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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934030

ABSTRACT

Based on compensatory control theory, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of perceived control on people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods by using both correlational and experimental methods. Compensatory control theory proposes that the lower an individual's perceived control, the higher their need for structure, order, and certainty. Therefore, based on beliefs about GM foods that make some people less certain that those foods are as safe as traditional foods, we hypothesized that individuals with lower levels of perceived control are more inclined to reject GM foods. The analysis of questionnaire responses in Study 1 revealed that individuals' sense of control negatively predicted their risk perception of GM foods, while the need for structure played a mediating role. In Study 2, using a between-subject design, we manipulated participants' perceived control (higher vs. lower) and subsequently measured their risk perception and purchasing preferences for GM foods. The results in Study 2 show that under lower control conditions, individuals recognize higher risks related to GM foods, which, in turn, decreases their willingness to purchase GM foods. These results not only suggest that perceived control is a potential influential personal factor of the acceptance of GM foods but also extend the scope of the application of compensatory control theory.


Subject(s)
Food, Genetically Modified , Consumer Behavior , Food , Humans , Intention , Plants, Genetically Modified
2.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 15(5): 593-600, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on the clinical outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Only phase 2 and 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from electronic databases that investigated ICS in the treatment of COVID-19 patients were included. The outcomes of interest were the resolution of symptoms, risk of hospitalization or urgent medical visit, mortality, and the incidence of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Five RCTs involving 1243 patients who received ICS and 1526 patients with placebo or usual care were included. The ICS group had a higher rate of symptom resolution than the control group at day 14 (risk ratio [RR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.30, p < 0.00001) and day 28 (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18, p < 0.0001). Additionally, the ICS group had a significantly lower risk of needing urgent medical care or hospitalization than the control group (RR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.50; I2 = 0, p = 0.002). However, no significant difference in the 28-day mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, ICS therapy improved symptom resolution, and decreased the risk of needing urgent medical care or hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; : 1-8, 2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe-to-critical COVID-19 has been associated with exaggerated immune responses, and anti-inflammatory agents including corticosteroid and interleukin-6 antagonist have been repurposed as the treatment modality against severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, the clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 was controversial. METHODS: This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the effectiveness of IVIG in patients with COVID-19. Electronic databases were searched for RCTs that compared the clinical efficacy of IVIG with standard of care or placebo in the hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Six RCTs involving 472 patients were included. Patients who received IVIG had a similar mortality rate to the controls (25.3% vs 27.0%, odds ratio [OR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-1.31). Compared with the control group, the study group demonstrated a similar incidence of receiving mechanical ventilation (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.45-1.11), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.22-1.53), length of hospital stay (mean difference [MD], -1.81 days; 95% CI, -8.42 to 4.81) and ICU stay (MD, -0.61 days; 95% CI, -2.80 to 1.58). CONCLUSIONS: The administration of IVIG in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 does not improve clinical outcomes.

4.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 35(5): 393-401, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893035

ABSTRACT

Objective: The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been engendering enormous hazards to the world. We obtained the complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from imported cases admitted to the Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, which was appointed by the Guangdong provincial government to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 diversity was analyzed, and the mutation characteristics, time, and regional trend of variant emergence were evaluated. Methods: In total, 177 throat swab samples were obtained from COVID-19 patients (from October 2020 to May 2021). High-throughput sequencing technology was used to detect the viral sequences of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses were used to evaluate the mutation characteristics and the time and regional trends of variants. Results: We observed that the imported cases mainly occurred after January 2021, peaking in May 2021, with the highest proportion observed from cases originating from the United States. The main lineages were found in Europe, Africa, and North America, and B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 were the two major sublineages. Sublineage B.1.618 was the Asian lineage (Indian) found in this study, and B.1.1.228 was not included in the lineage list of the Pangolin web. A reasonably high homology was observed among all samples. The total frequency of mutations showed that the open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) protein had the highest mutation density at the nucleotide level, and the D614G mutation in the spike protein was the commonest at the amino acid level. Most importantly, we identified some amino acid mutations in positions S, ORF7b, and ORF9b, and they have neither been reported on the Global Initiative of Sharing All Influenza Data nor published in PubMed among all missense mutations. Conclusion: These results suggested the diversity of lineages and sublineages and the high homology at the amino acid level among imported cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Guangdong Province, China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Amino Acids , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University ; 43(3):239-245, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1887362

