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Nano Converg ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2009480


Since COVID-19 and flu have similar symptoms, they are difficult to distinguish without an accurate diagnosis. Therefore, it is critical to quickly and accurately determine which virus was infected and take appropriate treatments when a person has an infection. This study developed a dual-mode surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based LFA strip that can diagnose SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus with high accuracy to reduce the false-negative problem of the commercial colorimetric LFA strip. Furthermore, using a single strip, it is feasible to detect SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus simultaneously. A clinical test was performed on 39 patient samples (28 SARS-CoV-2 positives, 6 influenza A virus positives, and 5 negatives), evaluating the clinical efficacy of the proposed dual-mode SERS-LFA strip. Our assay results for clinical samples show that the dual-mode LFA strip significantly reduced the false-negative rate for both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus.Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s40580-022-00330-w.

European Heart Journal ; 43(SUPPL 1):i120, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1722388


Background: SARS-CoV2 pandemic has caused major impact on patient care worldwide. We experienced a surge of cases beginning March 2020 leading to the government imposing a movement control order, more commonly known as 'lockdown' starting 18th March 2020. As such, various changes were implemented by our center to the clinical pathway for STEMI patients including using thrombolysis as the preferred initial treatment modality. Purpose: We aim to determine the impact of SARS-CoV2 pandemic on the clinical outcome of acute STEMI patients in our center which is a large regional tertiary hospital for cardiology. Methods and results: This is a single center retrospective cross-sectional study from 1st January 2020 until 31st May 2020. We compared clinical outcomes of patients admitted for acute STEMI before (group 1) and after (group 2) 15th March 2020 which is the date our center implemented changes to our STEMI care pathway. A total of 172 cases of acute STEMI was admitted to our center during this period. Admission for STEMI was noticeably lower after the lockdown implementation (group 1, n = 97 vs group 2, n = 75). The median time from symptom to presentation at our center did not differ between the two groups being 4.15h[2.78,7.28] vs 4.42h[2.97,8.01] p = 0.702, suggesting no outof- hospital delays in management. Majority of the patients in group 1 (n = 75, 77.2%) received primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) vs only 17 (22.7%) in group 2. Most in group 2 (n = 54, 72%) received thrombolytic therapy and subsequently underwent coronary intervention within the same admission. This shows a shift in the preferred initial treatment modality for STEMI at our center during this period. The door to balloon time for patients undergoing primary PCI during this period was also numerically higher in group 2 but the difference was not statistically significant at 46min [38,63] vs 59min [45,72], p = 0.063, most likely due to the additional preparation needed in terms of SARS-CoV2 testing and personal protective equipment (PPE) prior to the procedure. The primary composite endpoint of in-hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock between the two groups (17.5% vs 24.3%, p = 0.275) did not show any significant difference. The incidence of inhospital mortality and cardiogenic shock were 4.1% vs 6.7% (p = 0.458) and 15.5% vs 21.9% (p = 0.281) respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that thrombolysis as the preferred initial treatment modality for STEMI could be a reasonable temporary measure during the initial phase of a global pandemic to reduce infection risk of healthcare providers without compromising patient outcomes until adequate PPE and testing modalities are available for primary PCI to be performed safely. A follow-up study is needed to determine the long-term outcome of these patients.

J Hosp Infect ; 106(3): 570-576, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723894


BACKGROUND: Identifying the extent of environmental contamination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for infection control and prevention. The extent of environmental contamination has not been fully investigated in the context of severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. AIM: To investigate environmental SARS-CoV-2 contamination in the isolation rooms of severe COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy. METHODS: Environmental swab samples and air samples were collected from the isolation rooms of three COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. Patients 1 and 2 received mechanical ventilation with a closed suction system, while patient 3 received high-flow oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was used to detect SARS-CoV-2; viral cultures were performed for samples not negative on rRT-PCR. FINDINGS: Of the 48 swab samples collected in the rooms of patients 1 and 2, only samples from the outside surfaces of the endotracheal tubes tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR. However, in patient 3's room, 13 of the 28 environmental samples (fomites, fixed structures, and ventilation exit on the ceiling) showed positive results. Air samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Viable viruses were identified on the surface of the endotracheal tube of patient 1 and seven sites in patient 3's room. CONCLUSION: Environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 may be a route of viral transmission. However, it might be minimized when patients receive mechanical ventilation with a closed suction system. These findings can provide evidence for guidelines for the safe use of personal protective equipment.

Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Decontamination/standards , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/standards , Patients' Rooms/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Air Microbiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics