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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0431122, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317294

ABSTRACT

Nelfinavir, an orally administered inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus protease, inhibits the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of nelfinavir in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We included unvaccinated asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic adult patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection within 3 days before enrollment. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral nelfinavir (750 mg; thrice daily for 14 days) combined with standard-of-care or standard-of-care alone. The primary endpoint was the time to viral clearance, confirmed using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR by assessors blinded to the assigned treatment. A total of 123 patients (63 in the nelfinavir group and 60 in the control group) were included. The median time to viral clearance was 8.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.0 to 12.0) days in the nelfinavir group and 8.0 (95% CI, 7.0 to 10.0) days in the control group, with no significant difference between the treatment groups (hazard ratio, 0.815; 95% CI, 0.563 to 1.182; P = 0.1870). Adverse events were reported in 47 (74.6%) and 20 (33.3%) patients in the nelfinavir and control groups, respectively. The most common adverse event in the nelfinavir group was diarrhea (49.2%). Nelfinavir did not reduce the time to viral clearance in this setting. Our findings indicate that nelfinavir should not be recommended in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The study is registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT2071200023). IMPORTANCE The anti-HIV drug nelfinavir suppresses the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro. However, its efficacy in patients with COVID-19 has not been studied. We conducted a multicenter, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally administered nelfinavir in patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19. Compared to standard-of-care alone, nelfinavir (750 mg, thrice daily) did not reduce the time to viral clearance, viral load, or the time to resolution of symptoms. More patients had adverse events in the nelfinavir group than in the control group (74.6% [47/63 patients] versus 33.3% [20/60 patients]). Our clinical study provides evidence that nelfinavir, despite its antiviral effects on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, should not be recommended for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 having no or mild symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Nelfinavir/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 76(8): 1403-1411, 2023 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This phase 2b part of a randomized phase 2/3 study assessed the efficacy and safety of ensitrelvir for mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the Omicron epidemic. METHODS: Patients were randomized (1:1:1) to orally receive ensitrelvir fumaric acid 125 mg (375 mg on day 1) or 250 mg (750 mg on day 1) or placebo once daily for 5 days. The co-primary endpoints were the change from baseline in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) titer on day 4 and time-weighted average change from baseline up to 120 hours in the total score of predefined 12 COVID-19 symptoms. Safety was assessed through adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 341 patients (ensitrelvir 125-mg group: 114; ensitrelvir 250-mg group: 116; and placebo group: 111; male: 53.5-64.9%; mean age: 35.3-37.3 years) were included in the efficacy analyses. The change from baseline in SARS-CoV-2 titer on day 4 was significantly greater with both ensitrelvir doses than with placebo (differences from placebo: -0.41 log10 50% tissue-culture infectious dose/mL; P < .0001 for both). The total score of the 12 COVID-19 symptoms did not show a significant difference between the ensitrelvir groups and placebo group. The time-weighted average change from baseline up to 120 hours was significantly greater with ensitrelvir versus placebo in several subtotal scores, including acute symptoms and respiratory symptoms. Most adverse events were mild in severity. CONCLUSIONS: Ensitrelvir treatment demonstrated a favorable antiviral efficacy and potential clinical benefit with an acceptable safety profile. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Japan Registry of Clinical Trials: jRCT2031210350 (https://jrct.niph.go.jp/en-latest-detail/jRCT2031210350).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , Male , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects
5.
Heliyon ; 9(3): e13795, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252908

