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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2162348

ABSTRACT

Background: Prior studies indicate that older members of LGBTQ+ communities have specific health provision and health information needs related to coping with COVID-19, its long-term effects, and the social and economic impact of the pandemic. This study addresses the issue of a lack of timely, complete, and high-quality data about this population's healthcare and healthcare information needs and behaviors. Recognizing also that this is a diverse population made up of multiple communities and identities with different concerns and experiences, this research seeks to develop and refine a method that can provide additional nuanced data and insights that can support improved and more closely targeted health interventions and online information provision. Methods: We use computational discourse analysis, which is based on NLP algorithms, to build and analyze a digital corpus of online search results containing rich, wide-ranging content such as quotes and anecdotes from older members of LGBTQ+ communities as well as practitioners, advice, and recommendations from policymakers and healthcare experts, and research outcomes. In our analysis, we develop and apply an innovative disparities and resilience (D&R) framework to identify external and internal perspectives and understand better disparities and resilience as they pertain to this population. Results: Results of this initial study support previous research that LGBTQ+ elders experience aggravated health and related social-economic disparities in comparison to the general population of older people. We also find that LGBTQ+ elders leverage individual toughness and community closeness, and quickly adapt mentally and technologically, despite inadequate social infrastructure for sharing health information and elders' often low social economic status. The methods used therefore are able to surface distinctive resilience in the face of distinctive disparities. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that methodological innovation in gathering and analyzing digital data relating to overlooked, disparately affected, and socially and economically marginalized intersectional communities such as LGBTQ+ elders can result in increased external and self-knowledge of these populations. Specifically, it demonstrates the potential of computational discourse analysis to surface hidden and emerging issues and trends relating to a multi-faceted population that has important concerns about public exposure in highly timely and automated ways. It also points to the potential benefits of triangulating data gathered through this approach with data gathered through more traditional mechanisms such as surveys and interviews. Trial registration: Not Applicable.

2.
Natural Product Communications ; 17(12), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2162120

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is an attractive target for drug discovery. Method(s): A pharmacophore model was built using the three-dimensional (3D) pharmacophore generation algorithm HypoGen in Discovery Studio 2019. The best pharmacophore model was selected for validation using a test set of 24 compounds and was used as a 3D query for further screening of an in-house database of natural compounds. Lipinski's rule of five was used to assess the drug-like properties of the hit compounds. The filtered compounds were then subjected to bioactivity evaluations. The active compounds were docked into the active site of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro crystal structure (PDB ID: 7D1M). Result(s): A suitable 3D pharmacophore model, Hypo1, was found to be the best model, consisting of four features (one hydrophobic feature, one hydrogen bond donor, and two hydrogen bond acceptors). Pharmacophore-based virtual screening with Hypo1 as the query to search an in-house database of 34 439 natural compounds resulted in 1502 hits. Among these, 255 compounds satisfied Lipinski's rule of five. The highest ranking 10 compounds were selected for further experimental testing, and one hit (W-7) illustrated inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with an IC50 value of 75 muM. Docking studies revealed that this hit compound retained the necessary interactions within the active site of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Conclusion The identified lead natural compound could provide a scaffold for the further development of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. Copyright © The Author(s) 2022.

3.
Acm Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage ; 15(3), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2162009

ABSTRACT

This article reports on a study using machine learning to identify incidences and shifting dynamics of hate speech in social media archives. To better cope with the archival processing need for such large-scale and fast evolving archives, we propose the Data-driven and Circulating Archival Processing (DCAP) method. As a proof-of-concept, our study focuses on an English language Twitter archive relating to COVID-19: Tweets were repeatedly scraped between February and June 2020, ingested and aggregated within the COVID-19 Hate Speech Twitter Archive (CHSTA), and analyzed for hate speech using the Generative Adversarial Network-inspired DCAP method. Outcomes suggest that it is possible to use machine learning and data analytics to surface and substantiate trends from CHSTA and similar social media archives that could provide immediately useful knowledge for crisis response, in controversial situations, or for public policy development, as well as for subsequent historical analysis. The approach shows potential for integrating multiple aspects of the archival workflow and supporting automatic iterative redescription and reappraisal activities in ways that make them more accountable and more rapidly responsive to changing societal interests and unfolding developments.