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the dynamic trajectories of quantitative immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and reveal the immune process of the organism after infection. Methods The clinical data and quantitative IgG titers at different time points of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital and Guanggu Branch of Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital of Hubei Province from Feb. 5 to Apr. 15, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify the subgroups from time-series data of patients’ antibody titers, and then the clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared among these trajectory groups. Results Totally, 734 patients who met the criteria were included. Three IgG trajectory groups were identified from the antibody data: group 1 (consistently low group, 60 cases[8.17%]), group 2 (moderate group, 38 cases [5.18%]) and group 3 (high group, 636 cases[86.65%]). The hospitalization days and the virus clearance time of patients in the 3 groups were significantly different (both P<0.001), those in group 1 were the shortest, while the all-cause mortality and disease deterioration rate had no significant difference in the 3 groups (both P>0.05). Conclusion Patients with different IgG antibody developmental trajectories may have heterogeneous prognosis and immune process. Patients with consistently higher longitudinal antibody titers may require more medical attention.

6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 799521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862594

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a significant threat to the health of human beings. While wearing mask, maintaining social distance and performing self-quarantine can reduce virus spreading passively, vaccination actively enhances immune defense against COVID-19. However, mutations of SARS-CoV-2 and presence of asymptomatic carriers frustrate the effort of completely conquering COVID-19. A strategy that can reduce the susceptibility and thus prevent COVID-19 while blocking viral invasion and pathogenesis independent of viral antigen stability is highly desirable. In the pathogenesis of COVID-19, endocrine disorders have been implicated. Correspondingly, many hormones have been identified to possess therapeutic potential of treating COVID-19, such as estrogen, melatonin, corticosteroids, thyroid hormone and oxytocin. Among them, oxytocin has the potential of both treatment and prevention of COVID-19. This is based on oxytocin promotion of immune-metabolic homeostasis, suppression of inflammation and pre-existing comorbidities, acceleration of damage repair, and reduction of individuals' susceptibility to pathogen infection. Oxytocin may specifically inactivate SARS-COV-2 spike protein and block viral entry into cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 by suppressing serine protease and increasing interferon levels and number of T-lymphocytes. In addition, oxytocin can promote parasympathetic outflow and the secretion of body fluids that could dilute and even inactivate SARS-CoV-2 on the surface of cornea, oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. What we need to do now is clinical trials. Such trials should fully balance the advantages and disadvantages of oxytocin application, consider the time- and dose-dependency of oxytocin effects, optimize the dosage form and administration approach, combine oxytocin with inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication, apply specific passive immunization, and timely utilize efficient vaccines. Meanwhile, blocking COVID-19 transmission chain and developing other efficient anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs are also important. In addition, relative to the complex issues with drug applications over a long term, oxytocin can be mobilized through many physiological stimuli, and thus used as a general prevention measure. In this review, we explore the potential of oxytocin for treatment and prevention of COVID-19 and perhaps other similar pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Oxytocin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824544

