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2.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22276948

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have proven effective in eliciting an immune response capable of providing protective immunity in healthy individuals. However, whether SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induces a long-lived immune response in immunocompromised individuals is poorly understood. Primary antibody deficiency (PAD) syndromes are among the most common immunodeficiency disorders in adults and are characterized by an impaired ability to mount robust antibody responses following infection or vaccination. Here, we present data from a prospective study in which we analyzed the B and T cell response in PAD patients following SARS-COV-2 vaccination. Unexpectedly, individuals with PAD syndromes mounted a SARS-CoV-2 specific B and CD4+ T cell response that was comparable in magnitude to healthy individuals. Many individuals with PAD syndromes displayed reduced IgG1+ and CD11c+ memory B cell responses following the primary vaccination series. However, the IgG1 class-switching defect was largely rescued following mRNA booster vaccination. Boosting also elicited an increase in the SARS-CoV-2-specific B and T cell response and the development of Omicron-specific memory B cells in COVID-19-naive PAD patients. Together, these data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 vaccines elicit memory B and T cells in PAD patients that may contribute to long-term protective immunity.

3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 869838, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903217

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the desire of medical students in China to get vaccinated or not get vaccinated and the reasons for either decision. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from 11 March and 12 March 2021, by administering an online questionnaire to the Chinese medical students. Data entry and analysis were conducted using IBM SPSS ver. 26.0. Results: Of 3,047 students who completed the survey, 37.9% (1,154) of participants indicated that they would be vaccinated against COVID-19, while 62.1% (1,893) declared that they would not. Attitudes to the COVID-19 vaccine (p = 0.000), levels of eHealth Literacy (p = 0.000), the impact of COVID19 (p = 0.000), concerns about the COVID-19 vaccine (p = 0.000) and gender (p = 0.000) strong associations with willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: The willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination was sub-optimal among medical students in China. Educational interventions to improve medical students' perceptions and acceptance toward the COVID-19 vaccine are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1742-1750, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900998

ABSTRACT

There has been a rapid surge of hospitalization due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variants globally. The severity of Omicron BA.2 in unexposed, unvaccinated, hospitalized children is unknown. We investigated the severity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 infection during the Omicron wave in uninfected, unvaccinated hospitalized children and in comparison with influenza and parainfluenza viral infections. This population-based study retrieved data from the HK territory-wide CDARS database of hospitalisations in all public hospitals and compared severe outcomes for the Omicron BA.2-dominant fifth wave (5-28 February 2022, n = 1144), and influenza and parainfluenza viruses (1 January 2015-31 December 2019, n = 32212 and n = 16423, respectively) in children 0-11 years old. Two deaths (0.2%) out of 1144 cases during the initial Omicron wave were recorded. Twenty-one (1.8%) required PICU admission, and the relative risk was higher for Omicron than influenza virus (n = 254, 0.8%, adjusted RR = 2.1, 95%CI 1.3-3.3, p = 0.001). The proportion with neurological complications was 15.0% (n = 171) for Omicron, which was higher than influenza and parainfluenza viruses (n = 2707, 8.4%, adjusted RR = 1.6, 95%CI 1.4-1.9 and n = 1258, 7.7%, adjusted RR = 1.9, 95%CI 1.6-2.2, p < 0.001 for both, respectively). Croup occurred for Omicron (n = 61, 5.3%) more than influenza virus (n = 601, 1.9%, adjusted RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.5-2.6, p < 0.001) but not parainfluenza virus (n = 889, 5.4%). Our findings showed that for hospitalized children who had no past COVID-19 or vaccination, Omicron BA.2 was not mild. Omicron BA.2 appeared to be more neuropathogenic than influenza and parainfluenza viruses. It targeted the upper airways more than influenza virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869872

