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Ann Glob Health ; 89(1): 32, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238945


Background: Place-based international electives that build global health competencies have existed for decades. However, these electives require travel and are infeasible for many trainees around the world, particularly those with insufficient financial resources, logistical complexities, or visa limitations. The emergence of virtual approaches to global health electives, catalyzed by the travel pause related to the COVID-19 pandemic, necessitates the exploration of learner impacts, participant diversity, and curricular frameworks. Child Family Health International (CFHI), a non-profit global health education organization that partners with universities to expand immersive educational offerings, launched a virtual global health elective in 2021. The elective drew on faculty from Bolivia, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, the Philippines, Uganda, and the United States. Objective: This study aimed to describe a newly developed virtual global health elective curriculum and evaluate the demographics of and impacts on trainee participants. Methods: Eighty-two trainees who were enrolled in the virtual global health elective from January to May 2021 completed both 1) pre- and post-elective self-assessments of domains of competency mapped to the elective curriculum and 2) free text responses to standardized questions. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistical analysis, paired t-testing, and qualitative thematic analysis. Findings: The virtual global health elective had 40% of its participants hail from countries other than the United States. Self-reported competency in global health broadly, planetary health, low resource clinical reasoning, and overall composite competency significantly increased. Qualitative analysis revealed learner development in health systems, social determinants of health, critical thinking, planetary health, cultural humility, and professional practice. Conclusion: Virtual global health electives effectively develop key competencies in global health. This virtual elective had a 40-fold increase in the proportion of trainees from outside the United States, compared to pre-pandemic place-based electives. The virtual platform facilitates accessibility for learners from a variety of health professions and a wide range of geographic and socioeconomic environments. Further research is needed to confirm and expand on self-reported data, and to pursue approaches to greater diversity, equity, and inclusion in virtual frameworks.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , United States , Humans , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Collection , Curriculum , Catalysis
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269507


BACKGROUND: The COVID pandemic brought the need for more realistic remote consultations into focus. 2D Telemedicine solutions fail to replicate the fluency or authenticity of in-person consultations. This research reports on an international collaboration on the participatory development and first validated clinical use of a novel, real-time 360-degree 3D Telemedicine system worldwide. The development of the system - leveraging Microsoft's Holoportation™ communication technology - commenced at the Canniesburn Plastic Surgery Unit, Glasgow, in March 2020. METHODS: The research followed the VR CORE guidelines on the development of digital health trials, placing patients at the heart of the development process. This consisted of three separate studies - a clinician feedback study (23 clinicians, Nov-Dec 2020), a patient feedback study (26 patients, Jul-Oct 2021), and a cohort study focusing on safety and reliability (40 patients, Oct 2021-Mar 2022). "Lose, Keep, and Change" feedback prompts were used to engage patients in the development process and guide incremental improvements. RESULTS: Participatory testing demonstrated improved patient metrics with 3D in comparison to 2D Telemedicine, including validated measures of satisfaction (p<0.0001), realism or 'presence' (Single Item Presence scale, p<0.0001), and quality (Telehealth Usability Questionnaire, p = 0.0002). The safety and clinical concordance (95%) of 3D Telemedicine with a face-to-face consultation were equivalent or exceeded estimates for 2D Telemedicine. CONCLUSIONS: One of the ultimate goals of telemedicine is for the quality of remote consultations to get closer to the experience of face-to-face consultations. These data provide the first evidence that Holoportation™ communication technology brings 3D Telemedicine closer to this goal than a 2D equivalent.

Circulation ; 147(5): 364-374, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2223896


BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial injury in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a poor prognosis. Its associations and pathogenesis are unclear. Our aim was to assess the presence, nature, and extent of myocardial damage in hospitalized patients with troponin elevation. METHODS: Across 25 hospitals in the United Kingdom, 342 patients with COVID-19 and an elevated troponin level (COVID+/troponin+) were enrolled between June 2020 and March 2021 and had a magnetic resonance imaging scan within 28 days of discharge. Two prospective control groups were recruited, comprising 64 patients with COVID-19 and normal troponin levels (COVID+/troponin-) and 113 patients without COVID-19 or elevated troponin level matched by age and cardiovascular comorbidities (COVID-/comorbidity+). Regression modeling was performed to identify predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events at 12 months. RESULTS: Of the 519 included patients, 356 (69%) were men, with a median (interquartile range) age of 61.0 years (53.8, 68.8). The frequency of any heart abnormality, defined as left or right ventricular impairment, scar, or pericardial disease, was 2-fold greater in cases (61% [207/342]) compared with controls (36% [COVID+/troponin-] versus 31% [COVID-/comorbidity+]; P<0.001 for both). More cases than controls had ventricular impairment (17.2% versus 3.1% and 7.1%) or scar (42% versus 7% and 23%; P<0.001 for both). The myocardial injury pattern was different, with cases more likely than controls to have infarction (13% versus 2% and 7%; P<0.01) or microinfarction (9% versus 0% and 1%; P<0.001), but there was no difference in nonischemic scar (13% versus 5% and 14%; P=0.10). Using the Lake Louise magnetic resonance imaging criteria, the prevalence of probable recent myocarditis was 6.7% (23/342) in cases compared with 1.7% (2/113) in controls without COVID-19 (P=0.045). During follow-up, 4 patients died and 34 experienced a subsequent major adverse cardiovascular event (10.2%), which was similar to controls (6.1%; P=0.70). Myocardial scar, but not previous COVID-19 infection or troponin, was an independent predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (odds ratio, 2.25 [95% CI, 1.12-4.57]; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with contemporary controls, patients with COVID-19 and elevated cardiac troponin level have more ventricular impairment and myocardial scar in early convalescence. However, the proportion with myocarditis was low and scar pathogenesis was diverse, including a newly described pattern of microinfarction. REGISTRATION: URL:; Unique identifier: 58667920.

COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , Myocarditis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cicatrix , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Troponin , Aged