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1.
N Z Med J ; 135(1550): 26-46, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728151

ABSTRACT

AIM: To describe characteristics and outcomes of Maori and European patients admitted to New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs) between 2009 and 2018. METHODS: A retrospectively designed prospective cohort study. New Zealand Ministry of Health National Minimum Dataset matched to the Australia New Zealand Intensive Care Society Centre for Outcome and Resource Evaluation Adult Patient Database. The primary outcome was day-180 mortality. Secondary outcomes were ICU mortality, hospital mortality, discharge to home, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay and survival time. We report associations between Maori ethnicity and each outcome, with European as the reference category, using regression analyses to adjust sequentially for site, deprivation status, sex, year of admission, the Charlson comorbidity index, age, admission source and type, ICU admission diagnosis, ventilation status and illness severity based on physiological parameters. RESULTS: Maori admitted to ICU were on average 13 years younger than European patients. A total of 968 of 9,681 (10%) Maori and 2,732 of 42,871 (5.2%) European patients were admitted after trauma, and 740 of 9,681 (7.6%) and 2,318 of 42,871 (4.4%) were admitted with sepsis respectively. A total of 1,550 of 9,681 (16.0%) Maori and 6,407 of 42,871 (14.9%) European patients died within 180 days of ICU admission; odds ratio (OR) 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.15. When adjusted for age, the OR for day-180 mortality for Maori versus European patients increased substantially. The OR decreased after adjustment for admission source and type, and after accounting for Maori having a higher comorbidity index and more severe illness than European patients. In the final model, incorporating adjustment for all specified variables, Maori ethnicity was not associated with day-180 mortality (adjusted OR 1.01; 95%CI, 0.92 to 1.10). Findings were similar for all secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to European patients, Maori were markedly more likely to be admitted to the ICU after trauma or with sepsis. Despite Maori being on average 13 years younger at ICU admission than their European counterparts, they had more co-morbidities, higher illness severity and a higher risk of dying within 180 days.


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Adult , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , New Zealand/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
2.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 41(3): 101100, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715022
3.
N Engl J Med ; 386(25): 2387-2398, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies that have evaluated the use of intravenous vitamin C in adults with sepsis who were receiving vasopressor therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) have shown mixed results with respect to the risk of death and organ dysfunction. METHODS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned adults who had been in the ICU for no longer than 24 hours, who had proven or suspected infection as the main diagnosis, and who were receiving a vasopressor to receive an infusion of either vitamin C (at a dose of 50 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matched placebo administered every 6 hours for up to 96 hours. The primary outcome was a composite of death or persistent organ dysfunction (defined by the use of vasopressors, invasive mechanical ventilation, or new renal-replacement therapy) on day 28. RESULTS: A total of 872 patients underwent randomization (435 to the vitamin C group and 437 to the control group). The primary outcome occurred in 191 of 429 patients (44.5%) in the vitamin C group and in 167 of 434 patients (38.5%) in the control group (risk ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.40; P = 0.01). At 28 days, death had occurred in 152 of 429 patients (35.4%) in the vitamin C group and in 137 of 434 patients (31.6%) in the placebo group (risk ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.40) and persistent organ dysfunction in 39 of 429 patients (9.1%) and 30 of 434 patients (6.9%), respectively (risk ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.05). Findings were similar in the two groups regarding organ-dysfunction scores, biomarkers, 6-month survival, health-related quality of life, stage 3 acute kidney injury, and hypoglycemic episodes. In the vitamin C group, one patient had a severe hypoglycemic episode and another had a serious anaphylaxis event. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with sepsis receiving vasopressor therapy in the ICU, those who received intravenous vitamin C had a higher risk of death or persistent organ dysfunction at 28 days than those who received placebo. (Funded by the Lotte and John Hecht Memorial Foundation; LOVIT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03680274.).


