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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 54-61, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia and chronic otitis media (COM) share a common pathophysiological mechanism in terms of respiratory infection and inflammation, but the epidemiologic association between the 2 diseases has not been investigated. We investigated the association between an event of COM and previous events of pneumonia in a national cohort. METHODS: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort were collected from 2002 to 2015. A 1:4 stratified cohort matched for age, sex, income, and residence region composing the COM group (n=23,436) and a control group (n=93,744) was selected. The crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of pneumonia occurring before the index date for COM were analyzed using a conditional logistic regression model. In addition, ORs of the number of diagnoses of pneumonia (≥5 times vs. <5 times) for COM were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence of pneumonia (9.3%) was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the COM group than in the control group (7.2%). The ORs of pneumonia were significantly higher in the COM group than in the control group. Pneumonia (adjusted OR=1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.25-1.38, p<0.001) increased the ORs for COM in all ages and gender. Pneumonia being diagnosed ≥5 times before the index date showed higher ORs (adjusted OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.20-1.49, p<0.001) for COM than pneumonia being diagnosed <5 times. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based nationwide cohort study indicates that diagnosis of pneumonia was significantly associated with an increased incidence of COM.


Subject(s)
Otitis Media , Pneumonia , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Humans , Otitis Media/diagnosis , Otitis Media/epidemiology , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Risk Factors
2.
Life (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792609

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been suggested to have adverse impacts on psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the changes in medical visits due to a wide range of psychiatric disorders in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. The medical visits of all Korean children and adolescents (0-19 years old) due to the 12 following psychiatric disorders were investigated: autism; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; primary insomnia; schizophrenia; panic disorder; hypochondriasis; posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); anxiety disorder; anorexia nervosa; and adephagia. The mean medical visits before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared. The mean number of clinical visits due to autism, ADHD, depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, hypochondriasis, PTSD, anxiety disorder, and anorexia nervosa was higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the COVID-19 pandemic (all p < 0.05). The higher mean number of medical visits due to psychiatric disorders was maintained in age and sex subgroups. The female and adolescent groups demonstrated a higher mean number of medical visits due to psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. The medical visits due to many psychiatric disorders were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than before COVID-19 in children and adolescents in Korea. Women and adolescents were more susceptible to psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
J Pers Med ; 12(4)2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776273

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been suggested to increase the risk of depression and anxiety disorders. This study expanded upon previous findings by estimating the changes in medical visits for various psychological disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before COVID-19. The entire Korean population ≥ 20 years old (~42.3 million) was included. The first COVID-19 case in Korea was reported on 20 January 2020. Thus, the period from January 2018 through to February 2020 was classified as "before COVID-19", and the period from March 2020 through to May 2021 was classified as "during COVID-19". Monthly medical visits due to the following 13 psychological disorders were evaluated: depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, primary insomnia, schizophrenia, panic disorder, hypochondriasis, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, addephagia, alcoholism, nicotine dependency, and gambling addiction were evaluated. The differences in the number of medical visits and the variance of diseases before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and Levene's test. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age and sex. The frequencies of medical visits for depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, primary insomnia, panic disorder, hypochondriasis, PTSD, anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, addephagia, and gambling addiction were higher during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 (all p < 0.001). However, the frequencies of medical visits for schizophrenia, alcoholism, and nicotine dependency were lower during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the COVID-19 pandemic (all p < 0.001). The psychological disorders with a higher frequency of medical visits during COVID-19 were consistent in all age and sex subgroups. In the old age group, the number of medical visits due to schizophrenia was also higher during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Many psychological disorders, including depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, primary insomnia, panic disorder, hypochondriasis, PTSD, anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, addephagia, and gambling addiction, had a higher number of related medical visits, while disorders such as schizophrenia, alcoholism, and nicotine dependency had a lower number of related medical visits during COVID-19 among Korean adults.

4.
Frontiers in aging neuroscience ; 14, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749518

ABSTRACT

Objectives Despite the numerous studies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), data regarding the impact of pre-existing diagnoses of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) on the susceptibility to and outcome of COVID-19 are limited. We aimed to determine whether patients with AD/PD had a higher likelihood of contracting COVID-19 and experiencing worse outcomes. Methods Data from patients with confirmed diagnoses of COVID-19 (n = 8,070) from January to June 2020 and control participants (n = 121,050) who were randomly selected to match the patients on the basis of age and sex were extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance Database. Pre-existing diagnoses of AD and PD were identified based on medical claim codes. The associations of pre-existing AD or PD with contracting COVID-19, developing severe COVID-19 and dying due to COVID-19 were examined using a logistic regression model. The participants’ age, sex, income, comorbidity score, and history of hypertension/diabetes were assessed as covariates. Results COVID-19 cases were more likely to have a pre-existing AD diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.79–2.50, P-value < 0.001) than controls. COVID-19 cases were more likely to have a pre-existing PD diagnosis than controls, although this estimate did not quite reach statistical significance (aOR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.00–2.00, P-value = 0.054). Pre-existing AD was related to severe disease and mortality from COVID-19 (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.64–2.98;aOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.00–2.00). Pre-existing PD was not associated with mortality (aOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 0.75–3.16) but was associated with severe disease (aOR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.56–5.35). Conclusion We found that COVID-19 infection was significantly associated with a pre-existing diagnosis of AD but not with a pre-existing diagnosis of PD. Patients with pre-existing AD had higher odds of developing severe COVID-19 and dying. Pre-existing PD was only associated with a higher odds of developing severe COVID-19.

