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1.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 933: 175267, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031262

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is still a challenging problem in the case of infection treatment. The immunomodulatory effect of Nanocurcumin was investigated in the present study in an attempt to counterbalance the immune response and improve the patients' clinical symptoms. 60 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 60 healthy controls enrolled in the study. COVID-19 patients were divided into Nanocurcumin and placebo received groups. Due to the importance of the role of NK cells in this disease, the frequency, cytotoxicity, receptor gene expression of NK cells, and serum secretion levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, as well as circulating C5a as a chemotactic factor an inflammatory mediator was evaluated by flow cytometry, real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both experimental groups before and after the intervention. Given the role of measured factors in the progression and pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease, the results can help find appropriate treatments. The results of this study indicated that the Nanocurcumin could significantly increase the frequency and function of NK cells compared to the placebo-treated group. As an immunomodulatory agent, Nanocurcumin may be a helpful choice to improve NK cell function in COVID-19 patients and improve the clinical outcome of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Chemotactic Factors/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Inflammation Mediators/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Killer Cells, Natural , Pandemics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
2.
Cell Commun Signal ; 20(1): 131, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021304

ABSTRACT

During SARS-CoV-2 infection, an effective immune response provides the first line of defense; however, excessive inflammatory innate immunity and impaired adaptive immunity may harm tissues. Soluble immune mediators are involved in the dynamic interaction of ligands with membrane-bound receptors to maintain and restore health after pathological events. In some cases, the dysregulation of their expression can lead to disease pathology. In this literature review, we described current knowledge of the basic features of soluble immune mediators and their dysregulation during SARS-CoV-2 infections and highlighted their contribution to disease severity and mortality. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cell Biol Int ; 46(12): 2009-2017, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013398

ABSTRACT

After more than 2 years of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, several questions have remained unanswered that affected our daily lives. Although substantial vaccine development could resist this challenge, emerging new variants in different countries could be considered as potent concerns regarding the adverse effects of reinfection or postvaccination. Precisely, these concerns address some significant and probable outcomes in vaccinated or reinfected models, followed by some virus challenges, such as antibody-dependent enhancement and cytokine storm. Therefore, the importance of evaluating the effectiveness of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) elicited by vaccination and the rise of new variants must be addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects
5.
Cell Commun Signal ; 20(1): 106, 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has become the world's main life-threatening challenge in the third decade of the twenty-first century. Numerous studies have been conducted on SARS-CoV2 virus structure and pathogenesis to find reliable treatments and vaccines. The present study aimed to evaluate the immune-phenotype and IFN-I signaling pathways of COVID-19 patients with mild and severe conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 100 COVID-19 patients (50 with mild and 50 with severe conditions) were enrolled in this study. The frequency of CD4 + T, CD8 + T, Th17, Treg, and B lymphocytes beside NK cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. IFN-I downstream signaling molecules, including JAK-1, TYK-2, STAT-1, and STAT-2, and Interferon regulatory factors (IRF) 3 and 7 expressions at RNA and protein status were investigated using real-time PCR and western blotting techniques, respectively. Immune levels of cytokines (e.g., IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, IL-2R, IL-10, IFN-α, and IFN-ß) and the existence of anti-IFN-α autoantibodies were evaluated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Immune-phenotyping results showed a significant decrease in the absolute count of NK cells, CD4 + T, CD8 + T, and B lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients. The frequency of Th17 and Treg cells showed a remarkable increase and decrease, respectively. All signaling molecules of the IFN-I downstream pathway and IRFs (i.e., JAK-1, TYK-2, STAT-1, STAT-2, IRF-3, and IRF-7) showed very reduced expression levels in COVID-19 patients with the severe condition compared to healthy individuals at both RNA and protein levels. Of 50 patients with severe conditions, 14 had anti-IFN-α autoantibodies in sera. Meanwhile, this result was 2 and 0 for patients with mild symptoms and healthy controls, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a positive association of the existence of anti-IFN-α autoantibodies and immune cells dysregulation with the severity of illness in COVID-19 patients. However, comprehensive studies are necessary to find out more about this context. Video abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autoantibodies , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Interferons , Killer Cells, Natural , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
6.
Infez Med ; 30(2): 180-193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893779