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 mortality rates are increasing worldwide, which has led to many highly restrictive precautionary measures and a strong sense of anxiety about the outbreak for many people around the world. There is thus an increasing concern about COVID-19 anxiety, resulting in recommending approaches for effective self-care. From a positive psychology perspective, it is also important for people to have positive affect when dealing with this pandemic. According to previous literature, respiration is considered to be an effective way to enhance people’s mental health. Among all the wearable devices, Apple Watch has the largest market share, so this study recruited Chinese users that use respiration exercise function on Apple Watch;a total of 316 valid data were retrieved. Meanwhile, to understand one approach related to using Apple Watch to practice respiration to reduce COVID-19 anxiety about being infected during the COVID-19 outbreak, this study used a web-based cross-sectional survey to examine anxiety about being infected by COVID-19 among Chinese people who had been using the Apple Watch to practice respiration during the period of the COVID-19 outbreak. The study was based on the Health Theoretical Model, and the model was developed with four dimensions and was validated with structural equation modeling. The results of this study showed that practicing few minutes had a positive relationship on positive attitude, and positive attitude had a negative relationship on pandemic anxiety and a positive relationship on continuance use intention. Anxiety about the pandemic had a negative relationship on the intention to continue using the function. This showed that respiration practice can help to suppress the increase in anxiety levels regarding this pandemic.

8.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-490381

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis has been intensively investigated, the host mechanisms of viral clearance and inflammation resolution are still elusive because of the ethical limitation of human studies based on COVID-19 convalescents. Here we infected Syrian hamsters by authentic SARS-CoV-2 and built an ideal model to simulate the natural recovery process of SARS-CoV-2 infection from severe pneumonia1,2. We developed and applied a spatial transcriptomic sequencing technique with subcellular resolution and tissue-scale extensibility, i.e., Stereo-seq3, together with single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), to the entire lung lobes of 45 hamsters and obtained an elaborate map of the pulmonary spatiotemporal changes from acute infection, severe pneumonia to the late viral clearance and inflammation resolution. While SARS-CoV-2 infection caused massive damages to the hamster lungs, including naive T cell infection and deaths related to lymphopenia, we identified a group of monocyte-derived proliferating Slamf9+Spp1+ macrophages, which were SARS-CoV-2 infection-inducible and cell death-resistant, recruiting neutrophils to clear viruses together. After viral clearance, the Slamf9+Spp1+ macrophages differentiated into Trem2+ and Fbp1+ macrophages, both responsible for inflammation resolution and replenishment of alveolar macrophages. The existence of this specific macrophage subpopulation and its descendants were validated by RNAscope in hamsters, immunofluorescence in hACE2 mice, and public human autopsy scRNA-seq data of COVID-19 patients. The spatiotemporal landscape of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamster lungs and the identification of Slamf9+Spp1+ macrophages that is pivotal to viral clearance and inflammation resolution are important to better understand the critical molecular and cellular players of COVID-19 host defense and also develop potential interventions of COVID-19 immunopathology.

9.
Nature ; 604(7907): 723-731, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799583

ABSTRACT

Studying tissue composition and function in non-human primates (NHPs) is crucial to understand the nature of our own species. Here we present a large-scale cell transcriptomic atlas that encompasses over 1 million cells from 45 tissues of the adult NHP Macaca fascicularis. This dataset provides a vast annotated resource to study a species phylogenetically close to humans. To demonstrate the utility of the atlas, we have reconstructed the cell-cell interaction networks that drive Wnt signalling across the body, mapped the distribution of receptors and co-receptors for viruses causing human infectious diseases, and intersected our data with human genetic disease orthologues to establish potential clinical associations. Our M. fascicularis cell atlas constitutes an essential reference for future studies in humans and NHPs.


Subject(s)
Macaca fascicularis , Transcriptome , Animals , Cell Communication , Macaca fascicularis/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Wnt Signaling Pathway
10.
Talanta ; 245: 123486, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796081

