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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2127172, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449897

ABSTRACT

Importance: Serum ferritin, an acute phase marker of inflammation, has several physiologic functions, including limiting intracellular oxidative stress. Whether the effectiveness of corticosteroids differs according to serum ferritin level in COVID-19 has not been reported. Objective: To examine the association between admission serum ferritin level and methylprednisolone treatment outcomes in nonintubated patients with severe COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to an academic referral center in Stony Brook, New York, from March 1 to April 15, 2020, receiving high-flow oxygen therapy (fraction of inspired oxygen, ≥50%). The outcomes of treatment with methylprednisolone were estimated using inverse probability of treatment weights, based on a propensity score comprised of clinical and laboratory variables. Patients were followed up for 28 days. Data were analyzed from December 19, 2020, to July 22, 2021. Exposures: Systemic methylprednisolone administered per the discretion of the treating physician. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was mortality, and the secondary outcome was a composite of death or mechanical ventilation at 28 days. Results: Among 380 patients with available ferritin data (median [IQR] age, 60 years [49-72] years; 130 [34.2%] women; 250 [65.8%] men; 310 White patients [81.6%]; 47 Black patients [12.4%]; 23 Asian patients [6.1%]), 142 patients (37.4%) received methylprednisolone (median [IQR] daily dose, 160 [120-240] mg). Ferritin levels were similar in patients who received methylprednisolone vs those who did not (median [IQR], 992 [509-1610] ng/mL vs 893 [474-1467] ng/mL; P = .32). In weighted analyses using tertiles of ferritin values (lower: 29-619 ng/mL; middle: 623-1316 ng/mL; upper: 1322-13 418 ng/mL), methylprednisolone was associated with lower mortality in patients with ferritin in the upper tertile (HR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.06-0.45) and higher mortality in those with ferritin in the middle (HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.15-5.28) and lower (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.13-5.22) tertiles (P for interaction < .001). Composite end point rates were lower with methylprednisolone in patients with ferritin in the upper tertile (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.80) but not in those with ferritin in the middle (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.50-1.39) and lower (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.51-1.55) tertiles (P for interaction = .11). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of nonintubated patients with severe COVID-19, methylprednisolone was associated with improved clinical outcomes only among patients with admission ferritin in the upper tertile of values.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ferritins/blood , Inflammation/blood , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , African Americans , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pneumonia , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(5): 4278-4287, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340248

