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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 535, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study determined if non-communicable disease status, HIV status, COVID-19 status and co-habiting were associated with COVID-19 test status in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data of 5945 respondents age 18-years-old and above from 31 countries in sub-Saharan Africa collected through an online survey conducted between June and December 2020, were extracted. The dependent variable was COVID-19 status (testing positive for COVID-19 and having symptoms of COVID-19 but not getting tested). The independent variables were non-communicable disease status (hypertension, diabetes, cancer, heart conditions, respiratory conditions, depression), HIV positive status, COVID-19 status (knowing a close friend who tested positive for COVID-19 and someone who died from COVID-19) and co-habiting (yes/no). Two binary logistic regression models developed to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables were adjusted for age, sex, employment, sub region and educational status. RESULTS: Having a close friend who tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR:6.747), knowing someone who died from COVID-19 infection (AOR:1.732), and living with other people (AOR:1.512) were significantly associated with higher odds of testing positive for COVID-19 infection, while living with HIV was associated with significantly lower odds of testing positive for COVID-19 infection (AOR:0.284). Also, respondents with respiratory conditions (AOR:2.487), self-reported depression (AOR:1.901), those who had a close friend who tested positive for COVID-19 infection (AOR:2.562) and who knew someone who died from COVID-19 infection (AOR:1.811) had significantly higher odds of having symptoms of COVID-19 infection but not getting tested. CONCLUSION: Non-communicable diseases seem not to increase the risk for COVID-19 positive test while cohabiting seems to reduce this risk. The likelihood that those who know someone who tested positive to or who died from COVID-19 not getting tested when symptomatic suggests there is poor contact tracing in the region. People with respiratory conditions and depression need support to get tested for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics
2.
Clin Chim Acta ; 533: 42-47, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2) is a global public health emergency. Age and gender are two important factors related to the risk and outcome of various diseases. Cycle threshold (Ct) value is believed to have relation with age and gender. OBJECTIVE: This study has been conducted to investigates the association between SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold to age and gender of COVID-19 patients, to investigate whether the population-wide change of SARSCoV2 RTPCR Ct value over time is corelated to the number of new COVID19 cases and to investigate the dynamic of RdRp and N genes. METHODS: 72,811 individuals from second wave of COVID19, were observed in current study at Pure Health Lab, Mafraq Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE. RESULTS: 15,201/72,811 (21 %) positivity was observed. COVID-19 were more prevalent in males (59.35%) as compared to female (40.65%). The Positivity rate were significantly higher in Male than in Female cases (p-Value = 0.04). The Ct values for both targets of all the samples were ranged from 4.57 to 29.73. Longitudinal analysis showed significant increased during the study period from starting to end as were hypothesized. Interestingly, both the targets (RdRp and N) were present in age < 1 year. Which may indicate that mutated strains are not prevalent in children's < 1 year. CONCLUSION: There was no statistically significant difference in viral loads in between age-groups. Males were tending to higher viral load compared to females. The findings have implications for preventive strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Distribution , Child , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sex Characteristics
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 779498, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798917

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiple facets of the pandemic can be a source of fear, depression, anxiety and can cause changes in sleep patterns. The aim of this study was to identify health profiles and the COVID-19 pandemic related factors associated with fear, depression, anxiety and changes in sleep pattern in adults in Nigeria. Methods: The data for this analysis was extracted from a cross-sectional online survey that collected information about mental health and well-ness from a convenience sample of adults 18 years and above resident in Nigeria from July to December 2020. Study participants were asked to complete an anonymous, closed-ended online questionnaire that solicited information on sociodemographic profile, health profiles (high, moderate and low COVID-19 infection risk profile) including HIV status, COVID-19 status, and self-reported experiences of fear, anxiety, depression and changes in sleep patterns. Results: In total, 4,439 participants with mean age of 38.3 (±11.6) years responded to the survey. Factors associated with higher odds of having COVID-19 related fear were health risk (p < 0.05); living with HIV (AOR: 3.88; 95% CI: 3.22-4.69); having COVID-19 symptoms but not tested (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.30-1.99); having a friend who tested positive to COVID-19 (AOR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.07-1.53) and knowing someone who died from COVID-19 (AOR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.24-1.65). The odds of feeling anxious was significantly higher for those with moderate or low health risk profile (p < 0.05); living with HIV (AOR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.32-2.04); had a friend who tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.08-1.68) or knew someone who died from COVID-19 (AOR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.28-1.84). The odds of feeling depressed was significantly higher for those with health risk profile (p < 0.05); living with HIV (AOR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.89-3.28); and respondents who had COVID-19 symptoms but had not taken a test (AOR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.02-1.94). Factors associated with higher odds of having sleep pattern changes were having moderate and low health risk profiles (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study findings suggest that the pandemic may cause fear, anxiety, depression and changes in sleep patterns differently for people with different health profile, HIV status and COVID-19 status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Fear , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sleep
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331484

