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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(41): e291, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes. METHODS: We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death. RESULTS: Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11-23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1-28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2-27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2-31%) and a 35-41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8-83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5-71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1-92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort. CONCLUSION: Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e29379, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Basic studies suggest that statins as add-on therapy may benefit patients with COVID-19; however, real-world evidence of such a beneficial association is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (composite endpoint: admission to intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death) between statin users and nonusers. METHODS: Two independent population-based cohorts were analyzed, and we investigated the differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, such as admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death, between statin users and nonusers. One group comprised an unmatched cohort of 214,207 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the Global Research Collaboration Project (GRCP)-COVID cohort, and the other group comprised an unmatched cohort of 74,866 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-COVID cohort. RESULTS: The GRCP-COVID cohort with propensity score matching had 29,701 statin users and 29,701 matched nonusers. The SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with statin use (statin users, 2.82% [837/29,701]; nonusers, 2.65% [787/29,701]; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.97; 95% CI 0.88-1.07). Among patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the GRCP-COVID cohort, 804 were statin users and 1573 were matched nonusers. Statin users were associated with a decreased likelihood of severe clinical outcomes (statin users, 3.98% [32/804]; nonusers, 5.40% [85/1573]; aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41-0.91) and length of hospital stay (statin users, 23.8 days; nonusers, 26.3 days; adjusted mean difference -2.87; 95% CI -5.68 to -0.93) than nonusers. The results of the NHIS-COVID cohort were similar to the primary results of the GRCP-COVID cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that prior statin use is related to a decreased risk of worsening clinical outcomes of COVID-19 and length of hospital stay but not to that of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 77(5): 205-213, 2021 05 25.
Article in Korean | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244285

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused numerous social and cultural changes, but few studies focused on their effects on gastroenterology (GI) fellowship training. This study evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on GI fellowship training. Methods: A web-based questionnaire was sent out to GI fellows in Korea between 15 February and 15 March 2021. The questionnaire included questions regarding the characteristics of GI fellows, perception of COVID-19 outbreak, impact of COVID-19 outbreak, and telemedicine on the education of a GI fellowship. Results: Among 111 answers, 94 respondents were analyzed. The GI fellows were provided with sufficient information about the COVID-19 outbreak (74.7%), well educated, and provided with personal protective equipment use (74.7% and 83.9%, respectively). On the other hand, outpatient schedule and volume decreased in 25.5% and 37.8% of respondents, respectively. Moreover, endoscopy sessions and volume decreased in 51.1% and 65.6% of respondents, respectively. As a result, 78.9% of respondents were concerned that the COVID-19 outbreak adversely affected their education. Telemedicine utilization was introduced during the COVID-19 outbreak, but only 20.0% and 10.6% of respondents agreed that telemedicine has benefits from the patient's and doctor's perspectives, respectively. In addition, only 25.9% of respondents were willing to continue telemedicine if adequately reimbursed, and 68.2% of respondents were concerned that it adversely affected their education. Conclusions: The COVID-19 outbreak has adversely affected GI fellowship training in Korea for outpatient clinics, gastrointestinal endoscopy, educational conferences, and telemedicine. This study highlights that GI fellowship training needs more attention in the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Education, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Gastroenterology/education , Physicians/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Fellowships and Scholarships , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
4.
The Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12):1025-1031, 2020.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1032512

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence for the associations between mental illness and the likelihood of a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result and the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to investigate these associations with data from a national register in South Korea. Methods: A nationwide cohort study with propensity score matching was done in South Korea using data collected from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea. We defined mental illness as present if one of the relevant ICD-10 codes was recorded at least twice within 1 year for an outpatient or inpatient. Severe mental illness was considered as non-affective or affective disorders with psychotic features. We included all patients aged older than 20 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 through services facilitated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, South Korea. We investigated the primary outcome (SARS-CoV-2 test positivity) in the entire cohort and the secondary outcomes (severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19: death, admission to the intensive care unit, or invasive ventilation) among those who tested positive. Findings: Between Jan 1 and May 15, 2020, 216 418 people were tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 7160 (3.3%) tested positive. In the entire cohort with propensity score matching, 1391 (3.0%) of 47 058 patients without a mental illness tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, compared with 1383 (2.9%) of 48 058 with a mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.00, 95% CI 0.93-1.08). Among the patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, after propensity score matching, 109 (8.3%) of 1320 patients without a mental illness had severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 compared with 128 (9.7%) of 1320 with a mental illness (adjusted OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Interpretation: Diagnosis of a mental illness was not associated with increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with a severe mental illness had a slightly higher risk for severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 than patients without a history of mental illness. Clinicians treating patients with COVID-19 should be aware of the risk associated with pre-existing mental illness. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