ABSTRACT

The priority of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2022 is to reduce all causes related to mortality. In this regard, microbial bioactive compounds with characteristics such as optimal compatibility and close interaction with the host immune system are considered a novel therapeutic approach. The fermentation process is one of the most well-known pathways involved in the natural synthesis of a diverse range of postbiotics. However, some postbiotics are a type of probiotic response behavior to environmental stimuli that usually play well-known biological roles. Also, postbiotics with unique structure and function are key mediators between intestinal microbiota and host cellular processes/metabolic pathways that play a significant role in maintaining homeostasis. By further understanding the nature of parent microbial cells, factors affecting their metabolic pathways, and the development of compatible extraction and identification methods, it is possible to achieve certain formulations of postbiotics with special efficiencies, which in turn will significantly improve the performance of health systems (especially in developing countries) toward a wide range of acute/chronic diseases. The present review aims to describe the fundamental role of postbiotics as the key mediators of the microbiota-host interactions. Besides, it presents the available current evidence regarding the interaction between postbiotics and host cells through potential cell receptors, stimulation/improvement of immune system function, and the enhancement of the composition and function of the human microbiome.

7.
Gene Reports ; : 101572, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1705097

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is considered one of the most infectious diseases in the world. In this study, we intended to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis by MIRU-VNTR to define the changes that occur in the transmission of tuberculosis in the region during the COVID-19 era. A total of 120 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from sputum samples of patients referred to East Azerbaijan Center TB from December 2020 to August 2021. Demographic information such as age, sex, place of birth, previous TB history, and relevant medical data was collected. The drug susceptibility testing was performed by the proportion method and the PCR-based MIRU-VNTR method was applied to identify molecular epidemiology relationships. The isolates were collected from 78 males (52%) and 72 females (48%) Iranian patients and 6 (4%) Azerbaijani patients. 120 distinct patterns were identified including 15 clustered patterns and 36 unique patterns. The largest cluster was composed of seven isolates. Furthermore,1 cluster with 7 isolates, 1 cluster with 5 members, 4 clusters with 3 members, and 9 clusters with 2 members. In MIRU-VNTR typing, 75 clusters belonged to Tabriz and just 3 clusters belonged to Azerbaijan. All isolates were sensitive to rifampin, isoniazid and ethambutol. Results of the current study showed COVID-19 pandemic had a direct effect on the transmission and diagnosis of tuberculosis. Less diagnosis and less clustering can indicate public controls and hygiene and the use of masks had a direct effect on the transmission and diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, misidentification and less focus on other respiratory infections are expected during the pandemic. Studies on co-infection of COVID-19 and tuberculosis and the role of mask and sanitization against TB are strongly recommended.

8.
Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res ; 27(1): 35-40, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662750

ABSTRACT

Background: Nurses play a very important role in caring for patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). They are on the frontline fighting COVID-19. The objective was to explore the experiences of nurses in the surgical and infectious wards about caring for patients with COVID-19 in a large and tertiary care hospital in Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 nurses in the Imam Reza Hospital Complex from April to May 2020, Mashhad, Iran. Data analysis was performed using the method proposed by Lundman and Granheim. The Maxqda10 software was used. Results: The experiences were summarized into three categories: (1) experiencing new feelings and relationships with colleagues and patients, (2) viewpoints about managers' performance, and (3) concern about getting infected with COVID-19. Findings reflected similar experiences on personal protective equipment between nurses in the surgical and infectious wards. Experiencing new feelings and relationships with colleagues and patients and concern about getting infected and spreading the COVID-19 were mostly expressed by infectious nurses and surgical nurses, respectively. Conclusions: This research results provide evidence of the experiences of infectious and non-infectious disease nurses who are currently caring for COVID-19 patients. Due to some differences between the experiences of these two groups in COVID-19, it is suggested to pay more attention to the needs and required skills in the staff mix during a crisis.

9.
Gene Rep ; 26: 101509, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D is believed to affect the functionality of the immune system for the prevention of coronavirus disease. To investigate the role of this vitamin against the Coronavirus, this study analyzed the serum levels of vitamin D, the transcription pattern of inflammatory cytokines, and the frequency of total lymphocytes, TCD4+, TCD8+, and NK cells in 50 COVID-19-affected subjects in comparison to 50 healthy participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study diagnosed and evaluated 100 patients. Frequency of lymphocytes was determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine expression levels were measured using Real-Time PCR. Serum levels of vitamin D and cytokines levels in cultured cell supernatant were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 exhibited decreased serum levels of vitamin D versus the healthy participants (p = 0.0024). The total number of lymphocytes, TCD4+, TCD8+, and NK cells was significantly reduced in patients with COVID-19 (p < 0.0001). Considerable upregulation of IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α was seen in COVID-19 patients compared to the control group, whereas IFN-α was downregulated in COVID-19 patients. ELISA results also had increased levels of IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ (p = 0.0014, 0.0012, and p < 0.0001, respectively), and decreased level of IFN-α (p = 0.0021) in patients with COVID-19 compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a probable association among vitamin D concentrations, immune system function, and risk of COVID-19 infection. As a result, it is recommended that vitamin D be considered as a candidate for handling and controlling COVID-19 because of its ability to target the cytokine storm and its antiviral effects.

