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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325182

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the clinical symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly the prevalence, time of symptom onset, and duration of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using paper questionnaires. COVID-19 patients in a temporary hospital in Wuhan voluntarily completed surveys collecting data on COVID-19 symptoms and investigation results. Results A total of 212 adults were enrolled in this study, of whom 127 (59.9%) were female, mean age was 48.50 ± 13.15 years. Concerning symptoms, 78.8% (167/212) had fever, and 66% (140/212) had cough. Diarrhoea occurred in 43.8% (93/212) of patients. Nausea and vomiting were also common (20.7%). Fever and cough were frequently the initial symptoms of COVID-19, and they lasted for 5.00 [interquartile range (IQR): 3.00–10.00] days and 10.00 (IQR: 5.00–24.00) days, respectively. Most patients developed nausea and vomiting 2.00 (IQR: 0–9.00) days and diarrhoea 5.00 (IQR: 0.25–11.00) days after the onset of initial symptoms, respectively. There was a median duration of 4.00 (IQR: 2.00–8.75) days with diarrhoea, and 6.00 (IQR: 4.00–10.00) days with nausea and vomiting. The patients with diarrhoea were younger [45.85 ± 13.28 years vs 50.61 ± 12.82 years, P  = 0.009] and were more likely to have an abnormal chest CT (95.7% vs 82.4%, P  = 0.001) than those without diarrhoea. Conclusions In our cohort of patients, GI symptoms were common in COVID-19, occurred mostly during the middle stage of the disease, and lasted for a short duration. GI symptoms may not be associated with COVID-19 related treatment.

3.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 43(4):601-605, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1352918

ABSTRACT

New coronavirus pneumonia is menacing, and patients with new coronavirus pneumonia combined with other underlying diseases are more at risk. Glycemic control level directly affects the body's immune response and body state. Its low immune status is extremely likely to increase the risk of illness. Infected patients are more likely to aggravate the infection and further cause cytokine storms. Therefore, patients with new type of coronavirus infection and type 2 diabetes need better blood glucose control and management while treating new type of coronavirus infection. This article combines the research on the rational use of diabetes and analyzes the characteristics of the existing clinical data of COVID-19 to explore the pharmacological practice mode and medication monitoring strategy of this special patient. It is hoped to provide COVID-19 patients with diabetes with a more optimized and reasonable medication regimen and improve the clinical medication level.

4.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21256705

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, has been mutating and thus variants emerged. This suggests that SARS-CoV-2 could mutate at an unsteady pace. Supportive evidence comes from the accelerated evolution which was revealed by tracking mutation rates of the genomic location of Spike protein. This process is sponsored by a small portion of the virus population but not the largest viral clades. Moreover, it generally took one to six months for current variants that caused peaks of COVID-19 cases and deaths to survive selection pressure. Based on this statistic result and the above speedy Spike evolution, another upcoming peak would come around July 2021 and disastrously attack Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. This is the prediction generated by a mathematical model on evolutionary spread. The reliability of this model and future trends out of it comes from the comprehensive consideration of factors mainly including mutation rate, selection course, and spreading speed. Notably, if the prophecy is true, then the new wave will be the first determined by accelerated Spike evolution.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077468

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses massive economic losses in the global poultry industry. Here, we firstly report the construction and immunogenicity comparison of virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying the S, M and E proteins (SME-VLPs); VLPs carrying the S and M proteins (SM-VLPs); and VLPs carrying the M and E proteins (ME-VLPs) from the dominant serotype representative strain GX-YL5 in China. The neutralizing antibody response induced by the SME-VLPs was similar to that induced by the inactivated oil vaccine (OEV) of GX-YL5, and higher than those induced by the SM-VLPs, ME-VLPs and commercial live vaccine H120. More importantly, the SME-VLPs elicited higher percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes than the SM-VLPs, ME-VLPs and OEV of GX-YL5. Compared with the OEV of GX-YL5, higher levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were also induced by the SME-VLPs. Moreover, the mucosal immune response (sIgA) induced by the SME-VLPs in the tear and oral swabs was comparable to that induced by the H120 vaccine and higher than that induced by the OEV of GX-YL5. In the challenge experiment, the SME-VLPs resulted in significantly lower viral RNA levels in the trachea and higher protection scores than the OEV of GX-YL5 and H120 vaccines, and induced comparable viral RNA levels in the kidneys, and tear and oral swabs to the OEV of GX-YL5. In summary, among the three VLPs, the SME-VLPs carrying the S, M and E proteins of IBV could stimulate the strongest humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses and provide effective protection, indicating that it would be an attractive vaccine candidate for IB.

6.
Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica ; 51(9):2257-2264, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-860154

ABSTRACT

For the sake of verifying the immunogenicity of candidate epitope-polypeptide, the B and T cell epitopes of S1 protein of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 strain were predicted and the corresponding epitope-polypeptides were synthesized, and then were used to immunize mice, the immune effect was analyzed. Five epitope-polypeptides against S1 protein of IBV H120 strain were selected by epitope prediction software and acquired by chemical synthesis, then were immunized to mice. The specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies and T lymphocyte subsets induced by each epitope-polypeptides were analyzed by indirect ELISA, neutralization test and flow cytometry. The ELISA results showed that the five epitope-polypeptides had good reactivity. The antibody titers of antisera induced by the five epitope-polypeptides sorted from high to low as follows: Pep76-106, Pep240-257, Pep511-537, Pep403-421, Pep135-172. The neutralization test results showed that the neutralization titers of antisera induced by the five epitope-polypeptides groups in mice were higher than that of the blank control group, and the order of neutralization titers was Pep240-257 = Pep403-421 = Pep511-537 > Pep76-106 = Pep135-172. The flow cytometry results showed that the percentages of CD3+, CD4+CD8- and CD8+CD4- T lymphocytes in all the five epitope-polypeptides groups were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the blank control group. The number of the CD3+ and CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes sorted from large to small as follows: Pep403-421, Pep240-257, Pep76-106, Pep511-537 and Pep135-172. The number of the CD8+CD4- T lymphocytes sorted from large to small as follows: Pep403-421, Pep76-106, Pep511-537, Pep240-257 and Pep135-172. In conclusion, Pep240-257, Pep76-106 and Pep403-421 could induce humoral immunity among the five epitope-polypeptides, while Pep403-421 could induce cellular immunity. Thus, peptide of Pep403-421 could induce cellular immunity and humoral immunity. This study laid a foundation for further understanding the immunological characteristics of the S1 protein and the development of diagnostic reagents and effective epitope vaccines.

7.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-103184

ABSTRACT

To curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, we characterize the virucidal activity of long-acting Povidone Iodine (PVP-I) compositions developed using an in-situ gel forming technology. The PVP-I gel forming nasal spray (IVIEW-1503) and PVP-I gel forming ophthalmic eye drop (IVIEW-1201) rapidly inactivated SARS-CoV-2, inhibiting the viral infection of VERO76 cells. No toxicity was observed for the PVP-I formulations. Significant inactivation was noted with preincubation of the virus with these PVP-I formulations at the lowest concentrations tested. It has been demonstrated that both PVP-I formulations can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 virus efficiently in both a dose-dependent and a time-dependent manner. These results suggest IVIEW-1503 and IVIEW-1201 could be potential agents to reduce or prevent the transmission of the virus through the nasal cavity and the eye, respectively. Further studies are needed to clinically evaluate these formulations in early-stage COVID-19 patients.

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