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1.
Virol J ; 20(1): 114, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection continues all over the world, causing serious physical and psychological impacts to patients. Patients with COVID-19 infection suffer from various negative emotional experiences such as anxiety, depression, mania, and alienation, which seriously affect their normal life and is detrimental to the prognosis. Our study is aimed to investigate the effect of psychological capital on alienation among patients with COVID-19 and the mediating role of social support in this relationship. METHODS: The data were collected in China by the convenient sampling. A sample of 259 COVID-19 patients completed the psychological capital, social support and social alienation scale and the structural equation model was adopted to verify the research hypotheses. RESULTS: Psychological capital was significantly and negatively related to the COVID-19 patients' social alienation (p < .01). And social support partially mediated the correlation between psychological capital and patients' social alienation (p < .01). CONCLUSION: Psychological capital is critical to predicting COVID-19 patients' social alienation. Social support plays an intermediary role and explains how psychological capital alleviates the sense of social alienation among patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Humans , Social Support , Anxiety , China
2.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases ; 2023, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2327274

ABSTRACT

Diarrhea outbreaks in piglets on pig farms are commonly attributed to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. This research analyzed the S gene prevalence variation and recombination patterns in PEDV GII strains. Throughout the previous two years, 172 clinical samples of piglet diarrhea have been collected, from which 24 PEDV isolates have been isolated. Analysis of the evolutionary relationships among all 24 S genes revealed that 21 were most closely related to strains within the GII-a subgroup. The 2 isolates grouped into one clade with the GII-b subgroup. According to the mutation analysis of the amino acids (aa) that encode the S protein, 43 of the common aa in strains of the GII subtype were found to have undergone a change in polarity or charge, and 36 of these aa had a mutation frequency of more than 90%. Three different aa mutation sites were identified as exclusive to GII-a subtype strains. The genomes of three PEDV isolates were sequenced, and the resulting range in genome length was 28,035−28,041 nt. The results of recombination analysis showed that the SD1 isolate is a novel strain recombinant from the foreign S-INDEL strain and a domestic GII subtype strain. Based on the findings, the PEDV GII-a strain has been the most circulating strain in several parts of China during the previous two years. Our study reveals for the first time the unique change of aa mutations in the S protein of the GII-a subtype strain and the new characteristics of the recombination of foreign strains and domestic GII subtype strains, indicating that it is crucial to monitor the epidemic dynamics of PEDV promptly to prevent and control the occurrence of PED effectively.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 952650, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326989

ABSTRACT

Given pandemic risks of zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 variants and other SARS-like coronaviruses in the future, it is valuable to perform studies on conserved antigenic sites to design universal SARS-like coronavirus vaccines. By using antibodies obtained from convalescent COVID-19 patients, we succeeded in functional comparison of conserved antigenic sites at multiple aspects with each other, and even with SARS-CoV-2 unique antigenic sites, which promotes the cognition of process of humoral immune response to the conserved antigenic sites. The conserved antigenic sites between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV can effectively induce affinity maturation of cross-binding antibodies, finally resulting in broadly neutralizing antibodies against multiple variants of concern, which provides an important basis for universal vaccine design, however they are subdominant, putatively due to their lower accessibility relative to SARS-CoV-2 unique antigenic sites. Furthermore, we preliminarily design RBDs to improve the immunogenicity of these conserved antigenic sites. Our study focusing on conserved antigenic sites provides insights for promoting the development of universal SARS-like coronavirus vaccines, thereby enhancing our pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
J Virol ; 97(1): e0161422, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2223572

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) indicates the disease of the acute and highly contagious intestinal infection due to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), with the characteristics of watery diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration. One of the reasons for diarrhea and death of piglets is PEDV, which leads to 100% mortality in neonatal piglets. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the interaction between virus and host to prevent and control PEDV. This study indicated that the host protein, pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (PRPF19), could be controlled by the signal transducer as well as activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Thus, PEDV replication could be hindered through selective autophagy. Moreover, PRPF19 was found to recruit the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 to the N protein for ubiquitination. For the purpose of degradation, the ubiquitin N protein is acknowledged by the cargo receptor NDP52 and transported to autolysosomes, thus inhibiting virus proliferation. To conclude, a unique antiviral mechanism of PRPF19-mediated virus restriction was shown. Moreover, a view of the innate immune response and protein degradation against PEDV replication was provided in this study. IMPORTANCE The highly virulent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) emerged in 2010, and causes high mortality rates in newborn pigs. There are no effective and safe vaccines against the highly virulent PEDV. This virus has caused devastating economic losses in the pork industry worldwide. Studying the relationship between virus and host antiviral factors is important to develop the new antiviral strategies. This study identified the pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (PRPF19) as a novel antiviral protein in PEDV replication and revealed its viral restriction mechanisms for the first time. PRPF19 recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 to the PEDV N protein for ubiquitination, and the ubiquitin N protein was acknowledged by the cargo receptor NDP52 and transported to autolysosomes for degradation. Our findings provide new insights in host antiviral factors PRPF19 that regulate the selective autophagy protein degradation pathway to inhibit PEDV replication.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins , Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitins , Virus Replication/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Autophagy
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 993831, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215425