ABSTRACT

Currently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still an ongoing and constant medical issue, and with upcoming new variants, vaccinations and boosters remain important. The safety of vaccines in patients after kidney transplantation is an essential problem, with thrombosis being one of the severe side effects and vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) revealed as the most commonly reported syndrome for thromboembolic events following COVID-19 vaccination. Here, we present two cases of kidney transplantation developing pulmonary embolism post-Moderna vaccination within 30 days without thrombocytopenia. The first case was a 52-year-old man with history of type II diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia who had had cadaveric kidney transplantation in September 2008, where right leg swelling with claudication occurred 23 days after the second Moderna vaccination. The second case was a 57-year-old man with history of type II diabetes and glaucoma who had had living-related kidney transplantation in April 2013 and then complained of exertional dyspnea 26 days after administration of the third Moderna vaccine. The advantages of vaccination even in immunocompromised patients far outweigh the disadvantages, although clinicians must understand the risks of deep-vein thrombosis or even pulmonary embolism for such patients, which might not occur after just the first vaccination.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337658

ABSTRACT

Background Hong Kong, has operated under a zero-Covid policy in the past few years. As a result, population immunity from natural infections has been low. The ‘fifth wave’ in Hong Kong, caused by the Omicron variant, grew substantially in February 2022 during the transition from winter into spring. The daily number of reported cases began to decline quickly in a few days after social distancing regulations were tightened and rapid antigen test (RAT) kits were largely distributed. How the non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and seasonal factors (temperature and relative humidity) could affect the spread of Omicron remains unknown. Methods We developed a model with stratified immunity, to incorporate antibody responses, together with changes in mobility and seasonal factors. After taking into account the detection rates of PCR test and RAT, we fitted the model to the daily number of reported cases between 1 February and 31 March, and quantified the associated effects of individual NPIs and seasonal factors on infection dynamics. Findings Although NPIs and vaccine boosters were critical in reducing the number of infections, temperature was associated with a larger change in transmissibility. Cold days appeared to drive Re from about 2–3 sharply to 10.6 (95%CI: 9.9–11.4). But this number reduced quickly below one a week later when the temperature got warmer. The model projected that if weather in March maintained as February’s average level, the estimated cumulative incidence could increase double to about 80% of total population. Interpretation Temperature should be taken into account when making public health decisions (e.g. a more relaxed (or tightened) social distancing during a warmer (or colder) season).

7.
Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; 49(2):147-157, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1772475

ABSTRACT

当前2019冠状病毒病(COVID-19)疫情仍处于胶着状态。浙江大学医学院附属第一医院是国家感染性疾病临床医学中心,浙江省COVID-19患者救治中心。疫情一线的专家集智攻关,以国家卫生健康委员会和国家中医药管理局发布的COVID-19诊治指南为依据,以抗病毒、抗休克、抗低氧血症、抗继发感染、维持水电解质和酸碱平衡、维持微生态平衡的“四抗二平衡”救治策略为核心,总结完善诊治方案,聚焦临床实践的一些具体问题,为COVID-19患者临床诊治提供借鉴。推荐以多学科协作诊治个性化治疗提高COVID-19患者救治质量。建议病原学检测、炎症指标监测和肺部影像学动态观察指导临床诊治。痰液的病毒核酸检测阳性率最高,约10%的急性期患者血液中检测到病毒核酸,50%的患者粪便中检测到病毒核酸,粪便中可分离出活病毒,须警惕粪便是否具有传染性;开展细胞因子等炎症指标监测有助于发现是否出现细胞因子风暴,判断是否需要人工肝血液净化治疗。通过以“四抗二平衡”为核心的综合治疗提高治愈率、降低病死率;早期抗病毒治疗能减少重症、危重症发生,前期使用阿比多尔联合洛匹那韦/利托那韦抗病毒显示出一定效果。休克和低氧血症多为细胞因子风暴所致,人工肝血液净化治疗能迅速清除炎症介质,阻断细胞因子风暴,对维持水电解质酸碱平衡也有很好的作用,可以提高危重型患者的疗效。重型病例疾病早期可适量、短程应用糖皮质激素。氧疗过程中,患者氧合指数小于200 mmHg时应及时转入重症医学科治疗;采用保守氧疗策略,不推荐常规进行无创通气;机械通气患者应严格执行集束化呼吸机相关性肺炎预防管理策略;氧合指数大于150 mmHg时,及早减、停镇静剂并撤机拔管。不推荐预防性使用抗菌药物,对于病程长,体温反复升高和血降钙素原水平升高的患者可酌情使用抗菌药物;要关注COVID-19患者继发真菌感染的诊治。COVID-19患者有肠道微生态紊乱,肠道乳酸杆菌、双歧杆菌等有益菌减少,推荐对所有患者进行营养和胃肠道功能评估,以营养支持和补充大剂量肠道微生态调节剂,纠正肠道微生态失衡,减少细菌移位和继发感染。COVID-19患者普遍存在焦虑和恐惧心理,应建立动态心理危机干预和处理。提倡中西医结合辨证施治;优化重型患者护理促进康复。严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒2(SARS-CoV-2)感染后病毒清除规律仍不明了,出院后仍须居家隔离2周,并定期随访。以上经验和建议在本中心实行,取得较好效果,但COVID-19是一种新的疾病,其诊治方案及策略仍有待进一步探索与完善。

