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N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2283-2294, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275997


BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management is recommended for patients after cardiac arrest, but the supporting evidence is of low certainty. METHODS: In an open-label trial with blinded assessment of outcomes, we randomly assigned 1900 adults with coma who had had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac or unknown cause to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33°C, followed by controlled rewarming, or targeted normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, ≥37.8°C). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included functional outcome at 6 months as assessed with the modified Rankin scale. Prespecified subgroups were defined according to sex, age, initial cardiac rhythm, time to return of spontaneous circulation, and presence or absence of shock on admission. Prespecified adverse events were pneumonia, sepsis, bleeding, arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise, and skin complications related to the temperature management device. RESULTS: A total of 1850 patients were evaluated for the primary outcome. At 6 months, 465 of 925 patients (50%) in the hypothermia group had died, as compared with 446 of 925 (48%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.14; P = 0.37). Of the 1747 patients in whom the functional outcome was assessed, 488 of 881 (55%) in the hypothermia group had moderately severe disability or worse (modified Rankin scale score ≥4), as compared with 479 of 866 (55%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.09). Outcomes were consistent in the prespecified subgroups. Arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (24% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The incidence of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, targeted hypothermia did not lead to a lower incidence of death by 6 months than targeted normothermia. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; TTM2 number, NCT02908308.).

Fever/therapy , Hypothermia, Induced , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Aged , Body Temperature , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coma/etiology , Coma/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced/adverse effects , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/complications , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
N Engl J Med ; 384(14): 1361-1363, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240805
Anesthésie & Réanimation ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1198092
N Z Med J ; 133(1527): 95-103, 2020 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979363


AIM: To evaluate rates of unplanned ICU admissions before, during and after New Zealand's COVID-19 Alert Level 4/3 lockdown, and to describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to Wellington ICU during lockdown in comparison to historical controls. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Wellington Hospital ICU database and included patients with an unplanned ICU admission during the first 35 weeks of the year from 2015 to 2020 inclusive. The primary variable of interest was the rate of unplanned ICU admission in 2020 compared with historical controls. We also described the characteristics and outcomes of patients with unplanned admissions to ICU during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown compared to historical controls. RESULTS: During the five weeks of Alert Level Four, and the subsequent two weeks of Alert Level Three, the number of unplanned ICU admissions per day fell to 1.65±1.52 compared to a historical average of 2.56±1.52 ICU unplanned ICU admissions per day (P<0.0001). The observed reduction in ICU admission rates appeared to occur for most categories of ICU admission diagnosis but was not evident for patients with neurologic disorders. The characteristics and outcomes of patients who had unplanned admissions to Wellington ICU during the COVID-19 lockdown were broadly similar to historical controls. The rate of unplanned ICU admissions in 2020 before and after the lockdown period were similar to historical controls. CONCLUSION: In this study, we observed a reduction in unplanned admissions to Wellington Hospital ICU associated with New Zealand's initial COVID-19 lockdown.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/trends , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
Br J Anaesth ; 125(5): 730-738, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739780


BACKGROUND: A threshold Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) of 5 (indicating mild frailty) has been proposed to guide ICU admission for UK patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. However, the impact of frailty on mortality with (non-COVID-19) pneumonia in critical illness is unknown. We examined the triage utility of the CFS in patients with pneumonia requiring ICU. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted with pneumonia to 170 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand from January 1, 2018 to September 31, 2019. We classified patients as: non-frail (CFS 1-4) frail (CFS 5-8), mild/moderately frail (CFS 5-6),and severe/very severely frail (CFS 7-8). We evaluated mortality (primary outcome) adjusting for site, age, sex, mechanical ventilation, pneumonia type and illness severity. We also compared the proportion of ICU bed-days occupied between frailty categories. RESULTS: 1852/5607 (33%) patients were classified as frail, including1291/3056 (42%) of patients aged >65 yr, who would potentially be excluded from ICU admission under UK-based COVID-19 triage guidelines. Only severe/very severe frailty scores were associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for CFS=7: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-7.8; CFS=8 [aOR: 7.2; 95% CI: 2.6-20.0]). These patients accounted for 7% of ICU bed days. Vulnerability (CFS=4) and mild frailty (CFS=5) were associated with a similar mortality risk (CFS=4 [OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.7-3.8]; CFS=5 [OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.7-3.9]). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe and very severe frailty account for relatively few ICU bed days as a result of pneumonia, whilst adjusted mortality analysis indicated little difference in risk between patients in vulnerable, mild, and moderate frailty categories. These data do not support CFS ≥5 to guide ICU admission for pneumonia.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Geriatric Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Patient Outcome Assessment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2