ABSTRACT

Aim: COVID-19 patients' security is related to their mental health. However, the classification of this group's sense of security is still unclear. The aim of our research is to clarify the subtypes of security of patients infected with COVID-19, explore the factors affecting profile membership, and examine the relationship between security and psychological capital for the purpose of providing a reference for improving patients' sense of security and mental health. Methods: A total of 650 COVID-19 patients in a mobile cabin hospital were selected for a cross-sectional survey from April to May 2022. They completed online self-report questionnaires that included a demographic questionnaire, security scale, and psychological capital scale. Data analysis included latent profile analysis, variance analysis, the Chi-square test, multiple comparisons, multivariate logistical regression, and hierarchical regression analysis. Results: Three latent profiles were identified-low security (Class 1), moderate security (Class 2), and high security (Class 3)-accounting for 12.00, 49.51, and 38.49% of the total surveyed patients, respectively. In terms of the score of security and its two dimensions, Class 3 was higher than Class 2, and Class 2 was higher than Class 1 (all P < 0.001). Patients with difficulty falling asleep, sleep quality as usual, and lower tenacity were more likely to be grouped into Class 1 rather than Class 3; Patients from families with a per capita monthly household income <3,000 and lower self-efficacy and hope were more likely to be grouped into Classes 1 and 2 than into Class 3. Psychological capital was an important predictor of security, which could independently explain 18.70% of the variation in the patients' security. Conclusions: Security has different classification features among patients with COVID-19 infection in mobile cabin hospitals. The security of over half of the patients surveyed is at the lower or middle level, and psychological capital is an important predictor of the patients' security. Medical staff should actively pay attention to patients with low security and help them to improve their security level and psychological capital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mobile Health Units , Mental Health , Medical Staff
6.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 17(7): 702-707, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192549

ABSTRACT

AIM: Young people in Hong Kong have been facing numerous population-level events over the past year, including social unrest and the COVID-19 pandemic. Representative data concerning the mental health of youths, however, is limited. The Hong Kong Youth Epidemiological Study of Mental Health (HK-YES) is commissioned to provide the first representative prevalence estimates and correlates of mental disorders among young people in Hong Kong. It will also examine the help-seeking behaviours, treatment rates, quality of life, and functional outcomes of the young people. More importantly, the direct and indirect economic costs of mental disorders in youths will be estimated. METHODS: A total of 4500 community-dwelling participants aged 15-24 years from Hong Kong will be surveyed. Participants will be selected using a multistage stratified sampling design to provide representative estimates of the youth population in Hong Kong. All interviews will be conducted using computer-assisted personal interviewing methods for assessments covering areas of psychiatric diagnoses, symptomatology, functioning, quality of life, disability, service utilization, health economic costs of mental disorders, and sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. A population-weighted prevalence will be estimated using survey weights. Methods such as multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses will be used to calculate the risks and odds of factors that might be associated with different mental disorders. CONCLUSION: As the first population-based youth study in Hong Kong, HK-YES collects extensive and representative data on different mental conditions and their associated factors among young people. The information gathered will be important for future planning on youth mental health services in Hong Kong and will offer the opportunity for a more meaningful comparison of data with other youth populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies
7.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(11): nwac176, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189437

ABSTRACT

(-)-Anisomelic acid, isolated from Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze (Labiatae) leaves, is a macrocyclic cembranolide with a trans-fused α-methylene-γ-lactone motif. Anisomelic acid effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication and viral-induced cytopathic effects with an EC50 of 1.1 and 4.3 µM, respectively. Challenge studies of SARS-CoV-2-infected K18-hACE2 mice showed that oral administration of anisomelic acid and subcutaneous dosing of remdesivir can both reduce the viral titers in the lung tissue at the same level. To facilitate drug discovery, we used a semisynthetic approach to shorten the project timelines. The enantioselective semisynthesis of anisomelic acid from the naturally enriched and commercially available starting material (+)-costunolide was achieved in five steps with a 27% overall yield. The developed chemistry provides opportunities for developing anisomelic-acid-based novel ligands for selectively targeting proteins involved in viral infections.