8.
Gene ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755706

ABSTRACT

Both feline coronavirus (FCoV) and SARS-CoV-2 are coronaviruses that infect cats and humans, respectively. However, cats have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, and FCoV also had been shown to infect human. To elucidate the relationship between FCoV and SARS-CoV-2, we highlight the main characteristics of the genome, the receptor usage, and the correlation of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike proteins in FCoV and SARS-CoV-2. It is demonstrated that FCoV and SARS-CoV-2 are closely related to the main characteristics of the genome, receptor usage, and RBD of spike proteins with similar furin cleavage sites. In particular, the affinity of the conserved feline angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (fACE2) receptor to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 suggests that cats are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. In addition, cross-species of coronaviruses between cats and humans or other domesticated animals are also discussed. This review sheds light on cats as potential intermediate hosts for SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and cross-species transmission or zoonotic infection of FCoV and SARS-CoV-2 between cats and humans was identified.

9.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-486173

ABSTRACT

Large-scale populations in the world have been vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines, however, breakthrough infections of SARS-CoV-2 are still growing rapidly due to the emergence of immune-evasive variants, especially Omicron. It is urgent to develop effective broad-spectrum vaccines to better control the pandemic of these variants. Here, we present a mosaic-type trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mos-tri-RBD) as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate, which carries the key mutations from Omicron and other circulating variants. Tests in rats showed that the designed mos-tri-RBD, whether used alone or as a booster shot, elicited potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against not only Omicron but also other immune-evasive variants. Neutralizing antibody titers induced by mos-tri-RBD were substantially higher than those elicited by homo-tri-RBD (containing homologous RBDs from prototype strain) or the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV. Our study indicates that mos-tri-RBD is highly immunogenic, which may serve as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate in combating SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron.

10.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22272062

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with immune escape ability raises the urgent need for developing cross-neutralizing vaccines against the virus. NVSI-06-08 is a potential broad-spectrum recombinant COVID-19 vaccine that integrates the antigens from multiple SARS-CoV-2 strains into a single immunogen. Here, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of NVSI-06-08 as a heterologous booster dose in adults previously vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV in a randomized, double-blind, controlled, phase 2 trial conducted in the United Arab Emirates (NCT05069129). Three groups of healthy adults over 18 years of age (600 participants per group) who had administered two doses of BBIBP-CorV 4-6-month, 7-9-month and >9-month earlier, respectively, were vaccinated with either a homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV or a heterologous booster of NVSI-06-08. The primary outcome was immunogenicity and safety of booster vaccinations. The exploratory outcome was cross-reactive immunogenicity against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns (VOCs). The incidence of adverse reactions was low in both booster vaccinations, and the overall safety profile of heterologous boost was quite similar to that of homologous boost. Heterologous NVSI-06-08 booster was immunogenically superior to homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV. Both Neutralizing and IgG antibodies elicited by NVSI-06-08 booster were significantly higher than by the booster of BBIBP-CorV against not only SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also multiple VOCs. Especially, the neutralizing activity induced by NVSI-06-08 booster against the immune-evasive Beta variant was no less than that against the prototype strain, and a considerable level of neutralizing antibodies against Omicron (GMT: 367.67; 95%CI, 295.50-457.47) was induced by heterologous booster, which was substantially higher than that boosted by BBIBP-CorV (GMT: 45.03; 95%CI, 36.37-55.74). Our findings showed that NVSI-06-08 was safe and immunogenic as a booster dose following two doses of BBIBP-CorV, which was immunogenically superior to homologous boost with another dose of BBIBP-CorV. Our study also indicated that the design of hybrid antigen may provide an effective strategy for broad-spectrum vaccine developments.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315615