ABSTRACT

Background As a novel disease, understanding the relationship between the clinical and demographic characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and their outcome is critical. We investigated this relationship in hospitalized patients in a tertiary healthcare setting. Aims/objectives To study COVID-19 severity and outcomes in relation to clinical and demographic characteristics of in admitted patients Methodology In this cross-sectional study, medical records for 1087 COVID-19 patients were reviewed to extract symptoms, comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and outcomes data. Statistical analyses included the post-stratification chi-square test, independent sample t-test, multivariate logistic regression, and time-to-event analysis. Results The majority of the study participants were >50 years old (67%) and male (59%) and had the following symptoms: fever (96%), cough (95%), shortness of breath (73%), loss of taste (77%), and loss of smell (77%). Regarding worst outcome, multivariate regression analysis showed that these characteristics were statistically significant: shortness of breath (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 31.3;95% CI, 11.87–82.53;p < 0.001), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (aOR 28.3;95% CI,9.0–89.6;p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (aOR 5.1;95% CI;3.2–8.2;p < 0.001), ischemic heart disease (aOR 3.4;95% CI,1.6–7;p = 0.001), nausea and vomiting (aOR 3.3;95% CI, 1.7–6.6;p = 0.001), and prolonged hospital stay (aOR 1.04;95% CI, 1.02–1.08;p = 0.001), while patients with rhinorrhea were significantly protected (aOR 0.3;95% CI, 0.2–0.5;p < 0.001). A Kaplan–Meier curve showed that the symptoms of shortness of breath, ICU admission, fever, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea increased the risk of mortality. Conclusion Increasing age, certain comorbidities and symptoms, and direct admission to the ICU increased the risk of worse outcomes. Further research is needed to determine risk factors that may increase disease severity and devise a proper risk-scoring system to initiate timely management.

5.
BMC Psychiatry Vol 22 2022, ArtID 145 ; 22, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1766592

ABSTRACT

Reports an error in "Factors associated with Covid-19 pandemic induced post-traumatic stress symptoms among adults living with and without HIV in Nigeria: A cross-sectional study" by Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Olanrewaju Ibigbami, Maha ElTantawi, Giuliana Florencia Abeldano, Eshrat Ara, Martin Amogre Ayanore, Passent Ellakany, Balgis Gaffar, Nuraldeen Maher Al-Khanati, Ifeoma Idigbe, Anthonia Omotola Ishabiyi, Mohammed Jafer, Abeedah Tu-Allah Khan, Zumama Khalid, Folake Barakat Lawal, Joanne Lusher, Ntombifuthi P. Nzimande, Bamidele Emmanuel Osamika, Bamidele Olubukola Popoola, Mir Faeq Ali Quadri, Mark Roque, Anas Shamala, Ala'a B. Al-Tammemi, Muhammad Abrar Yousaf, Jorma I. Virtanen, Roberto Ariel Abeldano Zuniga, Joseph Chukwudi Okeibunor and Annie Lu Nguyen (BMC Psychiatry, 2022[Jan][21], Vol 22[48]). In the original article, affiliation 7 is incorrectly assigned to Eshrat Ara. The correct affiliations are given in erratum. (The following of the original article appeared in record 2022-26374-001). Background: Nigeria is a country with high risk for traumatic incidences, now aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to identify differences in COVID-19 related post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among people living and not living with HIV;to assess whether PTSS were associated with COVID-19 pandemic-related anger, loneliness, social isolation, and social support;and to determine the association between PTSS and use of COVID-19 prevention strategies. Methods: The data of the 3761 respondents for this analysis was extracted from a cross-sectional online survey that collected information about mental health and wellness from a convenience sample of adults, 18 years and above, in Nigeria from July to December 2020. Information was collected on the study's dependent variable (PTSS), independent variables (self-reported COVID-19, HIV status, use of COVID-19 prevention strategies, perception of social isolation, access to emotional support, feelings of anger and loneliness), and potential confounder (age, sex at birth, employment status). A binary logistic regression model tested the associations between independent and dependent variables. Results: Nearly half (47.5%) of the respondents had PTSS. People who had symptoms but were not tested (AOR = 2.20), felt socially isolated (AOR = 1.16), angry (AOR = 2.64), or lonely (AOR = 2.19) had significantly greater odds of reporting PTSS (p < 0.001). People living with HIV (AOR = 0.39), those who wore masks (AOR = 0.62) and those who had emotional support (AOR = 0.63), had lower odds of reporting PTSS (p < .05). Conclusion: The present study identified some multifaceted relationships between post-traumatic stress, HIV status, facemask use, anger, loneliness, social isolation, and access to emotional support during this protracted COVID-19 pandemic. These findings have implications for the future health of those affected, particularly for individuals living in Nigeria. Public health education should be incorporated in programs targeting prevention and prompt diagnosis and treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder at the community level. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