8.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2423920.v1

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 infection continues all over the world, causing serious physical and psychological impacts to patients. Patients with COVID-19 infection suffer from various negative emotional experiences such as anxiety, depression, mania, and alienation, which seriously affect their normal life and is detrimental to the prognosis. Our study is aimed to investigate the effect of psychological capital on alienation among patients with COVID-19 and the mediating role of social support in this relationship.Methods The data were collected in China by the convenient sampling method. A sample of 259 COVID-19 patients completed the psychological capital, social support and social alienation scale and the structural equation model was adopted to verify the research hypotheses.Results Psychological capital was significantly and negatively related to the COVID-19 patients’ social alienation (p < .01). And social support partially mediated the association between psychological capital and patients’ social alienation (p < .01).Conclusion Psychological capital is critical to predicting COVID-19 patients’ social alienation. Social support plays an intermediary role and explains how psychological capital alleviates the sense of social alienation among patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , Tooth, Impacted , Depressive Disorder , COVID-19 , Anxiety Disorders
9.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2126258

ABSTRACT

Aim COVID-19 patients' security is related to their mental health. However, the classification of this group's sense of security is still unclear. The aim of our research is to clarify the subtypes of security of patients infected with COVID-19, explore the factors affecting profile membership, and examine the relationship between security and psychological capital for the purpose of providing a reference for improving patients' sense of security and mental health. Methods A total of 650 COVID-19 patients in a mobile cabin hospital were selected for a cross-sectional survey from April to May 2022. They completed online self-report questionnaires that included a demographic questionnaire, security scale, and psychological capital scale. Data analysis included latent profile analysis, variance analysis, the Chi-square test, multiple comparisons, multivariate logistical regression, and hierarchical regression analysis. Results Three latent profiles were identified—low security (Class 1), moderate security (Class 2), and high security (Class 3)—accounting for 12.00, 49.51, and 38.49% of the total surveyed patients, respectively. In terms of the score of security and its two dimensions, Class 3 was higher than Class 2, and Class 2 was higher than Class 1 (all P < 0.001). Patients with difficulty falling asleep, sleep quality as usual, and lower tenacity were more likely to be grouped into Class 1 rather than Class 3;Patients from families with a per capita monthly household income <3,000 and lower self-efficacy and hope were more likely to be grouped into Classes 1 and 2 than into Class 3. Psychological capital was an important predictor of security, which could independently explain 18.70% of the variation in the patients' security. Conclusions Security has different classification features among patients with COVID-19 infection in mobile cabin hospitals. The security of over half of the patients surveyed is at the lower or middle level, and psychological capital is an important predictor of the patients' security. Medical staff should actively pay attention to patients with low security and help them to improve their security level and psychological capital.

10.
J Virol ; 96(22): e0155522, 2022 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097923

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a re-emerging enteric coronavirus currently spreading in several nations and inflicting substantial financial damages on the swine industry. The currently available coronavirus vaccines do not provide adequate protection against the newly emerging viral strains. It is essential to study the relationship between host antiviral factors and the virus and to investigate the mechanisms underlying host immune response against PEDV infection. This study shows that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), the host protein determined by the transcription factor KLF15, inhibits the replication of PEDV by degrading the nucleocapsid (N) protein of PEDV in accordance with selective autophagy. hnRNP K was found to be capable of recruiting the E3 ubiquitin ligase, MARCH8, aiming to ubiquitinate N protein. Then, it was found that the ubiquitinated N protein could be delivered into autolysosomes for degradation by the cargo receptor NDP52, thereby inhibiting PEDV proliferation. Moreover, based on the enhanced MyD88 expression, we found that hnRNP K activated the interferon 1 (IFN-1) signaling pathway. Overall, the data obtained revealed a new mechanism of hnRNP K-mediated virus restriction wherein hnRNP K suppressed PEDV replication by degradation of viral N protein using the autophagic degradation pathway and by induction of IFN-1 production based on upregulation of MyD88 expression. IMPORTANCE The spread of the highly virulent PEDV in many countries is still leading to several epidemic and endemic outbreaks. To elucidate effective antiviral mechanisms, it is important to study the relationship between host antiviral factors and the virus and to investigate the mechanisms underlying host immune response against PEDV infection. In the work, we detected hnRNP K as a new host restriction factor which can hinder PEDV replication through degrading the nucleocapsid protein based on E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 and the cargo receptor NDP52. In addition, via the upregulation of MyD88 expression, hnRNP K could also activate the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway. This study describes a previously unknown antiviral function of hnRNP K and offers a new vision toward host antiviral factors that regulate innate immune response as well as a protein degradation pathway against PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K , Interferon Type I , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Virus Replication , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K/genetics , Interferons , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Nucleocapsid Proteins/physiology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Vero Cells , Interferon Type I/immunology
11.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046995