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2020, Covid-19 pneumonia has had a great impact on human health in although the countries around the world, it brings serious threaten to people’s lives and resulted in serious economic losses. At the same time, a lot news about the detection of Covid-19 in food emerges endlessly, a rapid and high selectivity detection method or technology is in urgent need for its ability to help relevant departments effectively control the epidemic situation and ensuring people’s lives and property safety. In recent years, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been certified as a quick and highly selective technique to detect foodborne microorganisms. Results In this paper, a newly developed microchip with polydopamine-coated paper based on LAMP was fabricated. This microchip consists of nine chambers for sampling and reactions, the targeted nucleic acid of foodborne pathogens was labeled by calcein fluorescence rather than SYBR. The microchip is advantageous of lower cost of materials and simple pretreated methods, and is easy to operate without the need for complex controlled fluid flow. The LAMP procedure and fluorescence detection of pathogens can be carried on the chip without opening the lid, preventing aerosol contamination and reducing the probability of false positives. In experiments, the LAMP reaction conditions including the optimal reaction temperature and reaction time are thoroughly discussed and have been executed for various foodborne bacteria samples, including Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7), Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus). Testing of E. coli O157:H7 proved to be highly selective and sensitive (as low as 0.0134 ng µL − 1 ). Additionally, experimental test of real milk sample was figured, the complete detection duration time was within 68 min, the limit of detection(LOD) for Salmonella spp. was determined to be lower than 12 CFU mL − 1 . Conclusion In summary, a newly developed LAMP microchip with polydopamine-coated and calcein fluorescence labeling paper-based provides a lower cost, easy to use, highly selective, and multiplexable pathogen detection capability with great promise as a rapid, highly efficient, and economical solution for future foodborne pathogen testing.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308288

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causing a cluster of respiratory infections in Wuhan, China, is identified in December 2019. The main symptoms are defined as fever, cough, shortness of breath, with early symptom of sputum, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the final lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. Currently, there is no effective method to cure it. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is an immediate need for treating COVID-19 especially severe patients at present. Methods: : We describe the two confirmed case of COVID-19 severe patients in Hangzhou, China to explore the role of menstrual blood-derived MSC in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we mimic disease model of pulmonary fibrosis in mice to assess the role of MSC. Then, a co-culture system to investigate the underlying mechanism between MSC and pulmonary-associated cells by a series of Physiological, biochemical, bioinformatics analysis. Results: : MSC transplantation increases the immune indicators (including lymphocytes) and decreases inflammatory indicators (such as IL-6, IL-10, TNF, and IFN). More importantly, the two patients alleviated symptom and discharged after 3 weeks’ treatment with MSC. Additionally, MSCs exhibit an anti-inflammatory role through suppressing some inflammatory factors (RANTES, GM-CSF, MIG-1g, MCP-5, Eotaxin), which is anastomotic to current clinical study using MSC to treat COVID-19. Conclusions: : This is the first report using menstrual blood-derived MSC in treating COVID-19 patients. From our clinical results, we hold one idea that MSCs reduced inflammatory effect to defend cytokine storm. The underlying mechanism is probably that MSCs inhibit epithelia cell apoptosis and reduce the secretion of inflammatory factors to prevent myofibroblasts activity. MSC provides an alternative method for treating COVID-19 particularly some patients with ARDS or subsequent pulmonary fibrosis. Trial registration: This clinical trial was submitted to and approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital, Collage of Medicine, Zhejiang University. MSC administration in patient with COVID-19 was conducted in a single center and open-label clinical trial (ChiCTR2000029606).