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Sepsis , Adult , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Multiple Organ Failure , Quality of Life , Sepsis/drug therapy , Vasoconstrictor Agents/adverse effects , Vitamins/adverse effects
4.
J Crit Care ; 71: 154079, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660843

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the effect of conservative vs. liberal oxygen therapy in mechanically ventilated adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) with non-hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) acute brain pathologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of data from 217 patients with non-HIE acute brain pathologies included in the ICU Randomized Trial Comparing Two Approaches to OXygen therapy (ICU-ROX). RESULTS: Patients allocated to conservative oxygen spent less time with oxygen saturation ≥ 97% (50.5 [interquartile range (IQR), 18.5-119] vs. 82 h [IQR, 38-164], absolute difference, -31.5 h; 95%CI, -59.6 to -3.4). At 180 days, 38 of 110 conservative oxygen patients (34.5%) and 28 of 104 liberal oxygen patients (26.9%) had died (absolute difference, 7.6 percentage points; 95%CI, -4.7 to 19.9 percentage points; P = 0.23; interaction P = 0.02 for non-HIE acute brain pathologies vs. HIE; interaction P = 0.53 for non-HIE acute brain pathologies vs. non-neurological conditions). CONCLUSIONS: In this post-hoc analysis, patients admitted to the ICU with non-HIE acute brain pathologies treated with conservative oxygen therapy did not have significantly lower mortality than those treated with liberal oxygen. A trial with adequate statistical power is needed to determine whether our day 180 mortality point estimate of treatment effect favoring liberal oxygen therapy indicates a true effect.

5.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 170: 47-59, 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644482

ABSTRACT

Primary cardiomyocytes are invaluable for understanding postnatal heart development. However, a universal method to obtain freshly purified cardiomyocytes without using different age-dependent isolation procedures and cell culture, is lacking. Here, we report the development of a standardised method that allows rapid isolation and purification of high-quality cardiomyocytes from individual neonatal through to adult C57BL/6J murine hearts. Langendorff retrograde perfusion, which is currently limited to adult hearts, was adapted for use in neonatal and infant hearts by developing an easier in situ aortic cannulation technique. Tissue digestion conditions were optimised to achieve efficient digestion of hearts of all ages in a comparable timeframe (<14 min). This resulted in a high yield (1.56-2.2 × 106 cells/heart) and viability (~70-100%) of cardiomyocytes post-isolation. An immunomagnetic cell separation step was then applied to yield highly purified cardiomyocytes (~95%) as confirmed by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and qRT-PCR. For cell type-specific studies, cardiomyocyte DNA, RNA, and protein could be extracted in sufficient yields to conduct molecular experiments. We generated transcriptomic datasets for neonatal cardiomyocytes from individual hearts, for the first time, which revealed nine sex-specific genes (FDR < 0.05) encoded on the sex chromosomes. Finally, we also developed an in situ fixation protocol that preserved the native cytoarchitecture of cardiomyocytes (~94% rod-shaped post-isolation), and used it to evaluate cell morphology during cardiomyocyte maturation, as well as capture spindle-shaped neonatal cells undergoing cytokinesis. Together, these procedures allow molecular and morphological profiling of high-quality cardiomyocytes from individual hearts of any postnatal age.

6.
ACS Cent Sci ; 8(5): 527-545, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647275

ABSTRACT

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a cell surface polysaccharide recently identified as a coreceptor with the ACE2 protein for the S1 spike protein on SARS-CoV-2 virus, providing a tractable new therapeutic target. Clinically used heparins demonstrate an inhibitory activity but have an anticoagulant activity and are supply-limited, necessitating alternative solutions. Here, we show that synthetic HS mimetic pixatimod (PG545), a cancer drug candidate, binds and destabilizes the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain and directly inhibits its binding to ACE2, consistent with molecular modeling identification of multiple molecular contacts and overlapping pixatimod and ACE2 binding sites. Assays with multiple clinical isolates of SARS-CoV-2 virus show that pixatimod potently inhibits the infection of monkey Vero E6 cells and physiologically relevant human bronchial epithelial cells at safe therapeutic concentrations. Pixatimod also retained broad potency against variants of concern (VOC) including B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). Furthermore, in a K18-hACE2 mouse model, pixatimod significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral titers in the upper respiratory tract and virus-induced weight loss. This demonstration of potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity tolerant to emerging mutations establishes proof-of-concept for targeting the HS-Spike protein-ACE2 axis with synthetic HS mimetics and provides a strong rationale for clinical investigation of pixatimod as a potential multimodal therapeutic for COVID-19.