6.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743851

ABSTRACT

Background Multiple facets of the pandemic can be a source of fear, depression, anxiety and can cause changes in sleep patterns. The aim of this study was to identify health profiles and the COVID-19 pandemic related factors associated with fear, depression, anxiety and changes in sleep pattern in adults in Nigeria. Methods The data for this analysis was extracted from a cross-sectional online survey that collected information about mental health and well-ness from a convenience sample of adults 18 years and above resident in Nigeria from July to December 2020. Study participants were asked to complete an anonymous, closed-ended online questionnaire that solicited information on sociodemographic profile, health profiles (high, moderate and low COVID-19 infection risk profile) including HIV status, COVID-19 status, and self-reported experiences of fear, anxiety, depression and changes in sleep patterns. Results In total, 4,439 participants with mean age of 38.3 (±11.6) years responded to the survey. Factors associated with higher odds of having COVID-19 related fear were health risk (p < 0.05);living with HIV (AOR: 3.88;95% CI: 3.22–4.69);having COVID-19 symptoms but not tested (AOR: 1.61;95% CI: 1.30–1.99);having a friend who tested positive to COVID-19 (AOR: 1.28;95% CI: 1.07–1.53) and knowing someone who died from COVID-19 (AOR: 1.43;95% CI: 1.24–1.65). The odds of feeling anxious was significantly higher for those with moderate or low health risk profile (p < 0.05);living with HIV (AOR: 1.64;95% CI: 1.32–2.04);had a friend who tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR: 1.35;95% CI: 1.08–1.68) or knew someone who died from COVID-19 (AOR: 1.53;95% CI: 1.28–1.84). The odds of feeling depressed was significantly higher for those with health risk profile (p < 0.05);living with HIV (AOR: 2.49;95% CI: 1.89–3.28);and respondents who had COVID-19 symptoms but had not taken a test (AOR: 1.41;95% CI: 1.02–1.94). Factors associated with higher odds of having sleep pattern changes were having moderate and low health risk profiles (p < 0.05). Conclusion The study findings suggest that the pandemic may cause fear, anxiety, depression and changes in sleep patterns differently for people with different health profile, HIV status and COVID-19 status.

8.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(2): e525, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705401