5.
J Pers Med ; 12(2)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715466

ABSTRACT

This study examined the associations between the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures in detailed sites and combined physical activity (PA) and sunshine duration (SD). Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort for 7-year periods and from the Korea Meteorological Administration were used. Osteoporotic fractures (n = 12,103), including vertebral fractures, hip fractures, and distal radius fractures, and matched controls (n = 24,206) were selected in 1:2 ratios by age, sex, income, and region of residence. PA was classified as moderate- to high-intensity PA (High PA) and low-intensity PA (Low PA). SD was classified as Short SD (<6.1 h) and Long SD (≥6.1 h). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95%-confidence intervals (CIs) of the combined PA and SD groups for the occurrence of each osteoporotic fracture. Compared to 'Low PA + Short SD', the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for vertebral fracture in 'High PA + Short SD' and 'High PA + Long SD' were 0.83 (0.76-0.91) and 0.84 (0.77-0.92), respectively. Hip/distal radius fractures were not associated with the combined PA and SD group. We suggest that a higher intensity of PA is inversely associated with the risk of vertebral fracture.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 300: 130-136, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of depression during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to that during the prepandemic period. METHODS: Data from participants in the Korean Community Health Survey in 2019 and 2020 aged ≥ 19 years old were analyzed. In total, the data of 223,306 participants from the 2020 group were compared with the data of 217,133 participants from the 2019 group regarding the experience and severity of depression. The experience of depression was surveyed in terms of a history of sadness or despair for ≥2 weeks in the last year. In addition, the PHQ-9 scores were used, and participants with PHQ-9 scores ≥10 were recategorized as having moderate to severe depression. The odds for depression of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group based on the survey and PHQ-9 scores were calculated using simple or multiple logistic regression with complex sampling with weighted values. RESULTS: The rate of depression experience was lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group. The odds of experiencing depression were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.95, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 0.91-0.98, P = 0.004). The odds of moderate to severe depression were also lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (aOR=0.92, 95% CI=0.88-0.97, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The rate of depression experience was not higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than during the prepandemic period in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21568, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500503

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the associations of previous influenza/URI with the susceptibility of COVID-19 patients compared to that of non-COVID-19 participants. A nationwide COVID-19 cohort database was collected by the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation. A total of 8,070 COVID-19 patients (1 January 2020 through 4 June 2020) were matched with 32,280 control participants. Severe COVID-19 morbidity was defined based on the treatment histories of the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and death. The susceptibility/morbidity/mortality associated with prior histories of 1-14, 1-30, 1-90, 15-45, 15-90, and 31-90 days before COVID-19 onset were analyzed using conditional/unconditional logistic regression. Prior influenza infection was related to increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.07 [1.61-5.85] for 1-14 days and 1.91 [1.54-2.37] for 1-90 days). Prior URI was also associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (6.95 [6.38-7.58] for 1-14 days, 4.99 [4.64-5.37] for 1-30 days, and 2.70 [2.55-2.86] for 1-90 days). COVID-19 morbidity was positively associated with influenza (3.64 [1.55-9.21] and 3.59 [1.42-9.05]) and URI (1.40 [1.11-1.78] and 1.28 [1.02-1.61]) at 1-14 days and 1-30 days, respectively. Overall, previous influenza/URI did not show an association with COVID-19 mortality. Previous influenza/URI histories were associated with increased COVID-19 susceptibility and morbidity. Our findings indicate why controlling influenza/URI is important during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Republic of Korea
8.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470901

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the association of income level with susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Using the Korean National Health Insurance COVID-19 Database cohort, medical claim data from 2015 through 2020 were collected. A total of 7943 patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 from 1 January 2020 to 4 June 2020 were included. A total of 118,914 participants had negative COVID-19 PCR tests. Income levels were classified by 20th percentiles based on 2019 Korean National Health Insurance premiums. The 20th percentile income levels were categorized into three groups (low, middle, and high). The relationship of income level with susceptibility to COVID-19 and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. A high income level was related to lower odds of COVID-19 infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.75-0.83, p < 0.001). The negative association between income level and COVID-19 infection was maintained in all subgroups. Patients with low income levels were susceptible to COVID-19 infection; however, there was no relation of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality with income level in the Korean population.