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We examined the value of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients admitted for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) without prior history of heart failure (HF) or cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective cohort of consecutive adults (N = 679; median age 59 years; 38.7% women; 87.5% White; 7.1% Black; 5.4% Asian; 34.3% Hispanic) admitted with documented COVID-19 in an academic centre in Long Island, NY. Admission NT-proBNP was categorized using the European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Association age-specific criteria for acute presentations. We examined (i) mortality and the composite of death or mechanical ventilation and (ii) out-of-hospital, intensive care unit (ICU)-free, and ventilator-free days at 28 days. Estimates were adjusted for confounders using a lasso selection process. Using age-specific criteria, 417 patients (61.4%) had low, 141 (20.8%) borderline, and 121 (17.8%) high NT-proBNP. Mortality was 5.8%, 20.6%, and 36.4% for patients with low, borderline, and high NT-proBNP, respectively. In lasso-adjusted models, high NT-proBNP was associated with higher mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-4.39; P = 0.034] and composite endpoint rates (HR 1.66; 95%CI 1.04-2.66; P = 0.035). Patients with high NT-proBNP had 32%, 33%, and 33% fewer out-of-hospital, ICU-free, and ventilator-free days compared with low NT-proBNP counterparts. Results were consistent across age, sex, and race, and regardless of coronary artery disease or hypertension, except for stronger mortality signal with high NT-proBNP in women. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19 and no HF history, high admission NT-proBNP is associated with higher mortality and healthcare resources utilization. Preventive strategies may be required for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptide Fragments , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
3.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(2): e13458, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent trials with dexamethasone and hydrocortisone have demonstrated benefit in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Data on methylprednisolone are limited. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of consecutive adults with severe COVID-19 pneumonia on high-flow oxygen (FiO2  ≥ 50%) admitted to an academic centre in New York, from 1 March to 15 April 2020. We used inverse probability of treatment weights to estimate the effect of methylprednisolone on clinical outcomes and intensive care resource utilization. RESULTS: Of 447 patients, 153 (34.2%) received methylprednisolone and 294 (65.8%) received no corticosteroids. At 28 days, 102 patients (22.8%) had died and 115 (25.7%) received mechanical ventilation. In weighted analyses, risk for death or mechanical ventilation was 37% lower with methylprednisolone (hazard ratio 0.63; 95% CI 0.47-0.86; P = .003), driven by less frequent mechanical ventilation (subhazard ratio 0.56; 95% CI 0.40-0.79; P = .001); mortality did not differ between groups. The methylprednisolone group had 2.8 more ventilator-free days (95% CI 0.5-5.1; P = .017) and 2.6 more intensive care-free days (95% CI 0.2-4.9; P = .033) during the first 28 days. Complication rates were not higher with methylprednisolone. CONCLUSIONS: In nonintubated patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, methylprednisolone was associated with reduced need for mechanical ventilation and less-intensive care resource utilization without excess complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244708, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies on the use of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System blockade in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been informative but conflicting, and prospective studies are required to demonstrate the safety, tolerability, and outcomes of initiating these agents in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and hypertension. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a single center feasibility study encompassing two cohorts: (1) prospective cohort (April 21, 2020 to May 29, 2020) and (2) retrospective cohort (March 7, 2020 to April 1, 2020) of hospitalized patients with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal swab. Key inclusion criteria include BP > 130/80 and a requirement of supplemental oxygen with FiO2 of 25% or higher to maintain SpO2 > 92%. Key exclusion criteria included hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury (AKI) at the time of enrollment. Prospective cohort consisted of de novo initiation of losartan and continuation for a minimum of 7 days and assessed for adverse events (AKI, hyperkalemia, transaminitis, hypotension) and clinical outcomes (change in SpO2/FiO2 and inflammatory markers, need for ICU admission and mechanical ventilation). Retrospective cohort consisted of continuation of losartan (prior-to-hospitalization) and assessment of similar outcomes. In the prospective cohort, a total of 250 hospitalized patients were screened and inclusion/exclusion criteria were met in 16/250 patients and in the retrospective cohort, a total of 317 hospitalized patients were screened and inclusion/exclusion criteria were met in 14/317 patients. Most common adverse event was hypotension, leading to discontinuation in 3/16 (19%) and 2/14 (14%) patients in the prospective and retrospective cohort. No patients developed AKI in the prospective cohort as compared to 1/14 (7%) patients in the retrospective cohort, requiring discontinuation of losartan. Hyperkalemia occurred in 1/16 (6%) and 0/14 patients in the prospective and retrospective cohorts, respectively. In the prospective cohort, 3/16 (19%) and 2/16 (13%) patients required ICU admission and mechanical ventilation. In comparison, 3/14 (21%) required ICU admission and mechanical ventilation in the retrospective cohort. A majority of patients in both cohorts (14/16 (88%) and 13/14 (93%) patients from the prospective and retrospective cohort) were discharged alive from the hospital. A total of 9/16 (prospective) and 5/14 (retrospective) patients completed a minimum 7 days of losartan. In these 9 patients in the prospective cohort, a significant improvement in SpO2/FiO2 ratio was observed from day 1 to 7. No significant changes in inflammatory markers (initiation, peak, and day 7) were observed in either cohort. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study we demonstrate that losartan was well-tolerated among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and hypertension. We also demonstrate the feasibility of patient recruitment and the appropriate parameters to assess the outcomes and safety of losartan initiation or continuation, which provides a framework for future randomized clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Losartan/therapeutic use , Aged , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Female , Humans , Losartan/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Kidney360 ; 1(8): 801-809, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the benefits or harm associated with the continuation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs), especially the impact on inflammation, in hypertensive, hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the United States is unclear. METHODS: This is a single-center cohort study of sequentially hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at Stony Brook University Medical Center from March 7, 2020 to April 1, 2020, inclusive of these dates. Data collection included history of known comorbidities, medications, vital signs and laboratory values (admission and during the hospitalization). Outcomes include inflammatory burden (composite scores for multiple markers of inflammation), acute kidney injury (AKI), admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and mortality. RESULTS: Of the 300 patients in the study cohort, 80 patients (26.7%) had history of ACEI or ARB use prior to admission, with 61.3% (49/80) of these patients continuing the medications during hospitalization. Multivariable analysis revealed that the history of ACEI or ARB use prior to hospitalization was not associated with worse outcomes. In addition, the continuation of these agents during hospitalization was not associated with an increase in adverse outcomes and predicted fewer ICU admissions (OR=0.25, 0.08-0.81) with a decrease in the severity of inflammatory burden (peak CRP (6.9±3.1mg/dl, p=0.03) and peak inflammation score (2.3±1.1unit reduction, p=0.04)). CONCLUSION: Use of ACEI or ARBs prior to hospitalization was not associated with adverse outcomes in COVID-19 and the therapeutic benefits of continuing ACEI or ARB in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was not offset by adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , COVID-19 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 45(6): 1018-1032, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917826