ABSTRACT

Cancer is the leading cause of death in many countries. The development of new methods for early screening of cancers is highly desired. Targeted metallomics has been successfully applied in the screening of cancers through quantification of elements in the matrix, which is time consuming and requires combined techniques for the quantification due to the large elemental difference in the matrix. This work proposed a non-targeted metallomics (NTM) approach through synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and machine learning algorithms (MLAs) for the screening of cancers. One hundred serum samples were collected from cancer patients who were confirmed by pathological examination with 100 matched serum samples from healthy volunteers. The serum samples were studied with SRXRF and the spectra from both groups were directly clarified through MLAs, which did not require the quantification of elements. The NTM approach through SRXRF and MLAs is fast (5s for data collection for one sample) and accurate (over 96% accuracy) for cancer screening. Besides, this approach can also identify the most affected elements in cancer samples like Ca, Zn and Ti as we found, which may shed lights on the drug development for cancer treatment. This NTM approach can also be applied through commercially available XRF instruments or ICP-TOF-MS with MLAs. It has the potential for the screening and prediction of other diseases like COVID-19 and neurodegenerative diseases in a high throughput and least invasive way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Machine Learning , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Synchrotrons , X-Rays
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 781192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792960

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypercoagulability and thromboembolic events are associated with poor prognosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Whether chronic oral anticoagulation (OAC) improve the prognosis is yet controversial. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the chronic OAC and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched to identify studies that evaluated OAC for COVID-19 until 24 July 2021. Random-effects model meta-analyses were performed to pool the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of all-cause mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission as primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. According to the type of oral anticoagulants [direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) or vitamin K antagonists (VKAs)], subgroup and interaction analyses were performed to compare DOACs and VKAs. Meta-regression was performed to explore the potential confounders on all-cause mortality. Results: A total of 12 studies involving 30,646 patients met the inclusion criteria. The results confirmed that chronic OAC did not reduce the risk of all-cause mortality (RR: 0.92; 95% CI 0.82-1.03; p = 0.165) or ICU admission (RR: 0.65; 95% CI 0.40-1.04; p = 0.073) in patients with COVID-19 compared to those without OAC. The chronic use of DOACs did not reduce the risk of all-cause mortality compared to VKAs (P interaction = 0.497) in subgroup and interaction analyses. The meta-regression failed to detect any potential confounding on all-cause mortality. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with chronic OAC were not associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality and ICU admission compared to those without OAC, and the results were consistent across DOACs and VKA subgroups. Systematic Review Registration: clinicaltrials.gov, identifier CRD42021269764.

12.
Religions ; 13(4):364, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1792564

ABSTRACT

The concept of spirituality has a long philosophical history. Based on detailed studies of a history of spiritual exercises from Socrates, the Stoics, Epicureanism, to early Christianity, the former catholic priest Pierre Hadot conceives philosophical practice as spiritual exercises in learning how to live a philosophical life. Following this idea, a number of philosophers such as Gerd B. Achenbach started the contemporary movement of philosophical practice in the 1980s, which aimed to apply philosophical theories and methods to discussions about issues people constantly encounter in life, mainly in the forms of philosophical counseling and philosophical therapy. In this paper, after showing that philosophical practice has already become a new frontier in philosophical research, we further argue that philosophical practice as spiritual exercises is an exercise of reason and logos, while certain kinds of religious exercises such as Zen arts can also constitute an important part of philosophical practice. We conclude that in light of the distinct plurality of the methods and modes of philosophical practice and the spiritual exercises involved, philosophical practice can be considered a meaningful and applicable approach to pursuing truth, wisdom, and virtue, which is of great didactic and ethical significance in the post-COVID-19 era.

13.
Chemical science ; 13(11):3216-3226, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782305

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 highlights the urgent need to develop sensitive methods for diagnosis and prognosis. To achieve this, multidimensional detection of SARS-CoV-2 related parameters including virus loads, immune response, and inflammation factors is crucial. Herein, by using metal-tagged antibodies as reporting probes, we developed a multiplex metal-detection based assay (MMDA) method as a general multiplex assay strategy for biofluids. This strategy provides extremely high multiplexing capability (theoretically over 100) compared with other reported biofluid assay methods. As a proof-of-concept, MMDA was used for serologic profiling of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The MMDA exhibits significantly higher sensitivity and specificity than ELISA for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. By integrating the high dimensional data exploration/visualization tool (tSNE) and machine learning algorithms with in-depth analysis of multiplex data, we classified COVID-19 patients into different subgroups based on their distinct antibody landscape. We unbiasedly identified anti-SARS-CoV-2-nucleocapsid IgG and IgA as the most potently induced types of antibodies for COVID-19 diagnosis, and anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike IgA as a biomarker for disease severity stratification. MMDA represents a more accurate method for the diagnosis and disease severity stratification of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as well as for biomarker discovery of other diseases. A MMDA platform is developed by using metal-tagged antibodies as reporting probes combined with machine learning algorithms, as a general strategy for highly multiplexed biofluid assay.