ABSTRACT

The detailed mechanisms of COVID-19 infection pathology remain poorly understood. To improve our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathology, we performed a multi-omics and correlative analysis of an immunologically naïve SARS-CoV-2 clinical cohort from blood plasma of uninfected controls, mild, and severe infections. Consistent with previous observations, severe patient populations showed an elevation of pulmonary surfactant levels. Intriguingly, mild patients showed a statistically significant elevation in the carnosine dipeptidase modifying enzyme (CNDP1). Mild and severe patient populations showed a strong elevation in the metabolite L-cystine (oxidized form of the amino acid cysteine) and enzymes with roles in glutathione metabolism. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were observed in both mild and severe populations, and NET formation was higher in severe vs. mild samples. Our correlative analysis suggests a potential protective role for CNDP1 in suppressing PSPB release from the pulmonary space whereas NET formation correlates with increased PSPB levels and disease severity. In our discussion we put forward a possible model where NET formation drives pulmonary occlusions and CNDP1 promotes antioxidation, pleiotropic immune responses, and vasodilation by accelerating histamine synthesis.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(8): e33024, 2023 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited treatment options exist for patients with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), irrespective of vaccination history or risk status. Ensitrelvir is a novel oral severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 3C-like (3CL) protease inhibitor. While phase 2 studies of ensitrelvir have demonstrated promising results in treating mild-to-moderate COVID-19, evaluation of its clinical efficacy due to shifting vaccination status and emergence of the Omicron variant represents significant challenges. Here, we describe the protocol for a phase 3 study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ensitrelvir in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, regardless of risk status or vaccination history. METHODS: This is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 within 120 hours from onset will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio into 3 treatment arms-ensitrelvir 125 mg (375 mg loading dose on Day 1), ensitrelvir 250 mg (750 mg loading dose on Day 1), and placebo. The study interventions will be administered orally, once-daily, for 5 days. The primary endpoint will be the time to resolution of 5 symptoms of COVID-19 (stuffy or runny nose, sore throat, cough, feeling hot or feverish, and low energy or tiredness), and the key secondary endpoints will include the change from baseline on Day 4 in the amount of SARS-CoV-2 viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the time to first negative SARS-CoV-2 viral titer. The primary population for the primary and key secondary endpoints will be patients with <72 hours from COVID-19 onset to randomization and, subsequently, patients in entire patient population (<120 hours) in the ensitrelvir 125 mg group. Closed testing procedure will be used for the primary and key secondary endpoints in both the primary and entire patient populations. All safety assessments and adverse events (AE) will be reported. DISCUSSION: In a post hoc analysis of the phase 2b study, compared with placebo, ensitrelvir demonstrated a reduced time to resolution of 5 symptoms in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. Through this study, we intend to validate and establish the efficacy and safety of ensitrelvir in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents , Treatment Outcome , Double-Blind Method
9.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(6): 608-611, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145167

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients are more likely to develop severe COVID-19, and exhibit high mortality. It is also hypothesized that chronic infection in these patients can be a risk factor for developing new variants. We describe a patient with prolonged active infection of COVID-19 who became infected during treatment with an anti-CD20 antibody (obinutuzumab) for follicular lymphoma. This patient had persistent RT-PCR positivity and live virus isolation for nine months despite treatment with remdesivir and other potential antiviral therapies. The computed tomography image of the chest showed that the viral pneumonia repeatedly appeared and disappeared in different lobes, as if a new infection had occurred continuously. The patient's SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer was negative throughout the illness, even after two doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine were administered in the seventh month of infection. A combination of monoclonal antibody therapy against COVID-19 (casirivimab and imdevimab) and antivirals resulted in negative RT-PCR results, and the virus was no longer isolated. The patient was clinically cured. During the 9-month active infection period, no fixed mutations in the spike (S) protein were detected, and the in vitro susceptibility to remdesivir was retained. Therapeutic administration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies is essential in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, measures to prevent resistance against these key drugs are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lymphoma, Follicular , Humans , Lymphoma, Follicular/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Follicular/pathology , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral
11.
Biomedicines ; 10(10)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071216

ABSTRACT

Although there is strong evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with adverse outcomes in certain ethnic groups, the association of disease severity and risk factors such as comorbidities and biomarkers with racial disparities remains undefined. This retrospective study between March 2020 and February 2021 explores COVID-19 risk factors as predictors for patients' disease progression through country comparison. Disease severity predictors in Germany and Japan were cardiovascular-associated comorbidities, dementia, and age. We adjusted age, sex, body mass index, and history of cardiovascular disease comorbidity in the country cohorts using a propensity score matching (PSM) technique to reduce the influence of differences in sample size and the surprisingly young, lean Japanese cohort. Analysis of the 170 PSM pairs confirmed that 65.29% of German and 85.29% of Japanese patients were in the uncomplicated phase. More German than Japanese patients were admitted in the complicated and critical phase. Ethnic differences were identified in patients without cardiovascular comorbidities. Japanese patients in the uncomplicated phase presented a suppressed inflammatory response and coagulopathy with hypocoagulation. In contrast, German patients exhibited a hyperactive inflammatory response and coagulopathy with hypercoagulation. These differences were less pronounced in patients in the complicated phase or with cardiovascular diseases. Coagulation/fibrinolysis-associated biomarkers rather than inflammatory-related biomarkers predicted disease severity in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities: platelet counts were associated with severe illness in German patients. In contrast, high D-dimer and fibrinogen levels predicted disease severity in Japanese patients. Our comparative study indicates that ethnicity influences COVID-19-associated biomarker expression linked to the inflammatory and coagulation (thrombo-inflammatory) response. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether these differences contributed to the less severe disease progression observed in Japanese COVID-19 patients compared with those in Germany.