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324781

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this study is to understand the influencing factors of Chinese college students’ satisfaction with online teaching and psychological pressure on learning during the novel coronavirus epidemic. Methods: : We assessed the effect of online teaching of 7084 medical students from wannan medical college in March 5 to April 2, 2020 using cluster sampling. The respondents were asked to complete a 7-item self-compiled online teaching satisfaction questionnaire. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis are used. Results: : Gender is female ( OR =1.257, 95% CI : 1.132~1.396), grades are second and third grades (second grades: OR =1.228, 95% CI : 1.080~1.397;third grades: OR =1.197, 95% CI : 1.048~1.367), normal/unfamiliar learning platform operation ( OR =3.692, 95% CI : 3.321~4.103) were risk factors for satisfactory teaching effect. In addition, students whose school year system is four-year ( OR =0.870, 95% CI : 0.781~0.969) and grade 4 and above ( OR =0.594, 95% CI : 0.485~0.727) were more satisfied with the teaching effect of teachers. And, during the period of the COVID-19 epidemic, the risk factors for college students to have psychological stress were: female ( OR =1.258, 95% CI : 1.096~1.442), from rural areas ( OR =1.511, 95% CI : 1.312~1.740), and the academic year system is four-year system ( OR =1.191, 95% CI : 1.028~1.380), using mobile phones and other learning tools ( OR =1.388, 95%CI: 1.205~1.600), general/unfamiliar with learning platform operations ( OR =2.273), 95% CI : 1.888~2.735). While the protective factors for college students’ psychological stress included: grade three and four and above ( OR =0.463, 95% CI : 0.387~0.554;OR =0.232, 95% CI : 0.187~0.286), and they think that the teaching effect is satisfactory ( OR =0.314, 95% CI : 0.261~0.379). Conclusion: This survey shows that compared with male college students, female college students were more dissatisfied with the teaching effect of teachers and havd greater psychological pressure on learning. Psychological counseling should be strengthened for students in rural areas and those who were not familiar with the operating platform to relieve their psychological pressure on learning.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324326

ABSTRACT

We found that the real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of viral RNA from sputum or nasopharyngeal swab has a relatively low positive rate in the early stage to determine COVID-19 (named by the World Health Organization). The manifestations of computed tomography (CT) imaging of COVID-19 had their own characteristics, which are different from other types of viral pneumonia, such as Influenza-A viral pneumonia. Therefore, clinical doctors call for another early diagnostic criteria for this new type of pneumonia as soon as possible.This study aimed to establish an early screening model to distinguish COVID-19 pneumonia from Influenza-A viral pneumonia and healthy cases with pulmonary CT images using deep learning techniques. The candidate infection regions were first segmented out using a 3-dimensional deep learning model from pulmonary CT image set. These separated images were then categorized into COVID-19, Influenza-A viral pneumonia and irrelevant to infection groups, together with the corresponding confidence scores using a location-attention classification model. Finally the infection type and total confidence score of this CT case were calculated with Noisy-or Bayesian function.The experiments result of benchmark dataset showed that the overall accuracy was 86.7 % from the perspective of CT cases as a whole.The deep learning models established in this study were effective for the early screening of COVID-19 patients and demonstrated to be a promising supplementary diagnostic method for frontline clinical doctors.

15.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-479419

ABSTRACT

The B.1.1.529 Omicron variant jeopardizes vaccines designed with early pandemic spike antigens. Here, we evaluated in mice the protective activity of the Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine against B.1.1.529 before or after boosting with preclinical mRNA-1273 or mRNA-1273.529, an Omicron-matched vaccine. Whereas two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine induced high levels of serum neutralizing antibodies against historical WA1/2020 strains, levels were lower against B.1.1.529 and associated with infection and inflammation in the lung. A primary vaccination series with mRNA-1273.529 potently neutralized B.1.1.529 but showed limited inhibition of historical or other SARS-CoV-2 variants. However, boosting with mRNA-1273 or mRNA-1273.529 vaccines increased serum neutralizing titers and protection against B.1.1.529 infection. Nonetheless, the levels of inhibitory antibodies were higher, and viral burden and cytokines in the lung were slightly lower in mice given the Omicron-matched mRNA booster. Thus, in mice, boosting with mRNA-1273 or mRNA-1273.529 enhances protection against B.1.1.529 infection with limited differences in efficacy measured.