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is strongly associated with poor outcomes in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but data on the association of proteinuria and hematuria are limited to non-US populations. In addition, admission and in-hospital measures for kidney abnormalities have not been studied separately. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study aimed to analyze these associations in 321 patients sequentially admitted between March 7, 2020 and April 1, 2020 at Stony Brook University Medical Center, New York. We investigated the association of proteinuria, hematuria, and AKI with outcomes of inflammation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and in-hospital death. We used ANOVA, t test, χ2 test, and Fisher's exact test for bivariate analyses and logistic regression for multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Three hundred patients met the inclusion criteria for the study cohort. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that admission proteinuria was significantly associated with risk of in-hospital AKI (OR 4.71, 95% CI 1.28-17.38), while admission hematuria was associated with ICU admission (OR 4.56, 95% CI 1.12-18.64), IMV (OR 8.79, 95% CI 2.08-37.00), and death (OR 18.03, 95% CI 2.84-114.57). During hospitalization, de novo proteinuria was significantly associated with increased risk of death (OR 8.94, 95% CI 1.19-114.4, p = 0.04). In-hospital AKI increased (OR 27.14, 95% CI 4.44-240.17) while recovery from in-hospital AKI decreased the risk of death (OR 0.001, 95% CI 0.001-0.06). CONCLUSION: Proteinuria and hematuria both at the time of admission and during hospitalization are associated with adverse clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/urine , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/urine , Hematuria/virology , Proteinuria/virology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hematuria/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Proteinuria/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis
10.
Journal of Cardiac Failure ; 26(10, Supplement):S73, 2020.
Article | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-808523

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been associated with myocardial damage. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels have been reported to be elevated and to portend worse outcomes among patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The value of NT-proBNP in COVID-19 patients without heart failure (HF) is unclear, and data from the United States are limited. We reviewed the medical records of 304 adults without history of HF admitted to Stony Brook University Hospital, Long Island, NY, from March 1 to April 15, 2020 with documented severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring high-flow oxygen therapy (non-rebreather mask, Venturi mask with FiO2 >50%, or high-flow nasal cannula). We excluded patients transferred already intubated from outside hospitals and those who were intubated or died within 24h of admission. NT-proBNP was measured with a standard Roche Diagnostics assay with a 5-ng/L limit of detection. Follow-up data were collected until death or hospital discharge or 30 days if still in the hospital by database lock (May 15, 2020). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality and the secondary endpoint was death or need for intubation. The association of NT-proBNP with the endpoints was evaluated with multivariable Cox regression models. Mean age was 60±17 years;95 (31.2%) of patients were female;156 (51.3%) were White, 103 (33.9%) Hispanic, 22 (7.2%) Black, and 21 (6.9%) Asian;91 (29.9%) had diabetes, 39 (12.8%) coronary artery disease (CAD), and 27 (8.9%) atrial fibrillation (AF);mean body mass index (BMI) was 30.3±6.5 kg/m2. On admission, mean O2 saturation (O2SAT) was 89±8% and median NT-proBNP was 156 ng/L (44-729). After a median of 12 days (8-20), 74 patients (24.3%) died and 59 more (19.4%) were intubated and survived to hospital discharge. Baseline NT-proBNP was strongly associated with mortality. In models adjusting for age, sex, race, diabetes, CAD, AF, BMI, and baseline O2SAT, every log-2 (doubling) of NT-proBNP was associated with 29% higher risk (HR 1.29;95%CI: 1.17-1.43;P<0.001). The association of baseline NT-proBNP with the composite of death or intubation was weaker (HR 1.09;95%CI: 1.01-1.18;P = 025). Among patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, admission NT-proBNP is a strong predictor of mortality. Elevated NT-proBNP levels may identify a subgroup of patients in need of cardioprotective therapy.

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