12.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(10): e0069722, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029466

ABSTRACT

This multicenter, double-blind, phase 2a part of a phase 2/3 study assessed the efficacy and safety of ensitrelvir, a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 3C-like protease inhibitor, in Japanese patients with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sixty-nine patients were randomized (1:1:1) to orally receive 5-day ensitrelvir fumaric acid (375 mg on day 1 followed by 125 mg daily, or 750 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg daily) or placebo and followed up until day 28. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the SARS-CoV-2 viral titer. A total of 16, 14, and 17 patients in the ensitrelvir 125 mg, ensitrelvir 250 mg, and placebo groups, respectively, were included in the intention-to-treat population (mean age: 38.0 to 40.4 years). On day 4, the change from baseline in SARS-CoV-2 viral titer (log10 50% tissue culture infectious dose/mL) in patients with positive viral titer and viral RNA at baseline was greater with ensitrelvir 125 mg (mean [standard deviation], -2.42 [1.42]; P = 0.0712) and 250 mg (-2.81 [1.21]; P = 0.0083) versus placebo (-1.54 [0.74]); ensitrelvir treatment reduced SARS-CoV-2 RNA by -1.4 to -1.5 log10 copies/mL versus placebo. The viral titer and viral RNA were similar across groups on and after day 6. The median time to infectious viral clearance decreased by approximately 50 h with ensitrelvir treatment. All adverse events were mild to moderate. Ensitrelvir treatment demonstrated rapid SARS-CoV-2 clearance and was well tolerated (Japan Registry of Clinical Trials identifier: jRCT2031210350).


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Humans , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Viral , Japan , Protease Inhibitors , Antiviral Agents , Enzyme Inhibitors , Double-Blind Method
13.
Intern Med ; 61(22): 3459-3462, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022242

ABSTRACT

Persistent viral shedding or prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptom is one of unresolved problem in immunocompromised individuals. We herein report an HIV/AIDS patient with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and prolonged COVID-19, possibly due to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. His viral shedding and COVID-19 symptoms persisted for 39 days but were promptly resolved following sotrovimab monoclonal antibody therapy. This case suggests that prolonged COVID-19 and persistent viral shedding due to severe cellular immunodeficiency can occur in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) omicron infection and that sotrovimab is effective in the treatment of prolonged COVID-19 caused by omicron/BA.1.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral
14.
Nature ; 607(7917): 119-127, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915276

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529 lineage) variants possessing numerous mutations has raised concerns of decreased effectiveness of current vaccines, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antiviral drugs for COVID-19 against these variants1,2. The original Omicron lineage, BA.1, prevailed in many countries, but more recently, BA.2 has become dominant in at least 68 countries3. Here we evaluated the replicative ability and pathogenicity of authentic infectious BA.2 isolates in immunocompetent and human ACE2-expressing mice and hamsters. In contrast to recent data with chimeric, recombinant SARS-CoV-2 strains expressing the spike proteins of BA.1 and BA.2 on an ancestral WK-521 backbone4, we observed similar infectivity and pathogenicity in mice and hamsters for BA.2 and BA.1, and less pathogenicity compared with early SARS-CoV-2 strains. We also observed a marked and significant reduction in the neutralizing activity of plasma from individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 and vaccine recipients against BA.2 compared to ancestral and Delta variant strains. In addition, we found that some therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (REGN10987 plus REGN10933, COV2-2196 plus COV2-2130, and S309) and antiviral drugs (molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir and S-217622) can restrict viral infection in the respiratory organs of BA.2-infected hamsters. These findings suggest that the replication and pathogenicity of BA.2 is similar to that of BA.1 in rodents and that several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antiviral compounds are effective against Omicron BA.2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Combinations , Hydroxylamines , Indazoles , Lactams , Leucine , Mice , Nitriles , Proline , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Triazines , Triazoles
15.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862910

