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1.
PLoS Med ; 18(12): e1003872, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United States (US) Expanded Access Program (EAP) to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma was initiated in response to the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19. While randomized clinical trials were in various stages of development and enrollment, there was an urgent need for widespread access to potential therapeutic agents. The objective of this study is to report on the demographic, geographical, and chronological characteristics of patients in the EAP, and key safety metrics following transfusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mayo Clinic served as the central institutional review board for all participating facilities, and any US physician could participate as a local physician-principal investigator. Eligible patients were hospitalized, were aged 18 years or older, and had-or were at risk of progression to-severe or life-threatening COVID-19; eligible patients were enrolled through the EAP central website. Blood collection facilities rapidly implemented programs to collect convalescent plasma for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Demographic and clinical characteristics of all enrolled patients in the EAP were summarized. Temporal patterns in access to COVID-19 convalescent plasma were investigated by comparing daily and weekly changes in EAP enrollment in response to changes in infection rate at the state level. Geographical analyses on access to convalescent plasma included assessing EAP enrollment in all national hospital referral regions, as well as assessing enrollment in metropolitan areas and less populated areas that did not have access to COVID-19 clinical trials. From April 3 to August 23, 2020, 105,717 hospitalized patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19 were enrolled in the EAP. The majority of patients were 60 years of age or older (57.8%), were male (58.4%), and had overweight or obesity (83.8%). There was substantial inclusion of minorities and underserved populations: 46.4% of patients were of a race other than white, and 37.2% of patients were of Hispanic ethnicity. Chronologically and geographically, increases in the number of both enrollments and transfusions in the EAP closely followed confirmed infections across all 50 states. Nearly all national hospital referral regions enrolled and transfused patients in the EAP, including both in metropolitan and in less populated areas. The incidence of serious adverse events was objectively low (<1%), and the overall crude 30-day mortality rate was 25.2% (95% CI, 25.0% to 25.5%). This registry study was limited by the observational and pragmatic study design that did not include a control or comparator group; thus, the data should not be used to infer definitive treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the EAP provided widespread access to COVID-19 convalescent plasma in all 50 states, including for underserved racial and ethnic minority populations. The study design of the EAP may serve as a model for future efforts when broad access to a treatment is needed in response to an emerging infectious disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT#: NCT04338360.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Compassionate Use Trials/methods , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Distribution Systems/organization & administration , Registries , Transfusion Reaction/complications , Transfusion Reaction/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Inpatients , Male , Medically Underserved Area , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United States
7.
Transfusion ; 61(8): 2368-2373, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Blood collection center (BCC) employees are essential workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The employee callout rate, defined as the percentage of scheduled employees unable to report to work for any cause including COVID-19 illness or asymptomatic quarantine, was tracked to determine the impact of safety measures including social distancing, masks, enhanced disinfection protocols, and temperature screening. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A contact tracing and quarantine program was implemented for all employees, followed by additional safety measures including social distancing, masks, enhanced disinfection protocols, and temperature screening. The weekly callout rate was tracked nationally for 19,517 BCC employees over 9 months, from March to December 2020. RESULTS: Weekly employee callout rates increased after implementation of the contact tracing program due to asymptomatic employees placed into COVID-19-related quarantine. Mobile collections callouts increased by nearly fivefold the pre-pandemic baseline within the first 4 weeks, peaking at 9.7% in early April. Peaks for fixed site collections (5.0%) and manufacturing (6.7%) occurred nearly simultaneously. Shortly after implementation of all safety measures, the weekly callout rate declined for all three employee groups and has remained relatively stable with a mean callout rate of 4.3% for mobile collections, 2.4% for fixed site collections, and 3.7% for manufacturing despite further increase in new COVID-19 cases in the United States. CONCLUSION: Callouts for BCC employees during the COVID-19 pandemic initially increased, but subsequently declined and stabilized after implementation of safety measures. Since multiple interventions were implemented simultaneously, it is not possible to determine the individual impact of each measure on callout rate.