14.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(14): e2104333, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782562

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global public health threat. Hence, more effective and specific antivirals are urgently needed. Here, COVID-19 hyperimmune globulin (COVID-HIG), a passive immunotherapy, is prepared from the plasma of healthy donors vaccinated with BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine). COVID-HIG shows high-affinity binding to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein, the receptor-binding domain (RBD), the N-terminal domain of the S protein, and the nucleocapsid protein; and blocks RBD binding to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). Pseudotyped and authentic virus-based assays show that COVID-HIG displays broad-spectrum neutralization effects on a wide variety of SARS-CoV-2 variants, including D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Kappa (B.1.617.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529) in vitro. However, a significant reduction in the neutralization titer is detected against Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants. Additionally, assessments of the prophylactic and treatment efficacy of COVID-HIG in an Adv5-hACE2-transduced IFNAR-/- mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection show significantly reduced weight loss, lung viral loads, and lung pathological injury. Moreover, COVID-HIG exhibits neutralization potency similar to that of anti-SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune globulin from pooled convalescent plasma. Overall, the results demonstrate the potential of COVID-HIG against SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide reference for subsequent clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Globulins , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Globulins/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(13): 1602-1609, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is considered an important risk factor for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The commonly anti-hypertensive drugs are the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and beta-blockers. The association between commonly used anti-hypertensive medications and the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients with hypertension has not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients admitted with COVID-19 to Huo Shen Shan Hospital and Guanggu District of the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan, China. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records. Hypertension and anti-hypertensive treatment were confirmed by medical history and clinical records. The primary clinical endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints included the rates of patients in common wards transferred to the intensive care unit and hospital stay duration. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors associated with mortality and prognosis. Propensity score matching was used to balance the confounders between different anti-hypertensive treatments. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the cumulative recovery rate. Log-rank tests were performed to test for differences in Kaplan-Meier curves between different groups. RESULTS: Among 4569 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 31.7% (1449/4569) had a history of hypertension. There were significant differences in mortality rates between hypertensive patients with CCBs (7/359) and those without (21/359) (1.95% vs. 5.85%, risk ratio [RR]: 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.76, χ2 = 7.61, P = 0.0058). After matching for confounders, the mortality rates were similar between the RAAS inhibitor (4/236) and non-RAAS inhibitor (9/236) cohorts (1.69% vs. 3.81%, RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.13-1.43, χ2 = 1.98, P = 0.1596). Hypertensive patients with beta-blockers (13/340) showed no statistical difference in mortality compared with those without (11/340) (3.82% vs. 3.24%, RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.53-2.69, χ2 = 0.17, P = 0.6777). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we did not find any positive or negative effects of RAAS inhibitors or beta-blockers in COVID-19 patients with hypertension, while CCBs could improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Child , China , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Chem Sci ; 13(11): 3216-3226, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764224