6.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1025-1031, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the associations between mental illness and the likelihood of a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result and the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to investigate these associations with data from a national register in South Korea. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study with propensity score matching was done in South Korea using data collected from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea. We defined mental illness as present if one of the relevant ICD-10 codes was recorded at least twice within 1 year for an outpatient or inpatient. Severe mental illness was considered as non-affective or affective disorders with psychotic features. We included all patients aged older than 20 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 through services facilitated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, South Korea. We investigated the primary outcome (SARS-CoV-2 test positivity) in the entire cohort and the secondary outcomes (severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19: death, admission to the intensive care unit, or invasive ventilation) among those who tested positive. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1 and May 15, 2020, 216 418 people were tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 7160 (3·3%) tested positive. In the entire cohort with propensity score matching, 1391 (3·0%) of 47 058 patients without a mental illness tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, compared with 1383 (2·9%) of 48 058 with a mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·00, 95% CI 0·93-1·08). Among the patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, after propensity score matching, 109 (8·3%) of 1320 patients without a mental illness had severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 compared with 128 (9·7%) of 1320 with a mental illness (adjusted OR 1·27, 95% CI 1·01-1·66). INTERPRETATION: Diagnosis of a mental illness was not associated with increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with a severe mental illness had a slightly higher risk for severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 than patients without a history of mental illness. Clinicians treating patients with COVID-19 should be aware of the risk associated with pre-existing mental illness. FUNDING: National Research Foundation of Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Propensity Score , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk , Severity of Illness Index
7.
JMIR Med Inform ; 8(8): e20992, 2020 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the effectiveness of contact tracing of COVID-19 and the related social distancing is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in South Korea and evaluate whether a social distancing campaign is effective in mitigating the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: We used contract tracing data to investigate the epidemic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in South Korea and evaluate whether a social distancing campaign was effective in mitigating the spread of COVID-19. We calculated the mortality rate for COVID-19 by infection type (cluster vs noncluster) and tested whether new confirmed COVID-19 trends changed after a social distancing campaign. RESULTS: There were 2537 patients with confirmed COVID-19 who completed the epidemiologic survey: 1305 (51.4%) cluster cases and 1232 (48.6%) noncluster cases. The mortality rate was significantly higher in cluster cases linked to medical facilities (11/143, 7.70% vs 5/1232, 0.41%; adjusted percentage difference 7.99%; 95% CI 5.83 to 10.14) and long-term care facilities (19/221, 8.60% vs 5/1232, 0.41%; adjusted percentage difference 7.56%; 95% CI 5.66 to 9.47) than in noncluster cases. The change in trends of newly confirmed COVID-19 cases before and after the social distancing campaign was significantly negative in the entire cohort (adjusted trend difference -2.28; 95% CI -3.88 to -0.68) and the cluster infection group (adjusted trend difference -0.96; 95% CI -1.83 to -0.09). CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide contact tracing study in South Korea, COVID-19 linked to medical and long-term care facilities significantly increased the risk of mortality compared to noncluster COVID-19. A social distancing campaign decreased the spread of COVID-19 in South Korea and differentially affected cluster infections of SARS-CoV-2.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(4): 790-798, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is inconclusive and controversial evidence of the association between allergic diseases and the risk of adverse clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the association of allergic disorders with the likelihood of a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result and with clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (admission to intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation, and death). METHODS: A propensity-score-matched nationwide cohort study was performed in South Korea. Data obtained from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service of Korea from all adult patients (age, >20 years) who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 in South Korea between January 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, were analyzed. The association of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and allergic diseases in the entire cohort (n = 219,959) and the difference in clinical outcomes of COVID-19 were evaluated in patients with allergic diseases and SARS-CoV-2 positivity (n = 7,340). RESULTS: In the entire cohort, patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing were evaluated to ascertain whether asthma and allergic rhinitis were associated with an increased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. After propensity score matching, we found that asthma and allergic rhinitis were associated with worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. Patients with nonallergic asthma had a greater risk of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19 than patients with allergic asthma. CONCLUSIONS: In a Korean nationwide cohort, allergic rhinitis and asthma, especially nonallergic asthma, confers a greater risk of susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma/complications , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dermatitis, Atopic/complications , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Rhinitis, Allergic/complications , Adult , Aged , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/mortality , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Dermatitis, Atopic/mortality , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/immunology , Rhinitis, Allergic/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
9.
Gut ; 70(1): 76-84, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been documented for pneumonia; however, there is no consensus regarding whether the use of PPIs might be harmful regarding the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this regard, we aimed to measure the potential associations of the current use of PPIs with the infection rates of COVID-19 among patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. DESIGN: Data were derived from a Korean nationwide cohort study with propensity score matching. We included 132 316 patients older than 18 years who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 1 January and 15 May 2020. Endpoints were SARS-CoV-2 positivity (primary) and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (secondary: admission to intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation or death). RESULTS: In the entire cohort, there were 111 911 non-users, 14 163 current PPI users and 6242 past PPI users. After propensity score matching, the SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with the current or past use of PPIs. Among patients with confirmed COVID-19, the current use of PPIs conferred a 79% greater risk of severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, while the relationship with the past use of PPIs remained insignificant. Current PPI use starting within the previous 30 days was associated with a 90% increased risk of severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Patients taking PPIs are at increased risk for severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 but not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This suggests that physicians need to assess benefit-risk assessments in the management of acid-related diseases amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Stomach Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Stomach Diseases/drug therapy , Stomach Diseases/epidemiology
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