4.
Front Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2154844

ABSTRACT

When the world is recovering from the chaos that COVID-19 creates, the epidemic is still posing challenges to the public health system and communication. However, a case of information communication during the COVID-19 outbreak can provide a reference for the current information promulgate strategy in China. In January 2020, CCTV broadcasted the construction of two cabin hospitals on a 24-h Livestream (24H-LS), creating a remarkable viewing effect. We conducted a quantitative analysis based on the number of views, social media communication, and internet search index. We collected posts and comment data of the 24H-LS audience and related topics on Weibo, using sentiment classification and word frequency analysis to study the communication effect of 24H-LS from three perspectives: perception effect, psychology, and subject issue. The results show that, first, 24H-LS has attracted extensive public attention on the Internet and social media after its launch. Second, the public's perception of the risks of the COVID-19 outbreak and its uncertainty has decreased after watching the 24H-LS. At the same time, the positive emotions of the public have been enhanced to a certain extent. Third, through subject analysis, we found that the public had high participation and strong interaction in 24H-LS, which produced collective symbols and emotions. The study shows that through 24H-LS, a new information form, the media can effectively convey important information and resolve the public's fear and anxiety.

5.
ACS Sensors ; 06:06, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150988

ABSTRACT

The disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is termed COVID-19. Even though COVID-19 has been out for more than two years, it is still causing a global pandemic. Due to the limitations of sample collection, transportation, and kit performance, the traditional reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method has a long detection period and high testing costs. An increased risk of infection is inevitable, since many patients may not be diagnosed in time. The CRISPR-Cas13a system can be designed for RNA identification and knockdown, as a promising platform for nucleic acid detection. Here, we designed a solution-gated graphene transistor (SGGT) biosensor based on the CRISPR-Cas13a system. Using the gene-targeting capacity of CRISPR-Cas13a and gate functionalization via multilayer modification, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid sequences can be quickly and precisely identified without the need for amplification or fluorescence tagging. The limit of detection (LOD) in both buffer and serum reached the aM level, and the reaction time was about 10 min. The results of the detection of COVID-19 clinical samples from throat swabs agree with RT-PCR. In addition, the interchangeable gates significantly minimize the cost and time of device fabrication. In a nutshell, our biosensor technology is broadly applicable and will be suitable for point-of-care (POC) testing.

6.
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology ; 22(9):178-188, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2145635

ABSTRACT

Hairtail is one of the most popular marine fish. Since the outbreak of COVID -19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been detected in numerous imported hairtails in China, posing significant health risks. Electron beam (E-beam) irradiation is an efficient and rapid method of inactivating microorganisms. Previous work found that specific doses of E-beam irradiation can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in cold-chain seafood. The article studied the effects of 2, 4, 7, 10 kGy of E-beam irradiation on the nutritional, physical, storage, and sensory quality of imported hairtail. The results showed that 4-10 kGy E-beam irradiation significantly reduced the vitamin A content of hairtail while significantly increasing its hardness, elasticity, adhesiveness, and chewiness. The dose of 10 kGy irradiation significantly decreased the total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content of hairtail. It was shown that 2-10 kGy E-beam irradiation had no effect on the sensory quality of hairtail. In conclusion, a dose of 2 kGy was recommended in consideration of the keeping safety and quality in hairtail. © 2022 Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology. All rights reserved.

7.
Annals of Neurology ; 92(Supplement 29):S201-S202, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2127558

ABSTRACT

Introduction: IC14 (atibuclimab) is a monoclonal anti-CD14 antibody that may target T-regulatory (T-reg) cell function. A previous phase 1 trial of 10 participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) demonstrated initial safety of IC14 for a single cycle of treatment. We provided longterm treatment with IC14 to 17 individuals with ALS via an expanded access protocol (EAP) and documented target engagement, safety, and disease endpoints. Method(s): Participants received intravenous IC14 every two weeks. Consistent with FDA guidelines, participants were ineligible for clinical trials and the EAP was inclusive of a broad population. Participants unable to travel to MGH due to the COVID-19 pandemic or disease progression, were transitioned to infusions in-home or local clinics. Blood samples for hematology, chemistry, and coagulation were collected to monitor safety. The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) was administered monthly to track disease progression. Respiratory function was measured through slow vital capacity tests -data for this is limited due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Whole blood and serum were collected to determine monocyte CD14 receptor occupancy (RO), soluble CD14, and antidrug antibodies (ADA). Ex vivo T regulatory functional assays were performed with five participants. Result(s): Participants received IC14 for up to 103 weeks (average: 30.1 weeks, range: 1-103 weeks). Treatmentemergent adverse events were uncommon, mild, and self-limited. There were 18 serious adverse events (SAEs) which were related to disease progression and unrelated (17) or likely unrelated (1) to IC14. Three participants died due to disease progression. Most participants achieved >80% monocyte mCD14 RO on a 14-day dosing schedule, although one individual required more frequent dosing (every 10 days) to achieve >80% RO. ADA were detected in only one participant and were transient, low titer, and non-neutralizing. Tregs were isolated from the available longitudinal samples and assayed for suppression of CD4 T cell proliferation and cytokine production versus baseline T-reg activity. Conclusion(s): IC14 administration to ALS patients was safe and well tolerated in this EAP, with no significant changes in laboratory tests and no drug-related SAEs. Measuring RO guided dosing frequency. Preliminary data suggest IC14 enhanced T-reg activity. Additional placebo-controlled trials are required to determine the efficacy of IC14 in ALS.