10.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of deaths among people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) does not show the true impact of the disease on communities. Therefore, this study aimed to calculate years of life lost (YLL) due to premature death in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study based on data from one of the largest provinces of Iran, in the period 13 February 2020 to 17 May 2021. We used WHO proposed guidelines for the calculation of the burden of diseases to calculate the YLL among patients with COVID-19, taking into consideration gender in different age groups. RESULTS: Findings showed that 13 628 deaths were due to COVID-19 with associated 249 309 YLL. The study reported higher mortality among men (1222 cases) in the age group over 85 years than in women (840) of the same age group. The minimum number of YLL for men was 1749 in the 5-9 years age group and that for women was 1551 years in the 14-10 years age group. CONCLUSION: The high number of deaths due to COVID-19 has led to high YLL due to premature death. The provision of adequate health care and appropriate policies will bring about a decrease in YLL due to COVID-19.

11.
Appl Clin Inform ; 12(5): 1091-1100, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561597

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The implementation of a dashboard enables managers to make informed and evidence-based decisions through data visualization and graphical presentation of information. This study aimed to design and implement a COVID-19 management dashboard in a third-level hospital in Mashhad, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive developmental applied study was conducted in the second half of 2020 in three stages, using user-centered design methodology in four phases: (1) specification of the application context, (2) specification of requirements, (3) creation of design solutions, and (4) evaluation of designs. Data collection in each phase was performed through holding group discussions with the main users, nominal group techniques, interviews, and questioners. The dashboard prototype for the data display was designed using the Power BI Desktop software. Subsequently, users' comments were obtained using the focus group method and included in the dashboard. RESULTS: In total, 25 indicators related to input, process, and output areas were identified based on the findings of the first stage. Moreover, eight items were introduced by participants as dashboard requirements. The dashboard was developed based on users' feedback and suggestions, such as the use of colors, reception of periodic and specific reports based on key performance indicators, and rearrangement of the components visible on the page. The result of the user satisfaction survey indicated their satisfaction with the developed dashboard. CONCLUSION: The selection of proper criteria for the implementation of an effective dashboard is critical for the health care organization since they are designed with a high-tech and content-based environment. The dashboard in the present study was a successful combination of clinical and managerial indicators. Future studies should focus on the design and development of dashboards, as well as benchmarking by using data from several hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Display , Hospitals , Humans , Iran , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108108, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401541

ABSTRACT

The possibility of human reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, has not previously been thoroughly investigated. Although it is generally believed that virus-specific antibodies protect against COVID-19 pathogenesis, their duration of function and temporal activity remain unknown. Contrary to media reports that people retain protective antibody responses for a few months, science does not exclude reinfection and disease relapse shortly after initiating all immune responses during the primary onset of COVID-19. Despite production of antiviral antibodies, activated CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes, and long-lived memory B cells, susceptibility to reinfection in humans for extended periods cannot be precluded due to repeated exposures to coronavirus or potential reactivation of the virus due to incomplete virus clearance. However, the mechanism of reinfection remains unknown. The biological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, such as emergence of multiple mutations in the virus RNA molecules, transmissibility, rates of infection, reactivation and reinfection, can all affect the trajectory of the virus spread. Innate and adaptive immune response variables, differences in underlying diseases, and comorbidities, particularly in high risk individuals, can influence the dynamics of the virus infection. In this article, immune parameters and viral mutations pertaining to reinfection and disease relapse are reviewed and scientific gaps are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Mutation , Reinfection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Recurrence , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 188: 740-750, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356252

ABSTRACT

The world has been suffering from COVID-19 disease for more than a year, and it still has a high mortality rate. In addition to the need to minimize transmission of the virus through non-pharmacological measures such as the use of masks and social distance, many efforts are being made to develop a variety of vaccines to prevent the disease worldwide. So far, several vaccines have reached the final stages of safety and efficacy in various phases of clinical trials, and some, such as Moderna/NIAID and BioNTech/Pfizer, have reported very high safety and protection. The important point is that comparing different vaccines is not easy because there is no set standard for measuring neutralization. In this study, we have reviewed the common platforms of COVID-19 vaccines and tried to present the latest reports on the effectiveness of these vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Protein Subunits/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
14.
Mol Immunol ; 138: 121-127, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347762