9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438682

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate changes in the exercise pattern and dietary habits in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 12-18-year-old population in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data of 2019 and 2020 was enrolled. The exercise pattern and dietary habits of 105,600 participants (53,461 in the 2019 group and 52,139 in the 2020 group) were compared. The odds ratios (ORs) for the dietary habits and exercise pattern of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. The odds of eating fruit, drinking soda, drinking sweet drinks, and consuming fast food were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The odds of eating breakfast were higher in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The 2020 group showed lower odds of frequent vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise and higher odds of frequent anaerobic exercise than the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents consumed less fruit, soda, and sweet drinks, while they had more breakfast. The frequency of aerobic exercise was lower, while the frequency of anaerobic exercise were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Diet/methods , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Surveys/methods , Adolescent , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354992

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the associations of the susceptibility to, morbidity of, and mortality due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with thyroid diseases. Korea National Health Insurance Database Coronavirus disease 2019 (NHID-COVID-19) medical claim code data from 2015 to 2020 were analyzed. A total of 8070 COVID-19 patients and 32,280 matched control participants were evaluated for histories of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroiditis. The relationships of susceptibility to, morbidity of, and mortality due to COVID-19 with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroiditis were analyzed using a conditional logistic regression. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroiditis were not associated with susceptibility to, morbidity of, or mortality due to COVID-19. Graves' disease was related to higher odds of mortality due to COVID-19 in the adjusted model but the confidence interval (CI) was wide, probably due to the small number of deaths among patients with Graves' disease (aOR = 11.43, 95% CI = 1.29-101.22, p = 0.029). Previous histories of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroiditis were not related to susceptibility to COVID-19. In addition, prior histories of thyroid diseases were not related to increased risks of COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality.

11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295881

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether initial symptoms of COVID-19 are associated with mortality and morbidity. Materials and Methods: The data of 5628 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The maximum level of morbidity during hospital admission was classified as mild or severe, and patient mortality was recorded. Clinical symptoms were categorized as respiratory, gastrointestinal, general, and neurologic symptoms. The hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical symptoms associated with mortality were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The odds ratios (ORs) for clinical symptoms associated with morbidity were analyzed using the logistic regression model. Results: Of the included COVID-19 patients, 15.4% (808/5253) were classified as having severe morbidity. Morbidity was related to the clinical symptoms of cough, sputum, shortness of breath, vomiting/nausea, diarrhea, fever, and altered mental status or confusion. According to the symptom categories, respiratory and general symptoms were related to high morbidity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30-1.53, p < 0.001 for respiratory symptom and OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18-1.59, p < 0.001 for general symptom). Mortality was associated with the clinical symptoms of shortness of breath, fever, and altered mental status or confusion. Among the symptom categories, respiratory symptoms were associated with a 1.17-fold increased HR for mortality (95% CI = 1.04-1.32, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Initial respiratory symptoms were related to high morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Morbidity , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231453

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the associations between physical activity (PA), sunshine duration (SD) and the occurrence of osteoporosis according to lifestyle status. (2) Methods: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) collected from 2009 to 2015 were used. Osteoporosis (n = 19,351) and control (n = 38,702) participants were matched in a 1:2 ratio according to age, sex, income, and region of residence. PA was classified as moderate- to high-intensity PA (MHPA) or low-intensity PA (LPA) based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). SD was classified as short (≤6 h) or long (>6 h). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MHPA and long SD for the occurrence of osteoporosis. Subgroup analyses were performed according to SD (or PA), obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. (3) The adjusted OR of MHPA for osteoporosis was 0.90 (95% CI = 0.87-0.94). The results were consistent in the age/sex, SD, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption subgroups, but not the <60-year-old male and underweight subgroups. The adjusted OR of long SD for osteoporosis was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.93-1.00). The findings were consistent in the <60-year-old female, obese, nonsmoker, and <1 time a week alcohol consumption subgroups. (4) Conclusions: We suggest that both higher intensity of PA and long SD could decrease the risk of osteoporosis. Specifically, PA could decrease the risk of osteoporosis in individuals with most characteristics except male sex or underweight. Long SD could decrease the risk of osteoporosis in young females, obese individuals, nonsmokers, and individuals with lower alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Osteoporosis , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977742

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have reported the association of obesity with increased morbidity or mortality due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to investigate the relationship of obesity, as defined by the body mass index (BMI), with morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. Data from 5628 confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Korea. The hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality in the BMI groups were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for covariates. The odds ratios (ORs) of morbidity and diabetes in the BMI groups were analyzed using logistic regression adjusted for the same covariates. Both underweight and obesity were associated with a higher HR for mortality (adjusted HR = 2.28, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 1.23-4.25, p = 0.009 for underweight and adjusted HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.10-2.66, p = 0.017 for obese). Obesity was related to higher odds of morbidity (adjusted OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.32-2.21, p < 0.001). Underweight and obesity were associated with high mortality and/or morbidity due to COVID-19 in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Morbidity , Obesity/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Obesity/virology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Thinness/virology
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