8.
JAMA Network Open ; 5(12):e2244486, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127465

ABSTRACT

Importance: Long-term sequelae after symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection may impact well-being, yet existing data primarily focus on discrete symptoms and/or health care use.

9.
12th International Conference on CYBER Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems, CYBER 2022 ; : 474-479, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2120884

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease(PD) is a progressive neu-rodegenerative disease defined by clinical syndrome including bradykinesia, tremor and postural instability. The PD-related disability and impairment are usually monitored by clinicals using the MDS-UPDRS scale. However, due to COVID-19, it became much harder for the patients to reach hospitals and obtain necessary assessment and treatment. Nowadays, 2D videos are easily accessible and can be a promising so-lution for on-site and remote diagnosis of movement disorder. Inspired by the frequency-based video processing mechanism of human visual system, we propose a video-based SlowFast GCN network to quantify the gait disorder. The model consists of two parts: the fast pathway and the slow pathway. The former detects characteristics such as tremor and bilateral asymmetry, while the latter extracts characteristics such as bradykinesia and freezing of gait. Furthermore, in order to investigate the influence of age on the model performance, an aged control group and a young control group were set up for verification. The proposed model was evaluated on a video dataset collected from 68 participants. We achieved a balanced accuracy of 87.5% and precision of 87.9%, which outperformed existing competing methods. When replacing the young healthy controls with the same number of older controls, the balanced accuracy and precision were decreased by 10.4% and 9.7%, which indicates that age has a significant effect on the model perfomance. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
Aims Public Health ; 9(4):703-717, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2110358

ABSTRACT

The dynamic mechanism of the COVID-19 pandemic has been studied for disease prevention and health protection through areal unit-based log-linear Poisson processes to understand the outbreak of the virus with confirmed daily empirical cases. The predictor of the evolution is structured as a function of a short-term dependence and a long-term trend to identify the pattern of exponential growth in the main epicenters of the virus. The study provides insight into the possible pandemic path of each areal unit and a guide to drive policymaking on preventive measures that can be applied or relaxed to mitigate the spread of the virus. It is significant that knowing the trend of the virus is very helpful for institutions and organizations in terms of instituting resources and measures to help provide a safe working environment and support for all workers/staff/students.

11.
Cytotherapy ; 24(5):S35-S35, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812325

ABSTRACT

From SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2002 to the most recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (COVID-19), emergence of viral diseases has repeatedly threatened humanity over the recent decades. These viral diseases mainly cause respiratory symptoms, which can even lead to death when appropriate measures are not taken. In this study, we investigated whether adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell EVs (ASC-EVs) can attenuate acute lung injury (ALI) induced by H1N1 influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 and by what mechanism the ant-viral effect may occurs.

13.
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; 8(4):463-490, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066828

ABSTRACT

Curcumae Longae Rhizoma (CLR) is the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Pharmacological studies show that CLR can be used to treat cervical cancer, lung cancer, lupus nephritis, and other conditions. In this paper, we review botany, traditional application, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, and pharmacokinetics of CLR. The literature from 1981 to date was entirely collected from online databases, such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, China Academic Journals full-text database (CNKI), Wiley, Springer, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. The data were also obtained from ancient books, theses and dissertations, and Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. There are a total of 275 compounds that have been isolated from CLR, including phenolic compounds, volatile oils, and others. The therapeutic effect of turmeric has been expanded from breaking blood and activating qi in the traditional sense to antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidation, neuroprotection, antibacterial, hypolipidemic effects, and other benefits. However, the active ingredients and mechanisms of action related to relieving disease remain ill defined, which requires more in-depth research and verification at a clinical level.

