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1.
J Infect Dis ; 228(2): 143-148, 2023 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255658

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; in the United States, reporting of MIS-C after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is required for vaccine safety monitoring. Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine was authorized for children aged 5-11 years on 29 October 2021. Covering a period when approximately 7 million children received vaccine, surveillance for MIS-C ≤ 90 days postvaccination using passive systems identified 58 children with MIS-C and laboratory evidence of past/recent SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 4 without evidence. During a period with extensive SARS-CoV-2 circulation, MIS-C illness in children after COVID-19 vaccination who lacked evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was rare (<1 per million vaccinated children).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(4): e105-e108, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252689

ABSTRACT

We describe characteristics, clinical features and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons compared with non-Hispanic white persons. AI/AN patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children were younger, more often obese, and from areas of higher social vulnerability. A greater proportion of AI/AN patients had severe respiratory involvement and shock.


Subject(s)
American Indian or Alaska Native , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/ethnology , United States/epidemiology
3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(3): 252-259, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a multiorgan hyperinflammatory condition following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data on COVID-19 vaccine adverse events and vaccine attitudes in children with prior MIS-C are limited. We described characteristics associated with COVID-19 vaccination, vaccine adverse events and vaccine attitudes in children with a history of MIS-C or COVID-19 and their parents/guardians. METHODS: We enrolled children previously hospitalized for MIS-C or COVID-19 from 3 academic institutions. We abstracted charts and interviewed children and parents/guardians regarding vaccine adverse events and acceptability. RESULTS: Of 163 vaccine-eligible children enrolled with a history of MIS-C and 70 with history of COVID-19, 51 (31%) and 34 (49%), respectively, received mRNA COVID-19 vaccine a median of 10 (Interquartile Range 6-13) months after hospital discharge. Among 20 children with MIS-C and parents/guardians who provided interviews, local injection site reaction of brief duration (mean 1.8 days) was most commonly reported; no children required medical care within 2 weeks postvaccination. Vaccine survey results of interviewed, vaccinated children and their parents/guardians: of 20 children with MIS-C and 15 children with COVID-19, 17 (85%) and 13 (87%), respectively, listed doctors in the top 3 most trusted sources for vaccine information; 13 (65%) and 9 (60%) discussed vaccination with their doctor. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination was well tolerated in children with prior MIS-C or COVID-19 participating in our investigation. Parents/guardians regarded their children's doctors as a trusted source of information for COVID-19 vaccines, and most vaccinated children's parents/guardians had discussed COVID-19 vaccination for their child with their doctor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Hospitalization , Vaccination , Parents
4.
MMWR Recomm Rep ; 71(4): 1-14, 2022 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164343

ABSTRACT

This report summarizes the evidence and rationale supporting the components of the CSTE/CDC MIS-C surveillance case definition and describes the methods used to develop the definition. These methods included convening MIS-C clinical experts (i.e., consultants): regarding identification of MIS-C and its distinction from other pediatric conditions, a review of available literature comparing MIS-C phenotype with that of pediatric COVID-19 and other hyperinflammatory syndromes, and retrospective application of different criteria to data from MIS-C cases previously reported to CDC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Epidemiologists , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Population Surveillance
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S303-S307, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051342