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mortality rates and clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) vary significantly. OBJECTIVES: To describe the data of patients with pulmonary comorbidities who were admitted to the ICU with COVID-19 in Qatar in terms of demographic characteristics, coexisting conditions, imaging findings, and outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of the outcomes with regard to mortality and requirement of invasive ventilation, demographic characteristics, coexisting conditions, secondary infections, and imaging findings for critical care patients with COVID-19 in Qatar who had pulmonary comorbidities between March and June 2020. RESULTS: A total of 923 patients were included, 29 (3.14%) were found to have pulmonary disease. All these 29 patients' respiratory disease was noted to be asthma. Among these, three patients (10.3%) died in the ICU within 28 days of ICU admission. They were all above 50 years old. Nineteen (66%) patients required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Twenty-one (72.4%) patients were males. The most common comorbidities included diabetes mellitus (55.1%) and hypertension (62%). Eighteen (62%) patients developed secondary infections in the ICU. Five (17.24%) patients developed renal impairment. Twenty (69%) patients received tocilizumab as part of their COVID-19 management, and out of these 16 (80%) patients developed a coinfection. CONCLUSION: Patients with pulmonary disorders had higher mortality rates than other patients admitted to ICU during the same time frame with similar comorbidities; these patients require extra consideration and care to avoid disease progression and death.

9.
Vaccine ; 40(12): 1855-1863, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665515

ABSTRACT

Renewed COVID-19 outbreaks, stemming from the highly infectious Delta and Omicron variants, prompted rising fears of a 'pandemic among the unvaccinated'. To address this prevalent vaccination crisis, media framing communication strategies can amplify the scientific evidence on COVID-19 vaccines to reach diverse geographic and socio-economic communities. The critical role of media framing strategies to engage and encourage large populations regarding vaccine acceptance has been rarely studied, despite growing evidence on vaccine hesitancy. The present study used a multi-method approach (i.e., content analysis and quasi-experiments) that unpacked the framing practices employed by the mainstream media in Pakistan. The findings of the content analysis revealed that the media extensively used uncertainty, conflict, consequences, and action rather than new evidence and reassurance frames in its COVID-19 related campaigns. In a series of quasi-experiments involving 720 participants, we manipulated these six frames of COVID-19 related news coverage (i.e., uncertainty, conflict, consequences, action, new evidence, and reassurance) to investigate the underlying mechanism that influences vaccine acceptance. The findings established that the message-consistent effects of media frames manifesting fear (e.g., consequence and uncertainty) and action cues made receivers more supportive of vaccination. The present study findings theoretically address the calls for a more inclusive "community-health reporting model", besides offering new evidence on the media framing strategies to deliver more targeted, meaningful, and effective campaigns to raise public acceptance for COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 48, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nigeria is a country with high risk for traumatic incidences, now aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to identify differences in COVID-19 related post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among people living and not living with HIV; to assess whether PTSS were associated with COVID-19 pandemic-related anger, loneliness, social isolation, and social support; and to determine the association between PTSS and use of COVID-19 prevention strategies. METHODS: The data of the 3761 respondents for this analysis was extracted from a cross-sectional online survey that collected information about mental health and wellness from a convenience sample of adults, 18 years and above, in Nigeria from July to December 2020. Information was collected on the study's dependent variable (PTSS), independent variables (self-reported COVID-19, HIV status, use of COVID-19 prevention strategies, perception of social isolation, access to emotional support, feelings of anger and loneliness), and potential confounder (age, sex at birth, employment status). A binary logistic regression model tested the associations between independent and dependent variables. RESULTS: Nearly half (47.5%) of the respondents had PTSS. People who had symptoms but were not tested (AOR = 2.20), felt socially isolated (AOR = 1.16), angry (AOR = 2.64), or lonely (AOR = 2.19) had significantly greater odds of reporting PTSS (p < 0.001). People living with HIV (AOR = 0.39), those who wore masks (AOR = 0.62) and those who had emotional support (AOR = 0.63), had lower odds of reporting PTSS (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The present study identified some multifaceted relationships between post-traumatic stress, HIV status, facemask use, anger, loneliness, social isolation, and access to emotional support during this protracted COVID-19 pandemic. These findings have implications for the future health of those affected, particularly for individuals living in Nigeria. Public health education should be incorporated in programs targeting prevention and prompt diagnosis and treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder at the community level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Nigeria , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
11.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(1): 37-41, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599461