Subject(s)
Blood Banks , Blood Donors , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Contact Tracing , Health Personnel , Humans , Masks , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States
8.
Transfusion ; 61(4): 1160-1170, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) is hypothesized to be associated with the concentration of neutralizing antibodies (nAb) to SARS-CoV-2. High capacity serologic assays detecting binding antibodies (bAb) have been developed; nAb assays are not adaptable to high-throughput testing. We sought to determine the effectiveness of using surrogate bAb signal-to-cutoff ratios (S/Co) in predicting nAb titers using a pseudovirus reporter viral particle neutralization (RVPN) assay. METHODS: CCP donor serum collected by three US blood collectors was tested with a bAb assay (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics VITROS Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total, CoV2T) and a nAb RVPN assay. Prediction effectiveness of various CoV2T S/Co criteria was evaluated for RVPN nAb NT50 titers using receiver operating characteristics. RESULTS: Seven hundred and fifty-three CCPs were tested with median CoV2T S/Co and NT50 of 71.2 of 527.5. Proportions of donors with NT50 over target nAb titers were 86% ≥1:80, 76% ≥1:160, and 62% ≥1:320. Increasing CoV2T S/Co criterion reduced the sensitivity to predict NT50 titers, while specificity to identify those below increased. As target NT50 titers increase, the CoV2T assay becomes less accurate as a predictor with a decline in positive predictive value and rise in negative predictive value. CONCLUSION: Selection of a clinically effective nAb titer will impact availability of CCP. Product release with CoV2T assay S/Co criterion must balance the risk of releasing products below target nAb titers with the cost of false negatives. A two-step testing scheme may be optimal, with nAb testing on CoV2T samples with S/Cos below criterion.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged
9.
Transfusion ; 61(5): 1471-1478, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP) offering an early treatment option for COVID-19, blood collectors needed to quickly overcome obstacles to recruiting and qualifying eligible donors. We provide attributes of CCP donors and products and compare to standard donors and products. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Information on CCP donors was gathered from the American Red Cross qualification website through product collection. Data from 2019 for standard plasma/platelet apheresis (SA) and whole blood (WB) donor demographics and SA donations including product disposition and reactions were used for comparison. RESULTS: Of almost 59 000 donors registering on the website, 75% reported an existing COVID-19 diagnostic polymerase chain reaction or an antibody test. The majority (56.2%) of 10 231 CCP donors were first-time donors in contrast to SA or WB donor populations, which were only 3.0% and 30.6%, respectively, first-time donors. The number of female donors was 12% higher than SA donors. Older (≥ 65 years) and younger (16-19 years) were comparatively underrepresented in CCP donors. Deferral (10.2%) and Quantity Not Sufficient rates (6.4%) for presenting CCP donations were higher than SA (8.2% and 1.1%, respectively). Human leukocyte antigen antibody reactivity was the highest cause of product loss for CCP donations vs SA donations (9.6% vs 1.3%). Acute adverse events also occurred at a higher rate among both first-time and repeat CCP donations compared to SA. CONCLUSIONS: CCP donors were more likely to be first-time and female donors than WB or SA donors. CCP donations had a higher rate of donor adverse reactions, deferrals, and product loss than SA donations.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Removal , Blood Donors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged
12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(11): e28693, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743696

ABSTRACT

There are no proven safe and effective therapies for children who develop life-threatening complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Convalescent plasma (CP) has demonstrated potential benefit in adults with SARS-CoV-2, but has theoretical risks.We present the first report of CP in children with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), providing data on four pediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We measured donor antibody levels and recipient antibody response prior to and following CP infusion. Infusion of CP was not associated with antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and did not suppress endogenous antibody response. We found CP was safe and possibly efficacious. Randomized pediatric trials are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Vox Sang ; 116(1): 18-35, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been used, predominantly in high-income countries (HICs) to treat COVID-19; available data suggest the safety and efficacy of use. We sought to develop guidance for procurement and use of CCP, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for which data are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary, geographically representative group of individuals with expertise spanning transfusion medicine, infectious diseases and haematology was tasked with the development of a guidance document for CCP, drawing on expert opinion, survey of group members and review of available evidence. Three subgroups (i.e. donor, product and patient) were established based on self-identified expertise and interest. Here, the donor and product-related challenges are summarized and contrasted between HICs and LMICs with a view to guide related practices. RESULTS: The challenges to advance CCP therapy are different between HICs and LMICs. Early challenges in HICs related to recruitment and qualification of sufficient donors to meet the growing demand. Antibody testing also posed a specific obstacle given lack of standardization, variable performance of the assays in use and uncertain interpretation of results. In LMICs, an extant transfusion deficit, suboptimal models of donor recruitment (e.g. reliance on replacement and paid donors), limited laboratory capacity for pre-donation qualification and operational considerations could impede wide adoption. CONCLUSION: There has been wide-scale adoption of CCP in many HICs, which could increase if clinical trials show efficacy of use. By contrast, LMICs, having received little attention, require locally applicable strategies for adoption of CCP.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Developing Countries , Guidelines as Topic , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
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