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 highlights the urgent need to develop sensitive methods for diagnosis and prognosis. To achieve this, multidimensional detection of SARS-CoV-2 related parameters including virus loads, immune response, and inflammation factors is crucial. Herein, by using metal-tagged antibodies as reporting probes, we developed a multiplex metal-detection based assay (MMDA) method as a general multiplex assay strategy for biofluids. This strategy provides extremely high multiplexing capability (theoretically over 100) compared with other reported biofluid assay methods. As a proof-of-concept, MMDA was used for serologic profiling of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The MMDA exhibits significantly higher sensitivity and specificity than ELISA for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. By integrating the high dimensional data exploration/visualization tool (tSNE) and machine learning algorithms with in-depth analysis of multiplex data, we classified COVID-19 patients into different subgroups based on their distinct antibody landscape. We unbiasedly identified anti-SARS-CoV-2-nucleocapsid IgG and IgA as the most potently induced types of antibodies for COVID-19 diagnosis, and anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike IgA as a biomarker for disease severity stratification. MMDA represents a more accurate method for the diagnosis and disease severity stratification of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as well as for biomarker discovery of other diseases.

17.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(3): e31449, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of mobile health technologies has been necessary to deliver patient education to patients with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This open-label randomized controlled trial evaluated the effects of a diabetes educational platform-Taipei Medical University-LINE Oriented Video Education-delivered through a social media app. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a clinic through physician referral. The social media-based program included 51 videos: 10 about understanding diabetes, 10 about daily care, 6 about nutrition care, 21 about diabetes drugs, and 4 containing quizzes. The intervention group received two or three videos every week and care messages every 2 weeks through the social media platform for 3 months, in addition to usual care. The control group only received usual care. Outcomes were measured at clinical visits through self-reported face-to-face questionnaires at baseline and at 3 months after the intervention, including the Simplified Diabetes Knowledge Scale (true/false version), the Diabetes Care Profile-Attitudes Toward Diabetes Scales, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Health literacy was measured at baseline using the Newest Vital Sign tool. Differences in HbA1c levels and questionnaire scores before and after the intervention were compared between groups. The associations of knowledge, attitudes, and self-care activities with health literacy were assessed. RESULTS: Patients with type 2 diabetes completed the 3-month study, with 91 out of 181 (50.3%) patients in the intervention group and 90 (49.7%) in the control group. The change in HbA1c did not significantly differ between groups (intervention group: mean 6.9%, SD 0.8% to mean 7.0%, SD 0.9%, P=.34; control group: mean 6.7%, SD 0.6% to mean 6.7%, SD 0.7%, P=.91). Both groups showed increased mean knowledge scores at 12 weeks, increasing from 68.3% (SD 16.4%) to 76.7% (SD 11.7%; P<.001) in the intervention group and from 64.8% (SD 18.2%) to 73.2% (SD 12.6%; P<.001) in the control group. Positive improvements in attitudes and self-care activities were only observed in the intervention group (attitudes: mean difference 0.2, SD 0.5, P=.001; self-care activities: mean difference 0.3, SD 1.2, P=.03). A 100% utility rate was achieved for 8 out of 21 (38%) medication-related videos. Low health literacy was a significant risk factor for baseline knowledge scores in the intervention group, with an odds ratio of 2.80 (95% CI 1.28-6.12; P=.01); this became insignificant after 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: The social media-based program was effective at enhancing the knowledge, attitudes, and self-care activities of patients with diabetes. This intervention was also helpful for patients with low health literacy in diabetes knowledge. The program represents a potentially useful tool for delivering diabetes education to patients through social media, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04876274; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT04876274.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , Social Media , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Education as Topic
18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324766

ABSTRACT

Background: The global spread of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has lasted more than half a year. Except for the gene sequence and viral structure of SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, pathological mechanisms and corresponding measures have not been fully revealed. We aimed to speculate about the possible pathological mechanism from the early clinical manifestations of patients with COVID-19. Methods: : The onset symptoms, laboratory examinations and CT findings on admission of 300 patients in two wards of Wuhan Third Hospital from January 28 to March 15 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: : There was no difference in incidence between men and women, but women were hospitalized later after onset. Upper respiratory symptoms and sputum were rare. The incidence of fever was 71%. Blood lymphocyte counts were decreased significantly on admission and were related to the severity of the disease. In moderate patients without hypoxia, thrombocytopenia occurred in 12.37%, CRP rose in 64.43%, BUN was elevated in 20.62%, creatinine rose in 17.53%, D-dimer was elevated in 74.74%, and creatine kinase and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase were elevated in 45.36% and 54.12% of patients, respectively. Early CT showed a small amount of infiltration in the subpleural and lateral zones of the lung and thickening of the interlobular septum. Approximately 5 days later, infiltration was worse in some of the patients, and the proportion of involvement of the affected lung was negatively correlated with the lymphocyte count. Conclusions: : There was no sex difference in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Alveolar cells and T lymphocytes may be the main targets of the virus, and apoptosis may be the primary mechanism of pathogenesis. The virus entering the lung may be transmitted through lymph or blood vessels rather than directly dispersing through the respiratory tract. Early damage to multiple organs may be caused by the immune response.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324765