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and cut-off values of C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum ferritin, and D-dimer for predicting mortality of COVID-19 infection. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from January to May 2021. METHODOLOGY: Serum CRP, LDH, ferritin, and D-dimer were measured in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection at admission. Patients were followed for in-hospital disease outcome. ROC curve was used to determine area under curve (AUC) and cut-off values of biomarkers, followed by multi-variate analysis by logistic regression. RESULTS: In 386 patients, male to female ratio was 1.47/1 (230/156); and mean age was 54.03 ± 16.2 years. Disease was fatal in 135 (35%) patients. AUC for mortality was 0.730 for LDH, 0.737 for CRP, 0.747 for ferritin and 0.758 for D-dimer. Mortality was higher with LDH ≥400 U/ml, Odds Ratio (OR) 5.37 (95% CI 3.01-9.57: p = 0.001), CRP ≥30 ng/L, OR 4.30 (95% CI 2.11-8.74: p = <0.001), serum ferritin ≥200 ng/ml, OR 4.13 (95% CI 1.05-16.2: p = 0.02), and D-dimer ≥400 ng/ml, OR 2.72 (95% CI 1.06-7.01: p = 0.03) with 2 log likelihood of 131.54 for predicting disease outcome with 71.7% accuracy in multi-variate analysis. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum CRP, LDH, ferritin and D-dimer are associated with higher mortality in patients of COVID-19 infection. Serum CRP ≥30ng/ml, LDH ≥400 U/L, ferritin ≥200 ng/ml and D-dimer ≥400 ng/ml can predict fatal outcome in COVID-19 patients. Key Words: C-reactive protein (CRP), COVID-19 infection, D-dimer, Ferritin, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Mortality.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
12.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-291994

ABSTRACT

Restrictions on movement and basic human rights inevitably causes a negative impact on the mental health of individuals worldwide. This could become particularly apparent in the UK where the government placed firm restrictions on the movement and freedom of the public in response to COVID-19. This study aimed to determine associations between mental health and strategies adopted by residents to cope with lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-reported data were collected from 647 adults through an online survey. Results revealed that over 20% of participants reported symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed that participants reporting use of positive coping strategies (spending time meditating and with pet companions) had significantly lower odds of experiencing symptoms of PTSD;whereas those who spent time social distancing by communicating with others online and exercising at home showed increased odds of experiencing PTSD symptoms. This study signifies COVID-19 as a major source of mental distress for adults residing in the UK and advocates various methods of coping during such stress-inducing times.

13.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 1615-1629, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Watching multiple episodes using streaming services, such as Netflix, Hulu, and Youku, has become widespread in recent years. While much attention has been paid to binge-watching, there is, however, a dearth of research on binge-watching and its adverse psychological effects during the COVID-19 pandemic. To the best of our knowledge, less attention has been paid to understanding the multiple influences of binge-watching on binge-watchers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the past studies on this topic mainly underscored the individual's motivations for binge-watching. Also, past studies were limited and inconclusive as they mostly espoused only the underpinning adverse effects of binge-watching without looking into the association between binge-watching and screen time for web series through online streaming services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study sought to fill this gap by probing the association between binge-watching and psychological aftereffects. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The study employed a cross-sectional research design vis-à-vis the survey method. A sample of 1089 adult respondents was collected through an online administrated questionnaire. RESULTS: The findings of this study demonstrated that extensive binge-watching is an antecedent of stress, loneliness, insomnia, depression and anxiety. Furthermore, it was found that screen time on binge-watching could intensify these adverse effects of binge-watching. Interestingly, the moderating effect of screen time on binge-watching was found to be insignificant for stress and loneliness. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that binge-watching correlates with psychological and mental health symptoms including stress, loneliness, insomnia, depression and anxiety. Hence, this study suggests that consumption of web series through online streaming services related literacy interventions are imperative to help the audience become critical about online streaming content and its comparison to the real social world.

14.
AIDS Behav ; 26(3): 739-751, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356013

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to assess if there were significant differences in the adoption of COVID-19 risk preventive behaviors and experience of food insecurity by people living with and without HIV in Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study that recruited a convenience sample of 4471 (20.5% HIV positive) adults in Nigeria. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the associations between the explanatory variable (HIV positive and non-positive status) and the outcome variables-COVID-19 related behavior changes (physical distancing, isolation/quarantine, working remotely) and food insecurity (hungry but did not eat, cut the size of meals/skip meals) controlling for age, sex at birth, COVID-19 status, and medical status of respondents. Significantly fewer people living with HIV (PLWH) reported a positive COVID-19 test result; and had lower odds of practicing COVID-19 risk preventive behaviors. In comparison with those living without HIV, PLWH had higher odds of cutting meal sizes as a food security measure (AOR: 3.18; 95% CI 2.60-3.88) and lower odds of being hungry and not eating (AOR: 0.24; 95% CI 0.20-0.30). In conclusion, associations between HIV status, COVID-19 preventive behaviors and food security are highly complex and warrant further in-depth to unravel the incongruities identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Nigeria , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335046