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are influenced by various microorganisms in the environment surrounding the target tissue, and the correlation between the type and balance of commensal microbiota is the key to establishment of the infection and pathogenicity. Some commensal microorganisms are known to resist or promote viral infection, while others are involved in pathogenicity. It is also becoming evident that the profile of the commensal microbiota under normal conditions influences the progression of viral diseases. Thus, to understand the pathogenesis underlying viral infections, it is important to elucidate the interactions among viruses, target tissues, and the surrounding environment, including the commensal microbiota, which should have different relationships with each virus. In this review, we outline the role of microorganisms in viral infections. Particularly, we focus on gaining an in-depth understanding of the correlations among viral infections, target tissues, and the surrounding environment, including the commensal microbiota and the gut virome, and discussing the impact of changes in the microbiota (dysbiosis) on the pathological progression of viral infections.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Microbiota , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Dysbiosis , Humans
16.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(7): 1015-1017, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768315

ABSTRACT

By December 2021, about 80% of people over the age of 12 had been vaccinated in Japan, and almost all people were vaccinated with the mRNA vaccine. We investigated here the anti-spike protein antibody titer at the time of breakthrough infection of SARS-CoV-2 omicron. A total of 32 SARS-CoV2 omicron breakthrough infection was included in the study. The median antibody titer at breakthrough infection was 776 AU/mL overall, of which the median antibody titer of BNT162b2 vaccinated was 633 AU/mL and that of mRNA-1273 vaccinated was 9416 AU/mL. This result suggests that low levels of antibody titers 6 months after vaccination do not provide sufficient antibodies to prevent the omicron variant breakthrough infection, which may occur with a higher anti-spike antibody titer after vaccination with mRNA-1273. However, antibody titers in some patients were comparable to those immediately after the second vaccination with either mRNA vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Viral , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
17.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0168921, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731262

ABSTRACT

The role of the intestinal microbiota in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is being elucidated. Here, we analyzed the temporal changes in microbiota composition and the correlation between inflammation biomarkers/cytokines and microbiota in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We obtained stool specimens, blood samples, and patient records from 22 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and performed 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis of stool samples over the course of disease onset compared to 40 healthy individual stool samples. We analyzed the correlation between the changes in the gut microbiota and plasma proinflammatory cytokine levels. Immediately after admission, differences in the gut microbiota were observed between COVID-19 patients and healthy subjects, mainly including enrichment of the classes Bacilli and Coriobacteriia and decrease in abundance of the class Clostridia. The bacterial profile continued to change throughout the hospitalization, with a decrease in short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria including Faecalibacterium and an increase in the facultatively anaerobic bacteria Escherichia-Shigella. A consistent increase in Eggerthella belonging to the class Coriobacteriia was observed. The abundance of the class Clostridia was inversely correlated with interferon-γ level and that of the phylum Actinobacteria, which was enriched in COVID-19, and was positively correlated with gp130/sIL-6Rb levels. Dysbiosis was continued even after 21 days from onset. The intestines tended to be an aerobic environment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Because the composition of the gut microbiota correlates with the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, this finding emphasizes the need to understand how pathology is related to the temporal changes in the specific gut microbiota observed in COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCE There is growing evidence that the commensal microbiota of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts regulates local and systemic inflammation (gut-lung axis). COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease, but the involvement of microbiota changes in the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. The composition of the gut microbiota of patients with COVID-19 changed over time during hospitalization, and the intestines tended to be an aerobic environment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. These changes in gut microbiota may induce increased intestinal permeability, called leaky gut, allowing bacteria and toxins to enter the circulatory system and further aggravate the systemic inflammatory response. Since gut microbiota composition correlates with levels of proinflammatory cytokines, this finding highlights the need to understand how pathology relates to the gut environment, including the temporal changes in specific gut microbiota observed in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteria/genetics , Cytokines , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
19.
iScience ; 25(2): 103830, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654627

ABSTRACT

CRISPR-based diagnostics (CRISPR-dx), including the Cas12-based DETECTR and Cas13-based SHERLOCK Class 2 CRISPRs, have been used to detect the presence of DNA or RNA from pathogens, such as the 2009 pandemic influenza virus A (IAV) and the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Here, we describe the collateral single-stranded DNA cleavage with Class 1 type I CRISPR-Cas3 and highlight its potential for development as a Cas3-mediated rapid (within 40 min), low-cost, instrument-free detection method for SARS-CoV-2. This assay, which we call Cas3-Operated Nucleic Acid detectioN (CONAN), not only detects SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples, but also offers specific detection of single-base-pair mutations in IAV variants. This tool allows rapid and accurate point-of-care testing for patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 or drug-resistant IAV infections in hospitals.

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