ABSTRACT

The global spread of COVID-19 has been lasted more than half a year. Except for the gene sequence and virus structure of SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, pathological mechanism and corresponding measures have not been fully revealed. Objective: To speculate the possible pathological mechanism from the early clinical manifestations of the patients with COVID-19. Methods: The onset symptoms, laboratory examination and CT findings on admission of 300 cases in two wards of Wuhan Third Hospital from January 28 to March 15 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: There was no difference in incidence between men and women, but women were hospitalized later after onset. Upper respiratory symptoms and sputum were seldom. The incidence of fever was 71%. Blood lymphocytes count decreased significantly on admission, which was related to the severity of the disease. In the moderate type of patients, who without hypoxia, thrombocytopenia occurred in 12.37%, CRP rose in 64.43 %, BUN elevated in 20.62 %, creatinine rose in 17.53 %, D-dimer elevated in 74.74%, creatine kinase and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase elevated in 45.36% and 54.12% patients respectively. The early CT showed a small amount of infiltration in the subpleural, the lateral zone of the lung and thickening of the interlobular septum. About 5 days later, infiltration had been worse in a part of the patients, and the affected lung was negatively correlated with the lymphocyte count. Conclusion: There was no gender difference in patients with SARS-CoV-2 invasion. Alveolar cells and T lymphocytes maybe main targets of the virus and apoptosis maybe primary pathogenesis. The virus entering the lung maybe transmitted through lymph or blood channels, rather than direct diffused in the respiratory tract. Early damage of multiple organs maybe caused by immune response.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324327

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 spread worldwide quickly. Exploring the epidemiological characteristics could provide a basis for responding to imported cases abroad and to formulate prevention and control strategies in areas where COVID-19 is still spreading rapidly. Methods: : The number of confirmed cases, daily growth, incidence and length of time from the first reported case to the end of the local cases (i.e., non-overseas imported cases) were compared by spatial (geographical) and temporal classification and visualization of the development and changes of the epidemic situation by layers through maps. Results: : In the first wave, a total of 539 cases were reported in Sichuan, with an incidence rate of 0.6462/100,000. The closer to Hubei the population centres were, the more pronounced the epidemic was. The peak in Sichuan Province occurred in the second week. Eight weeks after the Wuhan lockdown, the health crisis had eased. The longest epidemic length at the city level in China (except Wuhan, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) was 53 days, with a median of 23 days. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of China showed positive spatial correlation (Moran's Index >0, p<0.05). Most countries outside China began to experience a rapid rise in infection rates 4 weeks after their first case. Some European countries experienced that rise earlier than the USA. The pandemic in Germany, Spain, Italy, and China took 28, 29, 34, and 18 days, respectively, to reach the peak of daily infections, after their daily increase of up to 20 cases. During this time, countries in the African region and Southeast Asian region were at an early stage of infections, those in the Eastern Mediterranean region and region of the Americas were in a rapid growth phase. Conclusions: : After the closure of the outbreak city, appropriate isolation and control measures in the next 8 weeks were key to control the outbreak, which reduced the peak value and length of the outbreak. Some countries with improved epidemic situations need to develop a continuous "local strategy at entry checkpoints" to to fend off imported COVID-19.

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