7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608484

ABSTRACT

Rationale Blood glucose concentrations affect outcomes in critically ill patients but the optimal target blood glucose range in those with type 2 diabetes is unknown. Objective To evaluate the effects of a 'liberal' approach to targeted blood glucose range during intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Methods This mutlicenter, parallel-group, open-label, randomized clinical trial included 419 adult patients with type 2 diabetes expected to be in the ICU on at least three consecutive days. In the intervention group intravenous insulin was commenced at a blood glucose >252 mg/dL and titrated to a target range of 180 to 252 mg/dL. In the comparator group insulin was commenced at a blood glucose >180 mg/dL and titrated to a target range of 108 to 180 mg/dL. The primary outcome was incident hypoglycemia (<72 mg/dL). Secondary outcomes included glucose metrics and clinical outcomes. Main Results At least one episode of hypoglycemia occurred in 10 of 210 (5%) patients assigned the intervention and 38 of 209 (18%) patients assigned the comparator (incident rate ratio: 0.21 (95% CI, 0.09 to 0.49); P<0.001). Those assigned the intervention had greater blood glucose concentrations (daily mean, minimum, maximum), less glucose variability and less relative hypoglycaemia (P<0.001 for all comparisons). By day 90, 62 of 210 (29.5%) in the intervention and 52 of 209 (24.9%) in the comparator group had died (absolute difference 4.6 percentage points (95%CI, -3.9 to 13.2%); P=0.29). Conclusions A liberal approach to blood glucose targets reduced incident hypoglycemia but did not improve patient-centered outcomes. Clinical trial registration available at www.anzctr.org.au, ID: ACTRN12616001135404.

8.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(5): e1010513, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588407

ABSTRACT

Koala Retrovirus (KoRV) has been associated with neoplasia in the vulnerable koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). However, there are conflicting findings regarding its association with secondary disease. We undertook a large-scale assessment of how the different KoRV subtypes and viral load are associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection and a range of disease pathologies in 151 wild koalas admitted for care to Currumbin Wildlife Hospital, Australia. Viral load (KoRV pol copies per ml of plasma) was the best predictor of more disease pathologies than any other KoRV variable. The predicted probability of a koala having disease symptoms increased from 25% to over 85% across the observed range of KoRV load, while the predicted probability of C. pecorum infection increased from 40% to over 80%. We found a negative correlation between the proportion of env deep sequencing reads that were endogenous KoRV-A and total KoRV load. This is consistent with suppression of endogenous KoRV-A, while the exogenous KoRV subtypes obtain high infection levels. Additionally, we reveal evidence that the exogenous subtypes are directly associated with secondary disease, with the proportion of reads that were the endogenous KoRV-A sequence a negative predictor of overall disease probability after the effect of KoRV load was accounted for. Further, koalas that were positive for KoRV-D or KoRV-D/F were more likely to have urogenital C. pecorum infection or low body condition score, respectively, irrespective of KoRV load. By contrast, our findings do not support previous findings that KoRV-B in particular is associated with Chlamydial disease. Based on these findings we suggest that koala research and conservation programs should target understanding what drives individual differences in KoRV load and limiting exogenous subtype diversity within populations, rather than seeking to eliminate any particular subtype.


Subject(s)
Chlamydia Infections , Gammaretrovirus , Phascolarctidae , Retroviridae Infections , Animals , Animals, Wild , Chlamydia Infections/veterinary , Retroviridae Infections/veterinary
9.
Skinmed ; 20(2): 115-120, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532763

ABSTRACT

The incidence rate of melanoma have risen constantly since the 1970s, mainly due to increased sun exposure and sun-tanning. Primary prevention remains the most effective manner of reducing the incidence rate of melanoma, but it is confronted with campaigns conveying a message that may cause concern during leisure and recreational activities. Other forms of primary prevention approaches need to be created. In this paper, an exploratory study of 20 Caucasian patients of a private dermatology practice tested the following hypothesis: "How can scientific-driven art be used in the primary prevention of melanoma?" We attempted to raise patient awareness using PEAUrigami® educational-artistic compositions based on skin pattern paper, origami artwork. Two frames illustrating the pigmentary system and a melanoma were exhibited in the office of dermatologist. The spontaneous reactions of the 20 patients collected by the dermatologist resulted in the co-creation of a final educational- artistic triptych for primary prevention of melanoma, with the dermatologist offering guidance to the artist. This triptych is now systematically used by the dermatologist with new patients at a private practice as an original and effective manner of primary prevention, as this instinctively produces emotions and feelings of danger through the limbic system. It reinforces the educational aspect of sun prevention and accentuates the contrast between "good" and "evil." Scientific-driven art such as PEAUrigami® can produce this type of conscious and subconscious emotions, especially when the vision of an artist is combined with that of a dermatologist. In the future, we trust that all forms of scientific-driven art forms could be a complementary method for the primary prevention of melanoma in private dermatology practice. We recommend dermatologists to try out these educational-artistic compositions by replacing decorative frames at their practices. (SKINmed. 2022;20:115-120).