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel viral infection threatening worldwide health as currently there exists no effective treatment strategy and vaccination programs are not publicly available yet. T lymphocytes play an important role in antiviral defenses. However, T cell frequency and functionality may be affected during the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total blood samples were collected from patients with mild and severe COVID-19, and the total lymphocyte number, as well as CD4+ and CD8 + T cells were assessed using flowcytometry. Besides, the expression of exhausted T cell markers was evaluated. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines were also investigated in the serum of all patients using enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). Finally, the obtained results were analyzed along with laboratory serological reports. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lymphopenia and reduced CD4+ and CD8 + T cells, as well as high percentage of PD-1 expression by T cells, especially in severe cases. Serum secretion of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) were remarkably increased in patients with severe symptoms, as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, high levels of triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), were correlated with the severity of the disease. CONCLUSION: Reduced number and function of T cells were observed in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe patients. Meanwhile, the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines was increased as the disease developed. High level of serum IL-2R was also considered as a sign of lymphopenia. Additionally, hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemia could be important prognostic factors in determining the severity of the infection.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Triglycerides/blood
15.
IUBMB Life ; 73(8): 1005-1015, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291220

ABSTRACT

The kidney is one of the main targets attacked by viruses in patients with a coronavirus infection. Until now, SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the seventh member of the coronavirus family capable of infecting humans. In the past two decades, humankind has experienced outbreaks triggered by two other extremely infective members of the coronavirus family; the MERS-CoV and the SARS-CoV. According to several investigations, SARS-CoV causes proteinuria and renal impairment or failure. The SARS-CoV was identified in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidney of infected patients. Also, renal dysfunction was observed in numerous cases of MERS-CoV infection. And recently, during the 2019-nCoV pandemic, it was found that the novel coronavirus not only induces acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but also can induce damages in various organs including the liver, heart, and kidney. The kidney tissue and its cells are targeted massively by the coronaviruses due to the abundant presence of ACE2 and Dpp4 receptors on kidney cells. These receptors are characterized as the main route of coronavirus entry to the victim cells. Renal failure due to massive viral invasion can lead to undesirable complications and enhanced mortality rate, thus more attention should be paid to the pathology of coronaviruses in the kidney. Here, we have provided the most recent knowledge on the coronaviruses (SARS, MERS, and COVID19) pathology and the mechanisms of their impact on the kidney tissue and functions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Viral Tropism/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Analysis
16.
Immunol Invest ; 50(7): 802-809, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263599

ABSTRACT

In November 2019, the highly infectious coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan, China, and has since spread to almost all countries worldwide. Since its emergence, the COVID-19 infection has led to significant public health, economic and social problems. The current pandemic has inspired researchers to make every effort to design and develop an effective COVID-19 vaccine to provide sufficient protection against the virus and control the infection. In December 2020, the Pfizer vaccine was the first COVID-19 vaccine given Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), and the second FDA so-approved vaccine was the Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine, which was introduced a week later. Both Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are mRNA-based vaccines, and are estimated to have an efficacy rate of more than 94%. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the attempts made to develop safe SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, highlighting potential challenges and concerns, such as disease enhancement, virus mutations, and public acceptance of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , China , Humans
17.
Gene Rep ; 23: 101140, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the daily number of coronavirus infection disease 19 (COVID19) patients increases, the necessity of early diagnosis becomes more obvious. In this respect, we aimed to develop a serological test for specifically detecting anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies. METHODS: We collected serum and saliva samples from 609 individuals who work at TBZMED affiliated hospitals in Tabriz, Iran, from April to June of 2020. Real-time PCR technique was used to detect SARS-CoV-2 genome using specific primers. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was designed based on virus nucleocapsid (N), spike (S) and its receptor binding domain (RBD) protein, and the collected sera were subjected to IgM and/or IgG analysis. RESULT: Real-time PCR results showed that 66 people were infected with the SARS-CoV-2. Our designed ELISA kit showed 93.75% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. In this study, 5.74% of participants had specific IgG against RBD, whereas the percentage for IgM positive individuals was 5.58%. Approximately the same results were observed for S protein. The number of positive participants for NP increased further, and the results of this antigen showed 7.38% for IgG and 7.06% for IgM. CONCLUSION: The ELISA test beside real-time PCR could provide a reliable serologic profile for the status of the disease progress and early detection of individuals. More importantly, it possesses the potential to identify the best candidates for plasma donation according to the antibody titers.

