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J Pharm Health Care Sci ; 8(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608803


BACKGROUND: Casirivimab-imdevimab has been developed to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. The global clinical trials in outpatients documented several adverse effects (AE), which mandate caution in Japan where part of patients return home. To investigate post-infusion clinical events and their risk factors, we attempted a retrospective study. MAIN BODY: Subjects were a consecutive series of inpatients with COVID-19 undergoing an infusion of casirivimab-imdevimab in our institute. The criteria for administration were in accordance with previous clinical trials, e.g., exclusion of patients necessitating oxygen supply. In Japan, however, SARS-CoV-2 vaccinees were eligible. Methods were review of background factors of status, imaging, and laboratory findings for the outcome of post-infusion events such as temperature increase (Temp+), pulse oximetry below 94%, and other events. Also, we documented the drug efficacy. Of a total of 96 patients with a median follow-up of 54 days, one (1.0%) died who alone was an exception demanding oxygen supply. Other 95 patients (99.0%) recovered from fever and hypoxia by Day 4 and later had no worsening of COVID-19. Median increase of body temperature was 1.0 degrees Celsius, which was used for computation of Temp+. Multivariate analysis showed that for Temp+ (n = 47), white blood cell counts more than 4.3 × 103/microliter (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.593, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.060-6.338, P = 0.037) was at risk, whereas 2-time vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 (OR 0.128, 95% CI 0.026-0.636, P = 0.012) was a preventing factor. Likewise for lowered oximetry (n = 21), CT showing bilateral ground glass attenuation (OR 5.544, CI 1.599-19.228, P = 0.007) was a significant risk factor. Two patients (2.1%) showed bradycardia (asymptomatic, intervention not indicated) on Day 3 and recovery on Day 5. Limitations for this study included the difficulty distinguishing AE from worsening of COVID-19, thus we documented as clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: For 24 h after infusion of casirivimab-imdevimab, COVID-19 patients with increased white blood cell counts may be predisposed to temperature elevation more than 1.0 degrees centigrade, as may bilateral ground glass opacity to lowered oximetry. Thus, patients with leukocytosis and bilateral ground glass attenuation may need precaution for transient fever and hypoxia, respectively.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(12)2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939841


Favipiravir is an oral broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is approved for treatment of influenza in Japan. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 at 25 hospitals across Japan. Eligible patients were adolescents and adults admitted with COVID-19 who were asymptomatic or mildly ill and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to early or late favipiravir therapy (in the latter case, the same regimen starting on day 6 instead of day 1). The primary endpoint was viral clearance by day 6. The secondary endpoint was change in viral load by day 6. Exploratory endpoints included time to defervescence and resolution of symptoms. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 69 were virologically evaluable. Viral clearance occurred within 6 days in 66.7% and 56.1% of the early and late treatment groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.76 to 2.62). Of 30 patients who had a fever (≥37.5°C) on day 1, times to defervescence were 2.1 days and 3.2 days in the early and late treatment groups (aHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 4.35). During therapy, 84.1% developed transient hyperuricemia. Favipiravir did not significantly improve viral clearance as measured by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) by day 6 but was associated with numerical reduction in time to defervescence. Neither disease progression nor death occurred in any of the patients in either treatment group during the 28-day participation. (This study has been registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials under number jRCTs041190120.).

Amides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/physiopathology , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Random Allocation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome