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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 692, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe complication of COVID-19 pneumonia, with a mortality rate amounting to 34-50% in moderate and severe ARDS, and is associated with prolonged duration of invasive mechanical ventilation. Such as in non-COVID ARDS, harmful mechanical ventilation settings might be associated with worse outcomes. Reducing the tidal volume down to 4 mL kg-1 of predicted body weight (PBW) to provide ultra-low tidal volume ventilation (ULTV) is an appealing technique to minimize ventilator-inducted lung injury. Furthermore, in the context of a worldwide pandemic, it does not require any additional material and consumables and may be applied in low- to middle-income countries. We hypothesized that ULTV without extracorporeal circulation is a credible option to reduce COVID-19-related ARDS mortality and duration of mechanical ventilation. METHODS: The VT4COVID study is a randomized, multi-centric prospective open-labeled, controlled superiority trial. Adult patients admitted in the intensive care unit with COVID-19-related mild to severe ARDS defined by a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 150 mmHg under invasive mechanical ventilation for less than 48 h, and consent to participate to the study will be eligible. Patients will be randomized into two balanced parallels groups, at a 1:1 ratio. The control group will be ventilated with protective ventilation settings (tidal volume 6 mL kg-1 PBW), and the intervention group will be ventilated with ULTV (tidal volume 4 mL kg-1 PBW). The primary outcome is a composite score based on 90-day all-cause mortality as a prioritized criterion and the number of ventilator-free days at day 60 after inclusion. The randomization list will be stratified by site of recruitment and generated using random blocks of sizes 4 and 6. Data will be analyzed using intention-to-treat principles. DISCUSSION: The purpose of this manuscript is to provide primary publication of study protocol to prevent selective reporting of outcomes, data-driven analysis, and to increase transparency. Enrollment of patients in the study is ongoing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04349618 . Registered on April 16, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Extracorporeal Circulation , Humans , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(2): 489-496, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293207

ABSTRACT

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells with immunosuppressive properties. In cancer patients, the expression of lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) on granulocytic MDSC identifies a subset of MDSC that retains the most potent immunosuppressive properties. The main objective of the present work was to explore the presence of LOX-1+ MDSC in bacterial and viral sepsis. To this end, whole blood LOX-1+ cells were phenotypically, morphologically, and functionally characterized. They were monitored in 39 coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19, viral sepsis) and 48 septic shock (bacterial sepsis) patients longitudinally sampled five times over a 3 wk period in intensive care units (ICUs). The phenotype, morphology, and immunosuppressive functions of LOX-1+ cells demonstrated that they were polymorphonuclear MDSC. In patients, we observed the significant emergence of LOX-1+ MDSC in both groups. The peak of LOX-1+ MDSC was 1 wk delayed with respect to ICU admission. In COVID-19, their elevation was more pronounced in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The persistence of these cells may contribute to long lasting immunosuppression leaving the patient unable to efficiently resolve infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Scavenger Receptors, Class E/metabolism , Shock, Septic/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Shock, Septic/metabolism , Shock, Septic/microbiology , Shock, Septic/pathology
3.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 140, 2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of the pandemic, only few studies focused on longitudinal immune monitoring in critically ill COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) whereas their hospital stay may last for several weeks. Consequently, the question of whether immune parameters may drive or associate with delayed unfavorable outcome in these critically ill patients remains unsolved. METHODS: We present a dynamic description of immuno-inflammatory derangements in 64 critically ill COVID-19 patients including plasma IFNα2 levels and IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) score measurements. RESULTS: ARDS patients presented with persistently decreased lymphocyte count and mHLA-DR expression and increased cytokine levels. Type-I IFN response was initially induced with elevation of IFNα2 levels and ISG score followed by a rapid decrease over time. Survivors and non-survivors presented with apparent common immune responses over the first 3 weeks after ICU admission mixing gradual return to normal values of cellular markers and progressive decrease of cytokines levels including IFNα2. Only plasma TNF-α presented with a slow increase over time and higher values in non-survivors compared with survivors. This paralleled with an extremely high occurrence of secondary infections in COVID-19 patients with ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Occurrence of ARDS in response to SARS-CoV2 infection appears to be strongly associated with the intensity of immune alterations upon ICU admission of COVID-19 patients. In these critically ill patients, immune profile presents with similarities with the delayed step of immunosuppression described in bacterial sepsis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units/trends , Interferon-alpha/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology
4.
Cytometry A ; 99(5): 466-471, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064342

ABSTRACT

During the second surge of COVID-19 in France (fall 2020), we assessed the expression of monocyte CD169 (i.e., Siglec-1, one of the numerous IFN-stimulated genes) upon admission to intensive care units of 45 patients with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV2 pulmonary infection. Overall, CD169 expression was strongly induced on circulating monocytes of COVID-19 patients compared with healthy donors and patients with bacterial sepsis. Beyond its contribution at the emergency department, CD169 testing may be also helpful for patients' triage at the ICU to rapidly reinforce suspicion of COVID-19 etiology in patients with acute respiratory failure awaiting for PCR results for definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Intensive Care Units , Monocytes/metabolism , Patient Admission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Preliminary Data , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Up-Regulation
5.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 129, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on respiratory mechanics of COVID-19 ARDS patients are scarce. Respiratory mechanics and response to positive expiratory pressure (PEEP) may be different in obese and non-obese patients. METHODS: We investigated esophageal pressure allowing determination of transpulmonary pressures (PL ) and elastances (EL) during a decremental PEEP trial from 20 to 6 cm H2O in a cohort of COVID-19 ARDS patients. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were investigated, 8 obese and 7 non-obese patients. PEEP ≥ 16 cm H2O for obese patients and PEEP ≥10 cm H2O for non-obese patients were necessary to obtain positive expiratory PL. Change of PEEP did not alter significantly ΔPL or elastances in obese patients. However, in non-obese patients lung EL  and ΔPL increased significantly with PEEP increase. Chest wall EL was not affected by PEEP variations in both groups.

6.
J Crit Care ; 60: 169-176, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710098

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether the computed tomography (CT) features of COVID-19 (COVID+) ARDS differ from those of non-COVID-19 (COVID-) ARDS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study is a single-center prospective observational study performed on adults with ARDS onset ≤72 h and a PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 mmHg. CT scans were acquired at PEEP set using a PEEP-FiO2 table with VT adjusted to 6 ml/kg predicted body weight. RESULTS: 22 patients were included, of whom 13 presented with COVID-19 ARDS. Lung weight was significantly higher in COVID- patients, but all COVID+ patients presented supranormal lung weight values. Noninflated lung tissue was significantly higher in COVID- patients (36 ± 14% vs. 26 ± 15% of total lung weight at end-expiration, p < 0.01). Tidal recruitment was significantly higher in COVID- patients (20 ± 12 vs. 9 ± 11% of VT, p < 0.05). Lung density histograms of 5 COVID+ patients with high elastance (type H) were similar to those of COVID- patients, while those of the 8 COVID+ patients with normal elastance (type L) displayed higher aerated lung fraction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Lung , Lung Compliance , Male , Middle Aged , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prospective Studies
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