18.
Life Sci ; 276: 119437, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157592

ABSTRACT

In Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a decreased number of regulatory T (Treg) cells and their mediated factors lead to a hyperinflammatory state due to overactivation of the inflammatory cells and factors during the infection. In the current study, we evaluated the Nanocurcumin effects on the Treg cell population and corresponding factors in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. To investigate the Nanocurcumin effects, 80 COVID-19 patients (40 at the severe stage and 40 at the mild stage) were selected and classified into Nanocurcumin and placebo arms. In both the Nanocurcumin and placebo groups, the Treg cell frequency, the gene expression of Treg transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3), and cytokines (IL-10, IL-35, and TGF-ß), as well as the serum levels of cytokines were measured before and after treatment. In both mild and severe COVID-19 patients, Nanocurcumin could considerably upregulate the frequency of Treg cells, the expression levels of FoxP3, IL-10, IL-35, and TGF-ß, as well as the serum secretion levels of cytokines in the Nanocurcumin-treated group compared to the placebo group. The abovementioned factors were remarkably increased in the post-treatment with Nanocurcumin before pre-treatment conditions. By contrast, it has been observed no notable alteration in the placebo group. Our findings revealed the SinaCurcumin® effective function in a significant increase in the number of Treg cells and their mediated factors in the Nanocurcumin group than in the placebo group in both mild and severe patients. Hence, it would be an efficient therapeutic agent in rehabilitating COVID-19 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nanomedicine/methods , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology
19.
Immunol Invest ; 51(4): 993-1004, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of the new coronavirus pandemic, the importance of carrying out an infection check to prevent acquisition and transmission among end-stage renal disease patients (ESRD) under maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) has become a major concern in the health care system. Applying serology screening tests could enlighten the view with regards to disease prevalence in dialysis wards. METHODS: We subjected 328 end-stage renal disease patients to maintenance hemodialysis. After dividing patients into suspicious and non-suspicious groups for COVID-19 infection based on their clinical manifestation, they were investigated for SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM and IgG screening against nucleoprotein (NP), spike protein (SP), and receptor-binding domain (RBD), utilizing our recently developed ELISA tests. RESULTS: We found that approximately 10.1% of asymptomatically tested cases were antibody positive. Although IgG positivity showed a higher prevalence than IgM across all three virus antigen subunits, there were no significant differences among mentioned immunoglobulins of the studied groups. The most prevalent antibody was from the IgG subtype against virus nucleoprotein (NP), while the lowest prevalence was attributed to receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgM. CONCLUSION: High seropositive rate among asymptomatic end-stage renal disease patients, as a sample of high-risk population, reflected the importance of considering SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody screening for disease containment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Nucleoproteins , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem ; 21(16): 2142-2162, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076370

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) firstly emerged in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. After going through the experimental process, the virus was named the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2020 which has created a global pandemic. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is challenging the people who are especially suffering from chronic health problems such as asthma, diabetes, and heart disease or immune system deteriorating disorders, including cancers, Alzheimer's, etc. Other predisposing/risk factors consist of smoking and age (elderly people are at higher risk). The 2019-nCoV attacks epithelial cells in all organs, particularly epithelial cells in the lungs, resulting in viral pneumonia. The 2019-nCoV starts its invasion with the attachment and entry into the respiratory tract epithelial cells via Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on the epithelial cells. The critical problem with 2019-nCoV is its ability in human to human asymptomatic transmission which causes the rapid and hidden spread of the virus among the population. Also, there are several reports of highly variable and tightly case-dependent clinical manifestations caused by SARS-CoV2, which made the virus more enigmatic. The clinical symptoms are varied from common manifestations which occurred in flu and cold, such as cough, fever, body-ache, trembling, and runny nose to severe conditions, like the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) or even uncommon/unusual symptoms such as anosmia, skin color change, and stroke. In fact, besides serious injuries in the respiratory system, COVID-19 invades and damages various organs, including the kidney, liver, gastrointestinal, and nervous system. Accordingly, to cut the transmission chain of disease and control the infection spread. One of the major solutions seems to be early detection of the carriers, particularly the asymptomatic people, with sensitive and accurate diagnostic techniques. Moreover, developing novel and appropriate therapeutic approaches will contribute to the suitable management of the pandemic. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity to make comprehensive investigations and study reviews about COVID-19, offering the latest findings of novel therapies, drugs, epidemiology, and routes of virus transmission and pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss new therapeutic outcomes and cover and the most significant aspects of COVID-19, including the epidemiology, biological features, organs failure, and diagnostic techniques.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adipose Tissue/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology
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