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1.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059842

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the type and frequency of adverse events over 7 days following the first and second BNT162b2 vaccination. This observational and historical cohort study included patients aged 5-11 years who received two doses of BNT162b2 and provided consent along with their guardians. We collected data on sex, age, height, weight, blood type, history of Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination, allergic disease, medication, history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and adverse reactions 7 days following the first and second BNT162b2 vaccination using a questionnaire. Our results were compared with previously reported results for individuals aged 12-15 years. A total of 421 participants were eligible for this study. Among the 216 patients with allergic disease, 48 (22.2%) had experienced worsening of their chronic diseases, and the frequency of fatigue and dizziness after the second dose was higher than that of healthy individuals. The experience of systemic adverse reactions was associated with asthma. The frequency of headache, diarrhea, fatigue, muscle/joint pain, and fever after the second BNT162b2 vaccination was lower in individuals aged 5-11 years than in those aged 12-15 years. Fever was the only systemic adverse reaction that lasted longer than 5 days (1.0% of participants). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with allergic diseases, who are potentially susceptible to COVID-19, may experience worsening of their chronic diseases and more frequent adverse reactions after BNT162b2 vaccination than healthy individuals. To ensure that children with allergic diseases receive the vaccine safely, further information needs to be collected. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Adverse reactions after BNT162b2 vaccination among individuals aged 5-11 years are generally nonserious, more common after second vaccination, and substantially less common compared to those observed among individuals aged 12-15 years. WHAT IS NEW: • Individuals with allergic diseases experienced worsening of their chronic diseases and more frequent adverse reactions after BNT162b2 vaccination than healthy individuals. • Systemic adverse reactions were associated with asthma. Fever was the only systemic adverse reaction that lasted longer than 5 days.

3.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(7): e05806, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935660

ABSTRACT

Restriction on hospital visits for COVID-19 infection control continues to have a significant negative impact on patients and their families. For a patient receiving palliative care, this social isolation may deteriorate their mental health. In such situations, home care could be a viable solution to this problem.

4.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(7): e05804, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935659

ABSTRACT

Home care can present many challenges without management. During COVID-19 pandemic, when an informal caregiver becomes infected and had to isolate themselves, finding another caregiver becomes extremely challenging. For terminally ill patients, who relies on other for even minor tasks, interruption of care could pose severe negative consequences.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338400

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have provided insights into the effect of vaccine boosters on recall immunity. Given the limited global supply of COVID-19 vaccines, identifying vulnerable populations with lower sustained vaccine-elicited antibody titers is important for targeting individuals for booster vaccinations. Here we investigated longitudinal data in a cohort of 2,526 people in Fukushima, Japan, from April 2021 to December 2021. Antibody titers following two doses of a COVID-19 vaccine were repeatedly monitored and information on lifestyle habits, comorbidities, adverse reactions, and medication use was collected. Using mathematical modeling and machine learning, we stratified the time-course patterns of antibody titers and identified vulnerable populations with low sustained antibody titers. Moreover, we showed that only 5.7% of the participants in our cohort were part of the "durable" population with high sustained antibody titers, which suggests that this durable population might be overlooked in small cohorts. We also found large variation in antibody waning within our cohort. There is a potential usefulness of our approach for identifying the neglected vulnerable population.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822461

ABSTRACT

This was a retrospective cohort study, which aimed to investigate the factors associated with hesitancy to receive a third dose of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. A paper-based questionnaire survey was administered to all participants. This study included participants who provided answers in the questionnaire about whether they had an intent to receive a third dose of a vaccine. Data on sex, age, area of residence, adverse reactions after the second vaccination, whether the third vaccination was desired, and reasons to accept or hesitate over the booster vaccination were retrieved. Among the 2439 participants, with a mean (±SD) age of 52.6 ± 18.9 years, and a median IgG-S antibody titer of 324.9 (AU/mL), 97.9% of participants indicated their intent to accept a third vaccination dose. The logistic regression revealed that participants of a younger age (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and with a higher antibody level (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.27-4.99) were positively associated with hesitancy over the third vaccine. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine and concerns about adverse reactions had a significant impact on behavior regarding the third vaccination. A rapid increase in the booster dose rate is needed to control the pandemic, and specific approaches should be taken with these groups that are likely to hesitate over the third vaccine, subsequently increasing booster contact rate.