Subject(s)
Dermatology , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Incidence , Melanoma/prevention & control , Primary Prevention , Private Practice , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control
10.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(6): 732-735, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511273
11.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 29(5): 463-471, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484234

ABSTRACT

The H1 linker histone family is the most abundant group of eukaryotic chromatin-binding proteins. However, their contribution to chromosome structure and function remains incompletely understood. Here we use single-molecule fluorescence and force microscopy to directly visualize the behavior of H1 on various nucleic acid and nucleosome substrates. We observe that H1 coalesces around single-stranded DNA generated from tension-induced DNA duplex melting. Using a droplet fusion assay controlled by optical tweezers, we find that single-stranded nucleic acids mediate the formation of gel-like H1 droplets, whereas H1-double-stranded DNA and H1-nucleosome droplets are more liquid-like. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that multivalent and transient engagement of H1 with unpaired DNA strands drives their enhanced phase separation. Using eGFP-tagged H1, we demonstrate that inducing single-stranded DNA accumulation in cells causes an increase in H1 puncta that are able to fuse. We further show that H1 and Replication Protein A occupy separate nuclear regions, but that H1 colocalizes with the replication factor Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, particularly after DNA damage. Overall, our results provide a refined perspective on the diverse roles of H1 in genome organization and maintenance, and indicate its involvement at stalled replication forks.


Subject(s)
Histones , Nucleosomes , Chromatin , DNA/metabolism , DNA, Single-Stranded , Histones/metabolism , Protein Binding
12.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; : 1-11, 2022 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The airway epithelium is a potential source of pathophysiology through activation of transient potential receptor vallinoid type 1 (TRPV1) channel. A positive feedback cycle caused by TRPV1 activity is hypothesized to induce upregulation and production of inflammatory cytokines, leading to exacerbations of chronic airway diseases. These cytokine and protein regulation effects were investigated in this study. METHODS: Healthy (BEAS-2B) and cancer-derived (Calu-3) airway epithelial cell lines were assessed for changes to TRPV1 protein expression and mRNA expression following exposure to capsaicin (5-50 µM), and TRPV1 modulators including heat (43 °C), and hydrochloric acid (pH 3.4 to pH 6.4). Cytotoxicity was measured to determine the working concentration ranges of treatment. Subsequent bronchoconstriction by TRPV1 activation with capsaicin was measured on guinea pig airway tissue to confirm locally mediated activity without the action of known neuronal inputs. RESULTS: TRPV1 protein expression was not different for all capsaicin, acidity, and heat exposures (p > 0.05), and was replicated in mRNA protein expression (p > 0.05). IL-6 and IL-8 expression were lower in BEAS-2B and Calu-3 cell lines exposed with acidity and heat (p < 0.05), but not consistently with capsaicin exposure, with potential cytotoxic effects possible. CONCLUSIONS: TRPV1 expression was present in airway epithelial cells but its expression was not changed after activation by TRPV1 activators. Thus, it was not apparent the reason for reported TRPV1 upregulation in patients with airway disease states. More complex mechanisms are likely involved and will require further investigation.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35455326

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to disrupt essential health services in 90 percent of countries today. The spike (S) protein found on the surface of the causative agent, the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been the prime target for current vaccine research since antibodies directed against the S protein were found to neutralize the virus. However, as new variants emerge, mutations within the spike protein have given rise to potential immune evasion of the response generated by the current generation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. In this study, a modified, HexaPro S protein subunit vaccine, delivered using a needle-free high-density microarray patch (HD-MAP), was investigated for its immunogenicity and virus-neutralizing abilities. Mice given two doses of the vaccine candidate generated potent antibody responses capable of neutralizing the parental SARS-CoV-2 virus as well as the variants of concern, Alpha and Delta. These results demonstrate that this alternative vaccination strategy has the potential to mitigate the effect of emerging viral variants.