14.
Covid-19's Economic Impact And Countermeasures In China ; : 213-250, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2053320
15.
International Journal of Qualitative Methods ; 21, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2021043

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, travel restrictions, and social distancing measures have made it difficult to observe, monitor, or manage urban life. To capture the experience of being in New York City during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, we used a novel method of remote ethnography to interview people who were walking the city. We developed the Walkie-Talkie Map to collect and present these interviews, enabling website visitors to see what the subject saw as they walked the route of their choice. Visitors can interactively scroll through the interview and have access to additional visualizations and imagery that contextualize the main narrative. Visitors are thus able to vicariously experience what it was like to be in New York City at the outset of the COVID-19 epidemic. This work provides a case study on how to perform observational research when geographic and bodily distance has become the norm. We discuss the advantages and limitations of our method and conclude with its contributions to the study of cities and for others looking to conduct remote observational research in different fields of knowledge. The Walkie-Talkie maps can be found on this url: https://www.socialdistancing.tech.cornell.edu/what-is-a-walike-talkie © The Author(s) 2022.

16.
Analytical Chemistry ; 94(33):11591-11599, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2016508

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global crisis with devastating effects on public healthcare and the economy. Sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 is the key to diagnose and control its spread. The spike (S) protein is an abundant viral transmembrane protein and a suitable target protein for the selective recognition of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report that with bovine serum albumin prescreening, a specific phage peptide targeting SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein was biopanned with the pIII phage display library. The identified phage #2 expressing the to the target with a dissociation constant of 3.45 +/- 0.58 nM. Furthermore, the identified peptide shows good specificity with a binding site at the N-terminal domain of the S1 subunit through a hydrogen bond network and hydrophobic interaction, supported by molecular docking. Then, a sandwiched phage-based enzyme-linked chemiluminescence immunoassay (ELCLIA) was established by using phage #2 as a bifunctional probe capable of SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen recognition and signal amplification. After optimizing the conditions, the proposed phage ELCLIA exhibited good sensitivity, and as low as 78 pg/mL SARS-CoV-2 S1 could be detected. This method can be applied to detect as low as 60 transducing units (TU)/mL SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in 50% saliva. Therefore, specific phage peptides have good prospects as powerful biological recognition probes for immunoassay detection and biomedical applications.

17.
Acs Photonics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2004745

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in the Medical Internet of Things (MIoT) and big data enable a prospering platform for pervasive healthcare and facilitate the transformation from hospital-centered to human-centered healthcare. Wearable devices as human interfaces provide first-hand data and real-time monitoring, which are key technologies in the MIoT. Several remarkable surveys have been conducted to summarize the recent progress in wearable sensors and systems for the MIoT and pervasive medicine. However, few have focused on wearable optical sensing (WOS) technologies, which is an emerging sensing modality in wearable devices. WOS can achieve high precision, high compatibility, high anti-interference, and low motion artifacts for human vital signal acquisition, which are particularly useful in special scenarios such as intensive care units (ICUs). These technologies can also be integrated with smart fabrics or mobile computing for out-of-hospital healthcare. This work provides the first literature review of WOS for pervasive medicine. We aim to systematically summarize the emerging WOS technologies in the MIoT for disease diagnosis and health monitoring. Specifically, this review covers the technical bases and design principles of major WOS technologies and their application domains for monitoring and treatment. We also discuss the opportunities and challenges, especially in the COVID-19 outbreak.