8.
Vaccine ; 40(22): 3018-3026, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We have reported the vaccine effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in children aged 6 months to 15 years between the 2013/14 and 2018/19 seasons. Younger (6-11 months) and older (6-15 years old) children tended to have lower vaccine effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the recent vaccine can be recommended to all age groups. METHODS: The overall adjusted vaccine effectiveness was assessed from the 2013/14 until the 2020/21 season using a test-negative case-control design based on rapid influenza diagnostic test results. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated by influenza type and by age group (6-11 months, 1-2, 3-5, 6-12, and 13-15 years old) with adjustments including influenza seasons. RESULTS: A total of 29,400 children (9347, 4435, and 15,618 for influenza A and B, and test-negatives, respectively) were enrolled. The overall vaccine effectiveness against influenza A, A(H1N1)pdm09, and B was significant (44% [95% confidence interval (CI), 41-47], 63% [95 %CI, 51-72], and 37% [95 %CI, 32-42], respectively). The vaccine was significantly effective against influenza A and B, except among children 6 to 11 months against influenza B. The age group with the highest vaccine effectiveness was 1 to 2 years old with both influenza A and B (60% [95 %CI, 55-65] and 52% [95 %CI, 41-61], respectively). Analysis for the 2020/21 season was not performed because no cases were reported. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report showing influenza vaccine effectiveness by age group in children for several seasons, including immediately before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) era. The fact that significant vaccine effectiveness was observed in nearly every age group and every season shows that the recent vaccine can still be recommended to children for the upcoming influenza seasons, during and after the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329238

ABSTRACT

This was a retrospective cohort study, which aimed to investigate the factors associated with hesitancy to receive the third dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. A paper-based questionnaire survey was administered to all participants. Accordingly, the study included participants who provided answer in the questionnaire whether they have an intent to receive the third dose of vaccine. Data on sex, age, area of residence, adverse reactions after the second vaccination, whether the third vaccination was desired, and reasons to accept or hesitate booster vaccination were retrieved. Among the 2439 participants with mean (±SD) age of 52.6±18.9 years, and median IgG-S antibody titer of 324.9 (AU/mL), 97.9% of participants indicated their intent to accept a third vaccination dose. The logistic regression revealed that younger age (OR=0.98;95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and higher antibody level (OR=2.52;95% CI: 1.27-4.99) are positively associated with the third vaccine hesitancy. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine and concerns about adverse reactions had significant impact on the third vaccination behavior. A rapid increase in the booster dose rate is needed to control the pandemic, and specific approaches should be taken in these groups that are likely to hesitate the third vaccine, subsequently increasing booster contact rate.

10.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328922

ABSTRACT

There are many challenges that can arise while providing home care to a terminally ill patient. Isolation of infected patients was used to prevent COVID-19 infection. In home care, where informal caregivers play an important role, such measures could result in the loss of caregivers.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318233

ABSTRACT

Background: Clarification of the risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity is strongly warranted for global health. Recent studies have indicated that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with unfavorable progression of COVID-19. This is assumed to be due to excessive deposition of visceral adipose tissue (VAT);however, the evidence investigating the association between intra-abdominal fat and COVID-19 prognosis is sparse. We therefore investigated whether measuring the amount of intra-abdominal fat is useful to predict the prognosis of COVID-19. Methods The present study enrolled 53 consecutive cases of COVID-19 patients aged ≥ 20 years with chest computed tomography (CT) scans. The VAT area, total adipose tissue (TAT) area, and VAT/TAT ratio were estimated using axial CT images at the level of the upper pole of the right kidney. Severe COVID-19 was defined as death or acute respiratory failure demanding oxygen at ≥ 6 liters per minute, a high-flow nasal cannula, or mechanical ventilation. The association of VAT/TAT with the incidence of progression to a severe state was estimated as a hazard ratio (HR) using Cox regression analysis. To compare the prediction ability for COVID-19 disease progression between BMI and VAT/TAT, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each was assessed. Results A total of 15 cases (28.3% of the whole study subjects) progressed to severe stages. The incidence of developing severe COVID-19 increased significantly with VAT/TAT (HR per 1% increase = 1.040 (95% CI 1.008–1.074), P  = 0.01). After adjustment for potential confounders, the positive association of VAT/TAT with COVID-19 aggravation remained significant (multivariable-adjusted HR = 1.055 (95% CI 1.000–1.112) per 1% increase, P  = 0.049). The predictive ability of VAT/TAT for COVID-19 becoming severe was significantly better than that of BMI (AUC of 0.73 for VAT/TAT and 0.50 for BMI;P  = 0.0495 for the difference). Conclusions A higher ratio of VAT/TAT was an independent risk factor for disease progression among COVID-19 patients. VAT/TAT was superior to BMI in predicting COVID-19 morbidity. COVID-19 patients with high VAT/TAT levels should be carefully observed as high-risk individuals for morbidity and mortality.