14.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(4)2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456690

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused a global crisis, resulting in 0.5 billion infections and over 6 million deaths as of March 2022. Fortunately, infection and hospitalization rates were curbed due to the rollout of DNA and mRNA vaccines. However, the efficacy of these vaccines significantly drops a few months post immunization, from 88% down to 47% in the case of the Pfizer BNT162 vaccine. The emergence of variant strains, especially delta and omicron, have also significantly reduced vaccine efficacy. We propose peptide vaccines as a potential solution to address the inadequacies of the current vaccines. Peptide vaccines can be easily modified to target emerging strains, have greater stability, and do not require cold-chain storage. We screened five peptide fragments (B1-B5) derived from the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to identify neutralizing B-cell peptide antigens. We then investigated adjuvant systems for efficient stimulation of immune responses against the most promising peptide antigens, including liposomal formulations of polyleucine (L10) and polymethylacrylate (PMA), as well as classical adjuvants (CFA and MF59). Immune efficacy of formulations was evaluated using competitive ELISA, pseudovirion neutralization, and live virus neutralization assays. Unfortunately, peptide conjugation to L10 and PMA dramatically altered the secondary structure, resulting in low antibody neutralization efficacy. Of the peptides tested, only B3 administered with CFA or MF59 was highly immunogenic. Thus, a peptide vaccine relying on B3 may provide an attractive alternative to currently marketed vaccines.

15.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 9(4)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447710

ABSTRACT

Developing novel drug formulations and progressing them to the clinical environment relies on preclinical in vitro studies and animal tests to evaluate efficacy and toxicity. However, these current techniques have failed to accurately predict the clinical success of new therapies with a high degree of certainty. The main reason for this failure is that conventional in vitro tissue models lack numerous physiological characteristics of human organs, such as biomechanical forces and biofluid flow. Moreover, animal models often fail to recapitulate the physiology, anatomy, and mechanisms of disease development in human. These shortfalls often lead to failure in drug development, with substantial time and money spent. To tackle this issue, organ-on-chip technology offers realistic in vitro human organ models that mimic the physiology of tissues, including biomechanical forces, stress, strain, cellular heterogeneity, and the interaction between multiple tissues and their simultaneous responses to a therapy. For the latter, complex networks of multiple-organ models are constructed together, known as multiple-organs-on-chip. Numerous studies have demonstrated successful application of organ-on-chips for drug testing, with results comparable to clinical outcomes. This review will summarize and critically evaluate these studies, with a focus on kidney, liver, and respiratory system-on-chip models, and will discuss their progress in their application as a preclinical drug-testing platform to determine in vitro drug toxicology, metabolism, and transport. Further, the advances in the design of these models for improving preclinical drug testing as well as the opportunities for future work will be discussed.

16.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(5): e36261, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The LOVIT (Lessening Organ Dysfunction with Vitamin C) trial is a blinded multicenter randomized clinical trial comparing high-dose intravenous vitamin C to placebo in patients admitted to the intensive care unit with proven or suspected infection as the main diagnosis and receiving a vasopressor. OBJECTIVE: We aim to describe a prespecified statistical analysis plan (SAP) for the LOVIT trial prior to unblinding and locking of the trial database. METHODS: The SAP was designed by the LOVIT principal investigators and statisticians, and approved by the steering committee and coinvestigators. The SAP defines the primary and secondary outcomes, and describes the planned primary, secondary, and subgroup analyses. RESULTS: The SAP includes a draft participant flow diagram, tables, and planned figures. The primary outcome is a composite of mortality and persistent organ dysfunction (receipt of mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, or new renal replacement therapy) at 28 days, where day 1 is the day of randomization. All analyses will use a frequentist statistical framework. The analysis of the primary outcome will estimate the risk ratio and 95% CI in a generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution and log link, with site as a random effect. We will perform a secondary analysis adjusting for prespecified baseline clinical variables. Subgroup analyses will include age, sex, frailty, severity of illness, Sepsis-3 definition of septic shock, baseline ascorbic acid level, and COVID-19 status. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed an SAP for the LOVIT trial and will adhere to it in the analysis phase. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/36261.