ABSTRACT

An online survey was conducted to identify factors associated with financial insecurity, food insecurity and poor quality of daily lives of adults in Nigeria during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations between the outcome (experience of financial loss, changes in food intake and impact of the pandemic on daily lives) and the explanatory (age, sex, education level, anxiety, depression, HIV status) variables were determined using logistic regression analysis. Of the 4439 respondents, 2487 (56.0%) were financially insecure, 907 (20.4%) decreased food intake and 4029 (90.8%) had their daily life negatively impacted. Males (AOR:0.84), people who felt depressed (AOR:0.62) and people living with HIV -PLHIV- (AOR:0.70) had significantly lower odds of financial insecurity. Older respondents (AOR:1.01) had significantly higher odds of financial insecurity. Those depressed (AOR:0.62) and PLHIV (AOR:0.55) had significantly lower odds of reporting decreased food intake. Respondents who felt anxious (AOR:0.07), depressed (AOR: 0.48) and who were PLHIV (AOR:0.68) had significantly lower odds of reporting a negative impact of the pandemic on their daily lives. We concluded the study findings may reflect a complex relationship between financial insecurity, food insecurity, poor quality of life, mental health, and socioeconomic status of adults living in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Security , Food Supply , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302591

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may have reached a turning point as the World Health Organization and the global community of nations step up plans for mass vaccination campaigns. However, the COVID-19 vaccine-related conspiracy theories (e.g., falsehoods about birth control, women infertility, surveillance, and microchip humanity, etc.) have built new momentum for vaccine hesitancy. To this end, several nations worldwide, including Pakistan, are struggling to boost public trust and enthusiasm to get vaccinated, especially in an anxious and complicated atmosphere propelled by multiple, new and the deadliest variants of COVID-19. To address this critical research gap during these intensifying conditions of vaccine hesitancy, the present study makes the first attempt to explore the potential effects of various communication strategies, including public service message (safety benefits versus fear appraisals), media types (i.e., traditional versus digital), self-efficacy, perceived benefits and threats (susceptibility and severity), on the willingness to get vaccinated for COVID-19. Importantly, the underlying effects of public skepticism (in a moderating role) on these relationships were empirically examined. Using four fictitious COVID-19 immunization campaigns in a series of experiments with 2 (media type: traditional vs. digital) X 2 (service attribute: health and safety benefits vs. fear) message frames (represented as Group one to Group four), the findings identified fear appraisal as the most viable communication strategy in combating vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, public skepticism negatively moderated the effects of media types and public service message attributes on willingness to get vaccinated in relatively high (i.e., Group two), moderate (i.e., Group one and four), and low intensities (i.e., Group three). The pioneering findings of this research offer new strategic insights for the global health authorities and vaccine promoters to proactively address the downward spiral of people's willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine.

17.
Eur J Radiol Open ; 8: 100350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies reported that CT scan findings could be implicated in the diagnosis and evaluation of COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify the role of High-Resolution Computed Tomography chest and summarize characteristics of chest CT imaging for the diagnosis and evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 patients. METHODOLOGY: Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Research Gate and Medscape were searched up to 31 January 2020 to find relevant articles which highlighted the importance of thoracic computed tomography in the diagnosis as well as the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. HRCT abnormalities of SARS-CoV-2 patients were extracted from the eligible studies for meta-analysis. RESULTS: In this review, 28 studies (total 2655 patients) were included. Classical findings were Ground Glass Opacities (GGO) (71.64 %), GGO with consolidation (35.22 %), vascular enlargement (65.41 %), subpleural bands (52.54 %), interlobular septal thickening (43.28 %), pleural thickening (38.25 %), and air bronchograms sign (35.15 %). The common anatomic distribution of infection was bilateral lung infection (71.55 %), peripheral distribution (54.63 %) and multiple lesions (74.67 %). The incidences were higher in in the left lower lobe (75.68 %) and right lower lobe (73.32 %). A significant percentage of patients had over 2 lobes involvement (68.66 %). CONCLUSION: Chest CT-scan is a helpful modality in the early detection of COVID-19 pneumonia. The GGO in the peripheral areas of lungs with multiple lesions is the characteristic pattern of COVID-19. The correct interpretation of HRCT features makes it easier to detect COVID-19 even in the early phases and the disease progression can also be accessed with the help of the follow-up chest scans.

