001), respectively, in the ICU than non-ICU group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that clinical variables reflecting impaired general condition (e.g., high C-reactive protein, low Glasgow Coma Scale score, SpO2, albumin level), male sex, and previous use of ß-blockers) were associated with ICU admission (all P<0.001). Notably, age was inversely associated with ICU admission, and this was particularly prominent among elderly patients (OR 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95-0.99; P=0.0018). Conclusions: One-third of COVID patients with CVDRF required ICU care during the first phase of the pandemic in Japan. Other than anticipated clinical variables, such as hypoxia and altered mental status, age was inversely associated with the use of the ICU, warranting further investigation.

12.
Circ J ; 85(6): 921-928, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of age on the outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and on cardiac biomarker profiles, especially in patients with cardiovascular diseases and/or risk factors (CVDRF).Methods and Results:A nationwide multicenter retrospective study included 1,518 patients with COVID-19. Of these patients, 693 with underlying CVDRF were analyzed; patients were divided into age groups (<55, 55-64, 65-79, and ≥80 years) and in-hospital mortality and age-specific clinical and cardiac biomarker profiles on admission evaluated. Overall, the mean age of patients was 68 years, 449 (64.8%) were male, and 693 (45.7%) had underlying CVDRF. Elderly (≥80 years) patients had a significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality regardless of concomitant CVDRF than younger patients (P<0.001). Typical characteristics related to COVID-19, including symptoms and abnormal findings on baseline chest X-ray and computed tomography scans, were significantly less prevalent in the elderly group than in the younger groups. However, a significantly (P<0.001) higher proportion of elderly patients were positive for cardiac troponin (cTn), and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro BNP (NT-proBNP) levels on admission were significantly higher among elderly than younger patients (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with COVID-19 had a higher risk of mortality during the hospital course, regardless of their history of CVDRF, were more likely to be cTn positive, and had significantly higher BNP/NT-proBNP levels than younger patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin/blood , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
13.
Circ J ; 85(6): 939-943, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases and/or risk factors (CVDRF) have been reported as risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Methods and Results:In total, we selected 693 patients with CVDRF from the CLAVIS-COVID database of 1,518 cases in Japan. The mean age was 68 years (35% females). Statin use was reported by 31% patients at admission. Statin users exhibited lower incidence of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) insertion (1.4% vs. 4.6%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.295, P=0.037) and septic shock (1.4% vs. 6.5%, OR: 0.205, P=0.004) despite having more comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the potential benefits of statins use against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Patient Admission , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
14.
J Cardiol Cases ; 23(2): 87-89, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-837183

ABSTRACT

An 84-year-old man with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia developed ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and was brought to the catheterization laboratory. His angiogram showed a haziness in distal right coronary artery, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) exhibited vascular spasm and OCT-defined plaque erosion, which were thought to be the causes of non-obstructive myocardial infarction. .

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