12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1240, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clarification of the risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity is strongly warranted for global health. Recent studies have indicated that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with unfavorable progression of COVID-19. This is assumed to be due to excessive deposition of visceral adipose tissue (VAT); however, the evidence investigating the association between intra-abdominal fat and COVID-19 prognosis is sparse. We therefore investigated whether measuring the amount of intra-abdominal fat is useful to predict the prognosis of COVID-19. METHODS: The present study enrolled 53 consecutive cases of COVID-19 patients aged ≥ 20 years with chest computed tomography (CT) scans. The VAT area, total adipose tissue (TAT) area, and VAT/TAT ratio were estimated using axial CT images at the level of the upper pole of the right kidney. Severe COVID-19 was defined as death or acute respiratory failure demanding oxygen at ≥ 6 L per minute, a high-flow nasal cannula, or mechanical ventilation. The association of VAT/TAT with the incidence of progression to a severe state was estimated as a hazard ratio (HR) using Cox regression analysis. To compare the prediction ability for COVID-19 disease progression between BMI and VAT/TAT, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 15 cases (28.3% of the whole study subjects) progressed to severe stages. The incidence of developing severe COVID-19 increased significantly with VAT/TAT (HR per 1% increase = 1.040 (95% CI 1.008-1.074), P = 0.01). After adjustment for potential confounders, the positive association of VAT/TAT with COVID-19 aggravation remained significant (multivariable-adjusted HR = 1.055 (95% CI 1.000-1.112) per 1% increase, P = 0.049). The predictive ability of VAT/TAT for COVID-19 becoming severe was significantly better than that of BMI (AUC of 0.73 for VAT/TAT and 0.50 for BMI; P = 0.0495 for the difference). CONCLUSIONS: A higher ratio of VAT/TAT was an independent risk factor for disease progression among COVID-19 patients. VAT/TAT was superior to BMI in predicting COVID-19 morbidity. COVID-19 patients with high VAT/TAT levels should be carefully observed as high-risk individuals for morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750350

ABSTRACT

A middle-aged man with obstructive sleep apnea who had been treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) developed COVID-19. An analysis of airflow records from the CPAP machine revealed a rise in his respiratory rate on the night before the onset of COVID-19-related symptoms, while his nocturnal respiratory rate had been stable during the 18-month period prior to the presently reported episode. The present case suggests that a rise in respiratory rate detected using CPAP machine data could be an important sign of impending acute illness, such as COVID-19. Studies to elucidate the usefulness of this method are warranted.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291636

ABSTRACT

Patients and their families are discouraged from the restrictions on hospital visits for coronavirus Infection control. This separation might further deteriorate the mental health of both vulnerable patients and their family members. Home care could be a preferable solution to this problem.

15.
Respirol Case Rep ; 9(5): e00744, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160366

ABSTRACT

A 78-year-old Japanese woman with no smoking history suffered from near-fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring four-week invasive mechanical ventilation, with subsequent radiological features of pulmonary fibrosis. Although methylprednisolone gradually improved her respiratory condition, her oxygenation and exercise tolerance had drastically deteriorated, necessitating high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy. In parallel with tapering systemic steroid, the patient was treated with nintedanib. Three months later, the patient was able to walk with a walking aid using oxygen at 4 L/min. The present case is an indication that nintedanib might provide a novel therapeutic approach for managing post-COVID-19 fibrosis, although further studies are warranted.

16.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 16(10): 1811-1813, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005004

ABSTRACT

None: A middle-aged man with obstructive sleep apnea who had been treated with continuous positive airway pressure developed COVID-19. An analysis of airflow records from the continuous positive airway pressure machine revealed a rise in his respiratory rate on the night before the onset of COVID-19-related symptoms, while his nocturnal respiratory rate had been stable during the 18-month period prior to the presently reported episode. The present case suggests that a rise in respiratory rate detected using continuous positive airway pressure machine data could be an important sign of impending acute illness, such as COVID-19. Studies to elucidate the usefulness of this method are warranted.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Polysomnography/methods , SARS-CoV-2
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