ABSTRACT

We describe 2116 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during Delta and Omicron circulation from July 2021 through January 2022. Half of MIS-C patients were aged 5-11 years, 52% received intensive care unit-level care, and 1.1% died. Only 3.0% of eligible patients were fully vaccinated prior to MIS-C onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
6.
Pediatrics ; 150(2)2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited postauthorization safety data for the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination among children ages 5 to 11 years are available, particularly for the adverse event myocarditis, which has been detected in adolescents and young adults. We describe adverse events observed during the first 4 months of the United States coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination program in this age group. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3 United States safety monitoring systems: v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based system that monitors reactions and health effects; the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), the national spontaneous reporting system comanaged by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Food and Drug Administration; and the Vaccine Safety Datalink, an active surveillance system that monitors electronic health records for prespecified events, including myocarditis. RESULTS: Among 48 795 children ages 5 to 11 years enrolled in v-safe, most reported reactions were mild-to-moderate, most frequently reported the day after vaccination, and were more common after dose 2. VAERS received 7578 adverse event reports; 97% were nonserious. On review of 194 serious VAERS reports, 15 myocarditis cases were verified; 8 occurred in boys after dose 2 (reporting rate 2.2 per million doses). In the Vaccine Safety Datalink, no safety signals were detected in weekly sequential monitoring after administration of 726 820 doses. CONCLUSIONS: Safety findings for Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine from 3 United States monitoring systems in children ages 5 to 11 years show that most reported adverse events were mild and no safety signals were observed in active surveillance. VAERS reporting rates of myocarditis after dose 2 in this age group were substantially lower than those observed among adolescents ages 12 to 15 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(7): 701-709, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825745

ABSTRACT

Importance: As self-collected home antigen tests become widely available, a better understanding of their performance during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection is needed. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of home antigen tests compared with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture by days from illness onset, as well as user acceptability. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted from January to May 2021 in San Diego County, California, and metropolitan Denver, Colorado. The convenience sample included adults and children with RT-PCR-confirmed infection who used self-collected home antigen tests for 15 days and underwent at least 1 nasopharyngeal swab for RT-PCR, viral culture, and sequencing. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the daily sensitivity of home antigen tests to detect RT-PCR-confirmed cases. Secondary outcomes included the daily percentage of antigen test, RT-PCR, and viral culture results that were positive, and antigen test sensitivity compared with same-day RT-PCR and cultures. Antigen test use errors and acceptability were assessed for a subset of participants. Results: This study enrolled 225 persons with RT-PCR-confirmed infection (median [range] age, 29 [1-83] years; 117 female participants [52%]; 10 [4%] Asian, 6 [3%] Black or African American, 50 [22%] Hispanic or Latino, 3 [1%] Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, 145 [64%] White, and 11 [5%] multiracial individuals) who completed 3044 antigen tests and 642 nasopharyngeal swabs. Antigen test sensitivity was 50% (95% CI, 45%-55%) during the infectious period, 64% (95% CI, 56%-70%) compared with same-day RT-PCR, and 84% (95% CI, 75%-90%) compared with same-day cultures. Antigen test sensitivity peaked 4 days after illness onset at 77% (95% CI, 69%-83%). Antigen test sensitivity improved with a second antigen test 1 to 2 days later, particularly early in the infection. Six days after illness onset, antigen test result positivity was 61% (95% CI, 53%-68%). Almost all (216 [96%]) surveyed individuals reported that they would be more likely to get tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection if home antigen tests were available over the counter. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this cohort study of home antigen tests suggest that sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 was moderate compared with RT-PCR and high compared with viral culture. The results also suggest that symptomatic individuals with an initial negative home antigen test result for SARS-CoV-2 infection should test again 1 to 2 days later because test sensitivity peaked several days after illness onset and improved with repeated testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e1165-e1175, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe hyperinflammatory condition in persons aged <21 years associated with antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Our objective was to describe MIS-C cases reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) national surveillance since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began. METHODS: We included patients meeting the MIS-C case definition with onset date from 19 February 2020 through 31 July 2021, using CDC's MIS-C case report form, which collects information on demographics, clinical presentation, and laboratory results. Trends over time across 3 MIS-C pandemic waves were assessed using Cochran-Armitage test for categorical and Jonckheere-Terpstra test for continuous variables. RESULTS: Of 4901 reported cases, 4470 met inclusion criteria. Median patient age increased over time (P < .001), with a median of 9 years (interquartile range, 5-13 years) during the most recent (third) wave. Male predominance also increased (62% in third wave, P < .001). A significant (P < .001) increase in severe hematologic and gastrointestinal involvement was observed across the study period. Frequency of several cardiovascular complications (ie, cardiac dysfunction, myocarditis, and shock/vasopressor receipt) and renal failure declined (P < .001). Provision of critical care including mechanical ventilation (P < .001) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; P = .046) decreased, as did duration of hospitalization and mortality (each P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Over the first 3 pandemic waves of MIS-C in the United States, cardiovascular complications and clinical outcomes including length of hospitalization, receipt of ECMO, and death decreased over time. These data serve as a baseline for monitoring future trends associated with SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) or other variants and increased COVID-19 vaccination among children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , United States/epidemiology
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1841-e1849, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spectrum of disease is essential for clinical and public health interventions. There are limited data on mild or asymptomatic infections, but recognition of these individuals is key as they contribute to viral transmission. We describe the symptom profiles from individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: From 22 March to 22 April 2020 in Wisconsin and Utah, we enrolled and prospectively observed 198 household contacts exposed to SARS-CoV-2. We collected and tested nasopharyngeal specimens by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) 2 or more times during a 14-day period. Contacts completed daily symptom diaries. We characterized symptom profiles on the date of first positive rRT-PCR test and described progression of symptoms over time. RESULTS: We identified 47 contacts, median age 24 (3-75) years, with detectable SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR. The most commonly reported symptoms on the day of first positive rRT-PCR test were upper respiratory (n = 32 [68%]) and neurologic (n = 30 [64%]); fever was not commonly reported (n = 9 [19%]). Eight (17%) individuals were asymptomatic at the date of first positive rRT-PCR collection; 2 (4%) had preceding symptoms that resolved and 6 (13%) subsequently developed symptoms. Children less frequently reported lower respiratory symptoms (21%, 60%, and 69% for <18, 18-49, and ≥50 years of age, respectively; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Household contacts with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported mild symptoms. When assessed at a single timepoint, several contacts appeared to have asymptomatic infection; however, over time all developed symptoms. These findings are important to inform infection control, contact tracing, and community mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Contact Tracing , Fever , Humans , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255208, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332001

