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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106121, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding the safety of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) in patients with stroke and COVID-19. METHODS: This multicenter study included consecutive stroke patients with and without COVID-19 treated with IV-tPA between February 18, 2019, to December 31, 2020, at 9 centers participating in the CASCADE initiative. Clinical outcomes included modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at hospital discharge, in-hospital mortality, the rate of hemorrhagic transformation. Using Bayesian multiple regression and after adjusting for variables with significant value in univariable analysis, we reported the posterior adjusted odds ratio (OR, with 95% Credible Intervals [CrI]) of the main outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 545 stroke patients, including 101 patients with COVID-19 were evaluated. Patients with COVID-19 had a more severe stroke at admission. In the study cohort, 85 (15.9%) patients had a hemorrhagic transformation, and 72 (13.1%) died in the hospital. After adjustment for confounding variables, discharge mRS score ≥2 (OR: 0.73, 95% CrI: 0.16, 3.05), in-hospital mortality (OR: 2.06, 95% CrI: 0.76, 5.53), and hemorrhagic transformation (OR: 1.514, 95% CrI: 0.66, 3.31) were similar in COVID-19 and non COVID-19 patients. High-sensitivity C reactive protein level was a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation in all cases (OR:1.01, 95%CI: 1.0026, 1.018), including those with COVID-19 (OR:1.024, 95%CI:1.002, 1.054). CONCLUSION: IV-tPA treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke and COVID-19 was not associated with an increased risk of disability, mortality, and hemorrhagic transformation compared to those without COVID-19. IV-tPA should continue to be considered as the standard of care in patients with hyper acute stroke and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Disability Evaluation , Europe , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Iran , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352901

ABSTRACT

AIM: We evaluated the delay in stroke reperfusion therapy between the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) period and the with-COVID-19 period, and compared this delay between each phase of the with-COVID-19 period. METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) undergoing intravenous thrombolysis and/or mechanical thrombectomy were selected from our single-center prospective registry. The time to perform reperfusion therapy were compared between patients admitted from March 2019 to February 2020 (pre-COVID-19 group) and those from March 2020 to February 2021 (with-COVID-19 group). Patients in the with-COVID-19 group were further divided into three 4-month-long subgroups (first-phase: March to June 2020; second-phase: July to October 2020; third-phase: November 2020 to February 2021), and the time delay of reperfusion therapy were compared between these subgroups. RESULTS: Of 1,260 patients with AIS hospitalized in the study period, 265 patients were examined. Compared with the pre-COVID-19 group (133 patients; median age, 79 years), the with-COVID-19 group (132 patients; median age, 79 years) had a longer median door-to-imaging time (25 min vs. 27 min, P=0.04), and a longer door-to-groin puncture time (65 min vs. 72 min, P=0.02). In the three 4-month-long subgroups, the median door-to-needle time (49 min, 43 min, and 38 min, respectively; P=0.04) and door-to-groin puncture time (83 min, 70 min, and 61 min, P<0.01, respectively) decreased significantly during the with-COVID-19 period. CONCLUSIONS: The delay in reperfusion therapy increased during the with-COVID-19 period compared with the pre-COVID-19 period. However, the door-to-needle time and door-to-groin puncture time decreased as time elapsed during the with-COVID-19 period.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02251665.

3.
Cerebral Circulation - Cognition and Behavior ; : 100007, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1116435

ABSTRACT

Adrenomedullin (AM) is an endogenous peptide mainly secreted from endothelial cells, which has multiple physiological actions such as anti-inflammation, vasodilation, vascular permeability regulation and angiogenesis. Blood AM levels are upregulated in a variety of pathological states including sepsis, severe COVID-19, acute ischemic stroke and vascular cognitive impairment with white matter changes, likely serving as a compensatory biological defense response against infection and ischemia. AM is currently being tested in clinical trials for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, severe COVID-19 for its anti-inflammatory properties and in ischemic stroke for its additional angiogenic action. AM has been proposed as a therapeutic option for vascular cognitive impairment as its arteriogenic and angiogenic properties are thought to contribute to a slowing of cognitive decline in mice after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. As AM promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into mature oligodendrocytes under hypoxic conditions, AM could also be used in the treatment of CADASIL, where reduced oxygen delivery is thought to lead to the death of hypoxia-prone oligodendrocytes. AM therefore holds potential as an innovative therapeutic drug, which may regenerate blood vessels, while controlling inflammation in cerebrovascular diseases.

4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105321, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted global healthcare systems and this may affect stroke care and outcomes. This study examines the changes in stroke epidemiology and care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Zanjan Province, Iran. METHODS: This study is part of the CASCADE international initiative. From February 18, 2019, to July 18, 2020, we followed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke hospitalization rates and outcomes in Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan, Iran. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model and an interrupted time series analysis (ITS) to identify changes in stroke hospitalization rate, baseline stroke severity [measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)], disability [measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS)], presentation time (last seen normal to hospital presentation), thrombolytic therapy rate, median door-to-needle time, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. We compared in-hospital mortality between study periods using Cox-regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, 1,026 stroke patients were hospitalized. Stroke hospitalization rates per 100,000 population decreased from 68.09 before the pandemic to 44.50 during the pandemic, with a significant decline in both Bayesian [Beta: -1.034; Standard Error (SE): 0.22, 95% CrI: -1.48, -0.59] and ITS analysis (estimate: -1.03, SE = 0.24, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we observed lower admission rates for patients with mild (NIHSS < 5) ischemic stroke (p < 0.0001). Although, the presentation time and door-to-needle time did not change during the pandemic, a lower proportion of patients received thrombolysis (-10.1%; p = 0.004). We did not see significant changes in admission rate to the stroke unit and in-hospital mortality rate; however, disability at discharge increased (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In Zanjan, Iran, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted stroke outcomes and altered the delivery of stroke care. Observed lower admission rates for milder stroke may possibly be due to fear of exposure related to COVID-19. The decrease in patients treated with thrombolysis and the increased disability at discharge may indicate changes in the delivery of stroke care and increased pressure on existing stroke acute and subacute services. The results of this research will contribute to a similar analysis of the larger CASCADE dataset in order to confirm findings at a global scale and improve measures to ensure the best quality of care for stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/trends , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bayes Theorem , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Iran/epidemiology , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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