16.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22269848

ABSTRACT

Patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes (PAD) have poor humoral immune responses requiring immunoglobulin replacement therapy. We followed PAD patients after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination by evaluating their immunoglobulin replacement products and serum for anti-spike binding, Fc{gamma}R binding, and neutralizing activities. Immunoglobulin replacement products had low anti-spike and receptor binding domain (RBD) titers and neutralizing activity. In COVID-19-naive PAD patients, anti-spike and RBD titers increased after mRNA vaccination but decreased to pre-immunization levels by 90 days. Patients vaccinated after SARS-CoV-2 infection developed higher responses comparable to healthy donors. Most vaccinated PAD patients had serum neutralizing antibody titers above an estimated correlate of protection against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Delta virus but not against Omicron virus, although this was improved by boosting. Thus, currently used immunoglobulin replacement products likely have limited protective activity, and immunization and boosting of PAD patients with mRNA vaccines should confer at least short-term immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron.

17.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21268499

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe increased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) breakthrough cases pose the need of booster vaccinations. In this study, we reported the safety and immunogenicity of a heterologous boost with a recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (CHO cells), named NVSI-06-07, as a third dose in participants who have previously received two doses of the inactivated vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) at pre-specified time intervals. Using homologous boost with BBIBP-CorV as control, the safety and immunogenicity of the heterologous boost with NVSI-06-07 against various SARS-CoV-2 strains, including Omicron, were characterized. MethodsThis study is a single-center, randomised, double-blinded, controlled phase 2 trial for heterologous boost of NVSI-06-07 in BBIBP-CorV recipients from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Healthy adults (aged [≥]18 years) were enrolled and grouped by the specified prior vaccination interval of BBIBP-CorV, i.e., 1-3 months, 4-6 months or [≥]6 months, respectively, with 600 individuals per group. For each group, participants were randomly assigned at 1:1 ratio to receive either a heterologous boost of NVSI-06-07 or a homologous booster dose of BBIBP-CorV. The primary outcome was to comparatively assess the immunogenicity between heterologous and homologous boosts at 14 and 28 days post-boosting immunization, by evaluation of the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of IgG and neutralizing antibodies as well as the corresponding seroconversion rate ([≥]4-fold rise in antibody titers). The secondary outcomes were the safety profile of the boosting strategies within 30 days post vaccination. The exploratory outcome was the immune efficacy against Omicron and other variants of concern (VOCs) of SARS-CoV-2. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05033847. FindingsA total of 1800 individuals who have received two doses of BBIBP-CorV were enrolled, of which 899 participants received a heterologous boost of NVSI-06-07 and 901 received a homologous boost for comparison. No vaccine-related serious adverse event (SAE) and no adverse events of special interest (AESI) were reported. 184 (20{middle dot}47%) participants in the heterologous boost groups and 177 (19{middle dot}64%) in the homologous boost groups reported at least one adverse reaction within 30 days. Most of the local and systemic adverse reactions reported were grades 1 (mild) or 2 (moderate), and there was no significant difference in the overall safety between heterologous and homologous boosts. Immunogenicity assays showed that the seroconversion rates in neutralizing antibodies against prototype SARS-CoV-2 elicited by heterologous boost were 89{middle dot}96% - 97{middle dot}52% on day 28 post-boosting vaccination, which was much higher than what was induced by homologous boost (36{middle dot}80% - 81{middle dot}75%). Similarly, in heterologous NVSI-06-07 booster groups, the neutralizing geometric mean titers (GMTs) against the prototype strain increased by 21{middle dot}01 - 63{middle dot}85 folds from baseline to 28 days post-boosting vaccination, whereas only 4{middle dot}20 - 16{middle dot}78 folds of increases were observed in homologous BBIBP-CorV booster group. For Omicron variant, the neutralizing antibody GMT elicited by the homologous boost of BBIBP-CorV was 37{middle dot}91 (95%CI, 30{middle dot}35-47{middle dot}35), however, a significantly higher level of neutralizing antibodies with GMT 292{middle dot}53 (95%CI, 222{middle dot}81-384{middle dot}07) was induced by the heterologous boost of