ABSTRACT

Serologic assays developed for SARS-CoV-2 detect different antibody subtypes and are based on different target antigens. Comparison of the performance of a SARS-CoV-2 Spike-Protein ELISA and the nucleocapsid-based Abbott ArchitectTM SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay indicated that the assays had high concordance, with rare paired discordant tests results.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
13.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1362-1371, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To better understand severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding and infectivity, we estimated SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding duration, described participant characteristics associated with the first negative rRT-PCR test (resolution), and determined if replication-competent viruses was recoverable ≥10 days after symptom onset. METHODS: We collected serial nasopharyngeal specimens from 109 individuals with rRT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 in Utah and Wisconsin. We calculated viral RNA shedding resolution probability using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and evaluated characteristics associated with shedding resolution using Cox proportional hazards regression. We attempted viral culture for 35 rRT-PCR-positive nasopharyngeal specimens collected ≥10 days after symptom onset. RESULTS: The likelihood of viral RNA shedding resolution at 10 days after symptom onset was approximately 3%. Time to shedding resolution was shorter among participants aged <18 years (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR], 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-5.6) and longer among those aged ≥50 years (aHR, 0.50; 95% CI, .3-.9) compared to participants aged 18-49 years. No replication-competent viruses were recovered. CONCLUSIONS: Although most patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 for ≥10 days after symptom onset, our findings suggest that individuals with mild to moderate COVID-19 are unlikely to be infectious ≥10 days after symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Shedding , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Virus Replication , Young Adult
14.
Pediatrics ; 147(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052449