17.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 257, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polyandrous social insects such as the honey bee are prime candidates for parental manipulation of gene expression in offspring. Although there is good evidence for parent-of-origin effects in honey bees the epigenetic mechanisms that underlie these effects remain a mystery. Small RNA molecules such as miRNAs, piRNAs and siRNAs play important roles in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance and in the regulation of gene expression during development. RESULTS: Here we present the first characterisation of small RNAs present in honey bee reproductive tissues: ovaries, spermatheca, semen, fertilised and unfertilised eggs, and testes. We show that semen contains fewer piRNAs relative to eggs and ovaries, and that piRNAs and miRNAs which map antisense to genes involved in DNA regulation and developmental processes are differentially expressed between tissues. tRNA fragments are highly abundant in semen and have a similar profile to those seen in the semen of other animals. Intriguingly we also find abundant piRNAs that target the sex determination locus, suggesting that piRNAs may play a role in honey bee sex determination. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that small RNAs may play a fundamental role in honey bee gametogenesis and reproduction and provide a plausible mechanism for parent-of-origin effects on gene expression and reproductive physiology.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , Animals , Bees/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , MicroRNAs/genetics , Reproduction/genetics
18.
J Clin Neurosci ; 99: 349-358, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364437

ABSTRACT

Monitoring and optimisation of brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) has been associated with improved neurological outcome and survival in observational studies of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We carried out a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to determine if PbtO2-guided management is associated with differential neurological outcomes, survival, and adverse events. Searches were carried out to 10 February 2022 in Medline (OvidSP), 11 February in EMBASE (OvidSP) and 8 February in Cochrane library. Randomized controlled trials comparing PbtO2 and ICP-guided management to ICP-guided management alone were included. The primary outcome was survival with favourable neurological outcome at 6-months post injury. Data were extracted by two independent authors and GRADE certainty of evidence assessed. There was no difference in the proportion of patients with favourable neurological outcomes with PbtO2-guided management (relative risk [RR] 1.42, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.08; p = 0.07; I2 = 0%, very low certainty evidence) but PbtO2-guided management was associated with reduced mortality (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.93; p = 0.03; I2 = 42%; very low certainty evidence) and ICP (mean difference (MD) - 4.62, 95% CI - 8.27 to - 0.98; p = 0.01; I2 = 63%; very low certainty evidence). There was no significant difference in the risk of adverse respiratory or cardiovascular events. PbtO2-guided management in addition to ICP-based care was not significantly associated with increased favourable neurological outcomes, but was associated with increased survival and reduced ICP, with no difference in respiratory or cardiovascular adverse events. However, based on GRADE criteria, the certainty of evidence provided by this meta-analysis was consistently very low. MESH: Brain Ischemia; Intensive Care; Glasgow Outcome Scale; Randomized Controlled Trial; Craniocerebral Trauma.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Intracranial Pressure , Brain , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Humans , Oxygen
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 163: 112976, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364129

ABSTRACT

Curcumin has been used for chronic lung diseases management due to its diversified molecular actions. However, the potential cytotoxicity which occurs in cells following the exposure to high concentrations of curcumin has been overlooked. This study evaluated the toxic events of curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-NPs) with alterable surface polarity in alveolar macrophages (NR8383). We aimed to establish the correlation between the toxicity of Cur-NPs with different surface charges and the internalization mechanisms of the NPs. Toxicity data showed that positively charged Cur-NPs (IC50: 9.77 ± 0.5 µg/mL) was the most potent against NR8383, followed by negatively charged Cur-NPs (IC50:13.33 ± 0.9 µg/mL) and neutral Cur-NPs (IC50:18.68 ± 1.2 µg/mL). Results from mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP content and intracellular ROS in NR8383 showed similar ranking to the toxicity assay. The predominant uptake pathway for positively and negatively charged Cur-NPs was via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while neutral Cur-NPs was internalized via phagocytosis, micropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Positively charged Cur-NPs mediates the cytotoxicity of NR8383 via lysosomal and mitochondrial-associated destabilization upon entry. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of Cur-NPs on NR8383 is surface-charge dependent, which in turn is associated to the uptake pathway and localization of Cur-NPs in cells.


Subject(s)
Curcumin , Macrophages, Alveolar/drug effects , Nanoparticles , Clathrin , Curcumin/toxicity , Drug Delivery Systems , Endocytosis , Nanoparticles/toxicity
20.
Urol Case Rep ; 43: 102054, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35345668

ABSTRACT

Bladder leiomyomas are rare, benign tumors with a variety of clinical presentations. Surgical approach is typically based on symptomatology and leiomyoma location. Literature on robotic excision is limited. We present our case of a unique transvesical approach. The patient had rapid convalescence with no complications, suggesting robotic transvesical excision is a safe, effective treatment for bladder leiomyoma for suitable candidates.

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