18.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(3): 1397-1401, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1025073

ABSTRACT

Our work highlights patients at risk of prolonged viral shedding in COVID-19 and its implications for isolation strategies and explores possible solution by PCR-CT value testing (cycle threshold value). We also review the impact of HIV on COVID-19.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology and progression of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) by removing the pathogenic cytokines is hypothesized to dampen CRS. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes of the patients with COVID-19 having CRS being treated with TPE compared to controls on the standard of care. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective propensity score-matched analysis in a single centre from 1st April to 31st July 2020. We retrospectively analyzed data of 280 hospitalized patients developing CRS initially. PSM was used to minimize bias from non-randomized treatment assignment. Using PSM 1:1, 90 patients were selected and assigned to 2 equal groups. Forced matching was done for disease severity, routine standard care and advanced supportive care. Many other Co-variates were matched. Primary outcome was 28 days overall survival. Secondary outcomes were duration of hospitalization, CRS resolution time and timing of viral clearance on Polymerase chain reaction testing. RESULTS: After PS-matching, the selected cohort had a median age of 60 years (range 32-73 in TPE, 37-75 in controls), p = 0.325 and all were males. Median symptoms duration was 7 days (range 3-22 days' TPE and 3-20 days controls), p = 0.266. Disease severity in both groups was 6 (6.6%) moderate, 40 (44.4%) severe and 44 (49%) critical. Overall, 28-day survival was significantly superior in the TPE group (91.1%), 95% CI 78.33-97.76; as compared to PS-matched controls (61.5%), 95% CI 51.29-78.76 (log rank 0.002), p<0.001. Median duration of hospitalization was significantly reduced in the TPE treated group (10 days vs 15 days) (p< 0.01). CRS resolution time was also significantly reduced in the TPE group (6 days vs. 12 days) (p< 0.001). In 71 patients who underwent TPE, the mortality was 0 (n = 43) if TPE was done within the first 12 days of illness while it was 17.9% (deaths 5, n = 28 who received it after 12th day (p = 0.0045). CONCLUSION: An earlier use of TPE was associated with improved overall survival, early CRS resolution and time to discharge compared to SOC for COVID-19 triggered CRS in this selected cohort of PS-matched male patients from one major hospital in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Plasma Exchange , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11698, 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005079

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the sixth international public health emergency. While COVID-19 classically manifests as a respiratory illness, SARS-CoV-2 may infect multiple organ systems and cause a wide array of presentations. The gastrointestinal tract has become increasingly recognized as a site of SARS-CoV-2 infection with reports of diarrhea, nausea, and liver failure, with or without concomitant respiratory involvement. In this case series and literature review, we report three cases of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients that presented with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms or laboratory abnormalities such as diarrhea, anorexia, and transaminitis. The receptor for SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as well as the necessary protease to facilitate viral entry, transmembrane protease serine-2 (TMPRSS2), and to a lesser extent, cathepsins, have been demonstrated to be present throughout the gastrointestinal tract, thus facilitating viral entry and pathogenesis. Furthermore, multiple reports have demonstrated evidence of viral shedding outside the nasopharynx, including the stool, for prolonged time periods even in the absence of detection of viral RNA in the nasopharynx. As such, testing for SARS-CoV-2 in stool samples with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays for detection of viral RNA could aid in identifying patients that lack classic respiratory symptoms, present with atypical symptoms, or in those with a high index of suspicion (e.g. elevated inflammatory markers), but test negative on the classic nasopharyngeal swab. Furthermore, this underscores the potential for atypical transmission, with a focus on fecal-oral transmission and the need for strict hand hygiene.

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