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In late June 2020, a large outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred at a sleep-away youth camp in Georgia, affecting primarily persons ≤21 years. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among campers and staff (attendees) to determine the extent of the outbreak and assess factors contributing to transmission. METHODS: Attendees were interviewed to ascertain demographic characteristics, known exposures to COVID-19 and community exposures, and mitigation measures before, during, and after attending camp. COVID-19 case status was determined for all camp attendees on the basis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test results and reported symptoms. We calculated attack rates and instantaneous reproduction numbers and sequenced SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes from the outbreak. RESULTS: Among 627 attendees, the median age was 15 years (interquartile range: 12-16 years); 56% (351 of 627) of attendees were female. The attack rate was 56% (351 of 627) among all attendees. On the basis of date of illness onset or first positive test result on a specimen collected, 12 case patients were infected before arriving at camp and 339 case patients were camp associated. Among 288 case patients with available symptom information, 45 (16%) were asymptomatic. Despite cohorting, 50% of attendees reported direct contact with people outside their cabin cohort. On the first day of camp session, the instantaneous reproduction number was 10. Viral genomic diversity was low. CONCLUSIONS: Few introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into a youth congregate setting resulted in a large outbreak. Testing strategies should be combined with prearrival quarantine, routine symptom monitoring with appropriate isolation and quarantine, cohorting, social distancing, mask wearing, and enhanced disinfection and hand hygiene. Promotion of mitigation measures among younger populations is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Camping , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1457-1459, 2020 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842400

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence that children and adolescents can efficiently transmit SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1-3). During July-August 2020, four state health departments and CDC investigated a COVID-19 outbreak that occurred during a 3-week family gathering of five households in which an adolescent aged 13 years was the index and suspected primary patient; 11 subsequent cases occurred.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Family , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Pediatrics ; 147(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-839914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited data exist on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in children. We described infection rates and symptom profiles among pediatric household contacts of individuals with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: We enrolled individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 and their household contacts, assessed daily symptoms prospectively for 14 days, and obtained specimens for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and serology testing. Among pediatric contacts (<18 years), we described transmission, assessed the risk factors for infection, and calculated symptom positive and negative predictive values. We compared secondary infection rates and symptoms between pediatric and adult contacts using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Among 58 households, 188 contacts were enrolled (120 adults; 68 children). Secondary infection rates for adults (30%) and children (28%) were similar. Among households with potential for transmission from children, child-to-adult transmission may have occurred in 2 of 10 (20%), and child-to-child transmission may have occurred in 1 of 6 (17%). Pediatric case patients most commonly reported headache (79%), sore throat (68%), and rhinorrhea (68%); symptoms had low positive predictive values, except measured fever (100%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 44% to 100%). Compared with symptomatic adults, children were less likely to report cough (odds ratio [OR]: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.57), loss of taste (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.74), and loss of smell (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.96) and more likely to report sore throat (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.04 to 11.18). CONCLUSIONS: Children and adults had similar secondary infection rates, but children generally had less frequent and severe symptoms. In two states early in the pandemic, we observed possible transmission from children in approximately one-fifth of households with potential to observe such transmission patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Utah/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1023-1025, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691545

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available about transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), among youths. During June 17-20, an overnight camp in Georgia (camp A) held orientation for 138 trainees and 120 staff members; staff members remained for the first camp session, scheduled during June 21-27, and were joined by 363 campers and three senior staff members on June 21. Camp A adhered to the measures in Georgia's Executive Order* that allowed overnight camps to operate beginning on May 31, including requiring all trainees, staff members, and campers to provide documentation of a negative viral SARS-CoV-2 test ≤12 days before arriving. Camp A adopted most† components of CDC's Suggestions for Youth and Summer Camps§ to minimize the risk for SARS-CoV-2 introduction and transmission. Measures not implemented were cloth masks for campers and opening windows and doors for increased ventilation in buildings. Cloth masks were required for staff members. Camp attendees were cohorted by cabin and engaged in a variety of indoor and outdoor activities, including daily vigorous singing and cheering. On June 23, a teenage staff member left camp A after developing chills the previous evening. The staff member was tested and reported a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2 the following day (June 24). Camp A officials began sending campers home on June 24 and closed the camp on June 27. On June 25, the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) was notified and initiated an investigation. DPH recommended that all attendees be tested and self-quarantine, and isolate if they had a positive test result.


Subject(s)
Camping , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
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