NVSI-06-07, suggesting that it may serve as an effective boosting strategy combating the pandemic of Omicron. The similar results were obtained for other VOCs, including Alpha, Beta and Delta, in which the neutralizing response elicited by the heterologous boost was also significantly greater than that of the homologous boost. In the participants primed with BBIBP-CorV over 6 months, the largest increase in the neutralizing GMTs was obtained both in the heterologous and homologous boost groups, and thus the booster vaccination with over 6 months intervals was optimal. InterpretationOur findings indicated that the heterologous boost with NVSI-06-07 was safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic in adults primed with a full regimen of BBIBP-CorV. Compared to homologous boost with a third dose of BBIBP-CorV, incremental increases in immune responses were achieved by the heterologous boost with NVSI-06-07 against SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain, Omicron variant, and other VOCs. The heterologous BBIBP-CorV/NVSI-06-07 prime-boosting vaccination may be valuable in preventing the pandemic of Omicron. The optimal booster strategy was the heterologous boost with NVSI-06-07 over 6 months after a priming with two doses of BBIBP-CorV. Research in contextO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSWe searched PubMed for clinical trials or prospective/cohort studies involving heterologous booster vaccination in non-immunocompromised population published up to Dec 25, 2021, using the term "(COVID) AND (vaccin*) AND (clinical trial OR cohort OR prospective) AND (heterologous) AND (booster OR prime-boost OR third dose)" with no language restrictions. Nine studies of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with adenovirus-vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 nCov-19, Oxford-AstraZeneca, Ad26.COV2.S, Janssen) and mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNtech; mRNA1273, Moderna) were identified. The adenovirus-vector and mRNA heterologous prime-boost vaccination was found to be well tolerated and immunogenic. In individuals primed with adenovirus-vector vaccine, mRNA booster vaccination led to greater immune response than homologous boost. However, varied results were obtained on whether heterologous boost was immunogenically superior to the homologous mRNA prime-boost vaccination. Besides that, A preprint trial in population previously immunized with inactivated vaccines (CoronaVac, Sinovac Biotech) showed that the heterologous boost with adenovirus-vector vaccine (Convidecia, CanSino Biologicals) was safe and induced higher level of live-virus neutralizing antibodies than by the homogeneous boost. A pilot study reported that boosting with BNT162b2 in individuals primed with two doses of inactivated vaccines (BBIBP-CorV) was significantly more immunogenic than homologous vaccination with two-dose of BNT162b2. In addition, a preprint paper demonstrated that heterologous boost of ZF2001, a recombinant protein subunit vaccine, after CoronaVac or BBIBP-CorV vaccination potently improved the immunogenicity. But only a small size of samples was tested in this study and the live-virus neutralization was not detected. Till now, it is still lacking a formal clinical trial to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the heterologous prime-boost vaccination with an inactivated vaccine followed by a recombinant protein subunit-based vaccine. Added value of this studyTo our knowledge, this is the first reported result of a large-scale randomised, controlled clinical trial of heterologous prime-boost vaccination with an inactivated vaccine followed by a recombinant protein subunit vaccine. This trial demonstrated that the heterologous prime-booster vaccination with BBIBP-CorV/NVSI-06-07 is safe and immunogenic. Its immunoreactivity is similar to that of homologous vaccination with BBIBP-CorV. Compared to homologous boost, heterologous boost with NVSI-06-07 in BBIBP-CorV recipients elicited significantly higher immunogenicity not only against the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also against Omicron and other variants of concern (VOCs). Implications of all the available evidenceBooster vaccination is considered an effective strategy to improve the protection efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines and control the epidemic waves of SARS-CoV-2. Data from our trial suggested that the booster vaccination of NVSI-06-07 in BBIBP-CorV recipients significantly improved the immune responses against various SARS-CoV-2 strains, including Omicron. Due to no Omicron-specific vaccine available currently, the BBIBP-CorV/NVSI-06-07 heterologous prime-boost might serve as an effective strategy combating Omicron variant. Besides that, BBIBP-CorV has been widely inoculated in population, and thus further boosting vaccination with NVSI-06-07 is valuable in preventing the COVID-19 pandemic. But further studies are needed to assess the long-term protection of BBIBP-CorV/NVSI-06-07 prime-booster vaccination.