18.
Cytotherapy ; 24(5):S35, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996713

ABSTRACT

Background & Aim: From SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2002 to the most recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (COVID-19), emergence of viral diseases has repeatedly threatened humanity over the recent decades. These viral diseases mainly cause respiratory symptoms, which can even lead to death when appropriate measures are not taken. In this study, we investigated whether adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell EVs (ASC-EVs) can attenuate acute lung injury (ALI) induced by H1N1 influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 and by what mechanism the ant-viral effect may occurs. Methods, Results & Conclusion: EVs were isolated from ASC or HEK293T conditioned media by tangential flow filtration, and were characterized according to MISEV recommendation. Influenza A/ Puerto Rico/08/1934 (H1N1) and SARS-CoV-2 (NCCP43326) were used to model highly pathogenic human influenza A and SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, respectively, in mice and Syrian hamsters respectively. Treatment of ASC-EVs, from 0.15 x 109 to 5.0 x 109 particles/mL, showed inhibitory activities on cytopathic effects and replication of H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 in MDCK cells and Vero E6 cells, respectively. In the mouse H1N1 influenza A virus induced acute lung injury (ALI) model, total of 4 daily injections of 1 x 1010 particles of ASC-EVs administration resulted in significantly increased survival rate by 30 – 40%, recovery of body weight, and improved clinical disease score from 9 dpi. In addition, ASC-EV treatment downregulated various inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα in lung tissue by up to 77%. In the Syrian hamster SARS-CoV-2 induced ALI model, total of 4 daily injections of ASC-EVs at a dose of 3 x 1010 or 1 x 1010 particles resulted recovery of body weights from 5 dpi, in a dose-dependent manner, by 9.7% - 12.75%. Further, ASC-EV treatment resulted in significant downregulation of viral genes and IL-1 beat in lung tissue. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the observed anti-viral effects of ASC-EVs, the role of multiple miRNAs and proteins present in the ASC-EVs were assessed in vitro. We identified one specific protein that conveyed anti-viral efficacy against the two studied viruses including SARS-CoV-2. Loss and gain of function studies revealed that this protein may be involved in the anti-viral efficacy of the ASC-EVs. Our findings support the concept that that ASC-EVs have anti-viral effects against virus induced ALI, which may have implications for the treatment of not only treatment COVID-19, but also future ALI-inducing virus diseases.

19.
Cancer Research ; 82(12), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1986493

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) is the cellular receptor of SARS-CoV-2. At present, ACE2 receptor is considered to be the key component in the SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmitting in the host. Among the cancer patients with COVID-19, the gastrointestinal cancer is the second most prevalent. The MethyLight and QASM assays were used to evaluated the genomic DNA 5mC methylation, while the CviAII enzyme-based 6mA-RE-qPCR was applied to determine motif-specific DNA 6mA methylation. The 6mA and 5mC methylation analyses of the long interspersed nuclear elements 1 (LINE1) were used to evaluate the global level of genomic 6mA and 5mC methylations, respectively. To investigate the role of ACE2 DNA methylation in regulating ACE2 expression, we performed a genome-wide methylation analysis in colorectal cancer samples collected at the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. The DNA 5mC methylation of ACE2 promoter in tumor tissues were significantly lower than that in normal tissues, while the DNA 6mA methylation of ACE2 promoter in tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in normal tissues. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of ACE2 in tumor tissues were lower than that in normal tissues. To explore the epigenetic regulation on ACE2 expression, we treated colon cancer cell lines with 5-Azacytidine and found ACE2 expression was upregulated after lowering the DNA 5mC methylation. The correlation analysis in patient cohort samples showed that ACE2 mRNA expression was positively correlated with DNA 5mC and negatively associated with DNA 6mA methylation. Next, a novel CRISPR-based tool was developed for sequence-specific 6mA editing on ACE2 promoter region, and it was applied in HCT116 cell to further confirm the regulatory role of DNA 6mA methylation in ACE2 mRNA expression. This tool was proved to be reliable with our findings that the CRISPR/dCas9-METTL3 tool could dramatically upregulate DNA 6mA methylation in ACE2 promoter, while the global level of genomic 6mA methylation remained unchanged. Both the mRNA and protein expression of ACE2 were significantly increased following a sequence-specific DNA 6mA editing in ACE2 promoter. In conclusion, we revealed the aberrant DNA 5mC and 6mA methylations in colorectal cancer, which upregulate ACE2 expression in colorectal cancer cells that may confer the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We developed a novel CRISPR-based tool that could realize site-directed 6mA methylation editing. Notably, the epigenetic regulation of DNA 6mA methylation on ACE2 expression provides an insight into the intersection of the biology of cancer, SARS-CoV-2 infection and organ-specific complication in COVID-19. Aberrant ACE2 methylation may serve as a biomarker and treatment target in these patients.

20.
International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems ; 18(1):19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1979482

ABSTRACT

Health information becomes importantly valuable for protecting public health in the current coronavirus situation. Knowledge-based information systems can play a crucial role in helping individuals to practice risk assessment and remote diagnosis. The authors introduce a novel approach that will develop causality-focused knowledge learning in a robust and transparent manner. Then, the machine gains the causality and probability knowledge for inference (thinking) and accurate prediction later. In addition, the hidden knowledge can be discovered beyond the existing understanding of the diseases. The whole approach is built on a causal probability description logic framework that combines natural language processing (NLP), causality analysis, and extended knowledge graph (KG) technologies. The experimental work has processed 801 diseases in total (from the UK NHS website linking with DBpedia datasets). As a result, the machine learnt comprehensive health causal knowledge and relations among the diseases, symptoms, and other facts efficiently.

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