18.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-474432

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019, viral variants with greater transmissibility or immune evasion properties have arisen, which could jeopardize recently deployed vaccine and antibody-based countermeasures. Here, we evaluated in mice and hamsters the efficacy of preclinical non-GMP Moderna mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273) and the Johnson & Johnson recombinant adenoviral-vectored vaccine (Ad26.COV2.S) against the B.1.621 (Mu) South American variant of SARS-CoV-2, which contains spike mutations T95I, Y144S, Y145N, R346K, E484K, N501Y, D614G, P681H, and D950N. Immunization of 129S2 and K18-human ACE2 transgenic mice with mRNA-1273 vaccine protected against weight loss, lung infection, and lung pathology after challenge with B.1.621 or WA1/2020 N501Y/D614G SARS-CoV-2 strain. Similarly, immunization of 129S2 mice and Syrian hamsters with a high dose of Ad26.COV2.S reduced lung infection after B.1.621 virus challenge. Thus, immunity induced by mRNA-1273 or Ad26.COV2.S vaccines can protect against the B.1.621 variant of SARS-CoV-2 in multiple animal models.

19.
Zhongguo Yaolixue yu Dulixue Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology ; - (10):737, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1564981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Since the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) outbreak in December 2019, the search for a potential treatment for COVID-19 has been a constant focus. Therefore, we identified potential treatments for COVID-19 from Hippophae Fructus, a Tibetan medicine that may act on COVID-19, using a network pharmacology approach.METHODS We collected the chemical constituents and corresponding targets of Hippophae Fructus from traditional Chinese medicine system pharmacology(TCMSP). COVID-19 related genes were predicted in pubmed-Gene, OMIM and GeneCards databases. Then, protein-protein interactions(PPIs) of key genes were analyzed by STRING database.Compound-target-diseases network was constructed using Cytoscape software. The potential pathways were determined by Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway analyses. Additionally,molecular docking was used to verify the binding effect between the active component and the target. RESULTS A total of 33 components and 192 corresponding targets in Hippophae Fructus were found. 50 genes were obtained from the intersection of component targets and disease targets. These genes include IL-6, TNF, MAPK8 and PTGS2, which regulate several pathways associated with COVID-19, involving Hepatitis B, Influenza A, TNF signaling pathway and Tuberculosis. More importantly, high-node compounds such as quercetin and beta-sitosterol can well bind to key targets.CONCLUSION Some components in Hippophae Fructus can act on COVID-19 related genes and regulate multiple pathways. Perhaps Hippophae Fructus has the effect in treating COVID-19.

20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(9): 1317-1321, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1533484

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the attitudes of Chinese residents toward COVID-19 vaccines and explore the potential drivers for Chinese residents' vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February 16 to March 16, 2021, by administering an online questionnaire to the Chinese residents. RESULTS: Of 5240 residents who completed the survey, 464 (8.9%) participants reported to have had one shot, and 348 (6.6%) reported to have had 2 shots. At the time the questionnaire was administered, 2298 (43.9%) participants reported they wanted to get vaccinated, while 2255 (43.0%) declared that they still did not know, and 687 (13.1%) respondents declared vaccine refusal. Overall, 2255 (43%) participants were categorized as vaccine hesitancy. Female participants (p=0.000), <20 years old (p=0.000), have low risk of COVID-19 (p=0.000) infection and strong associations of vaccine hesitancy. eHealth literacy was a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show high rates of vaccine hesitancy in China. This could pose a serious threat to the preventive measures that aimed at controlling COVID-19 spread in the country. The government and different media platforms should encourage the dissemination of correct information about vaccines, the communities and medical staff to improve residents' knowledge about vaccines, and strive to improve residents' electronic health literacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Vaccines , COVID-19 , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Policy , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2
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