ABSTRACT

Given pandemic risks of zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 variants and other SARS-like coronaviruses in the future, it is valuable to perform studies on conserved antigenic sites to design universal SARS-like coronavirus vaccines. By using antibodies obtained from convalescent COVID-19 patients, we succeeded in functional comparison of conserved antigenic sites at multiple aspects with each other, and even with SARS-CoV-2 unique antigenic sites, which promotes the cognition of process of humoral immune response to the conserved antigenic sites. The conserved antigenic sites between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV can effectively induce affinity maturation of cross-binding antibodies, finally resulting in broadly neutralizing antibodies against multiple variants of concern, which provides an important basis for universal vaccine design, however they are subdominant, putatively due to their lower accessibility relative to SARS-CoV-2 unique antigenic sites. Furthermore, we preliminarily design RBDs to improve the immunogenicity of these conserved antigenic sites. Our study focusing on conserved antigenic sites provides insights for promoting the development of universal SARS-like coronavirus vaccines, thereby enhancing our pandemic preparedness.

12.
Vaccine ; 40(47): 6839-6848, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042193

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has drastically changed our way of life and continues to have an unmitigated socioeconomic impact across the globe. Research into potential vaccine design and production is focused on the spike (S) protein of the virus, which is critical for virus entry into host cells. Yet, whether the degree of glycosylation in the S protein is associated with vaccine efficacy remains unclear. Here, we first optimized the expression of the S protein in mammalian cells. While we found no significant discrepancy in purity, homogeneity, or receptor binding ability among S proteins derived from 293F cells (referred to as 293F S-2P), 293S GnTI- cells (defective in N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase I enzyme; 293S S-2P), or TN-5B1-4 insect cells (Bac S-2P), there was significant variation in the glycosylation patterns and thermal stability of the proteins. Compared with the partially glycosylated 293S S-2P or Bac S-2P, the fully glycosylated 293F S-2P exhibited higher binding reactivity to convalescent sera. In addition, 293F S-2P induced higher IgG and neutralizing antibody titres than 293S or Bac S-2P in mice. Furthermore, a prime-boost-boost regimen, using a combined immunization of S-2P proteins with various degrees of glycosylation, elicited a more robust neutralizing antibody response than a single S-2P alone. Collectively, this study provides insight into ways to design a more effective SARS-CoV-2 immunogen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Glycosylation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Mammals/metabolism , COVID-19 Serotherapy
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 273: 109544, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028561

ABSTRACT

Autophagy-related 4B (ATG4B) is found to exert a vital function in viral replication, although the mechanism through which ATG4B activates type-I IFN signaling to hinder viral replication remains to be explained, so far. The current work revealed that ATG4B was downregulated in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)-infected LLC-PK1 cells. In addition, ATG4B overexpression inhibited PEDV replication in both Vero cells and LLC-PK1 cells. On the contrary, ATG4B knockdown facilitated PEDV replication. Moreover, ATG4B was observed to hinder PEDV replication by activating type-I IFN signaling. Further detailed analysis revealed that the ATG4B protein targeted and upregulated the TRAF3 protein to induce IFN expression via the TRAF3-pTBK1-pIRF3 pathway. The above data revealed a novel mechanism underlying the ATG4B-mediated viral restriction, thereby providing novel possibilities for preventing and controlling PEDV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Signal Transduction , Swine , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
14.
J Biol Chem ; 298(8): 102190, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015572

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea and dehydration in pigs and leads to great economic losses in the commercial swine industry. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of host response to viral infection remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated a novel mechanism by which RALY, a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family, significantly promotes the degradation of the PEDV nucleocapsid (N) protein to inhibit viral replication. Furthermore, we identified an interaction between RALY and the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 (membrane-associated RING-CH 8), as well as the cargo receptor NDP52 (nuclear dot protein 52 kDa), suggesting that RALY could suppress PEDV replication by degrading the viral N protein through a RALY-MARCH8-NDP52-autophagosome pathway. Collectively, these results suggest a preventive role of RALY against PEDV infection via the autophagy pathway and open up the possibility of inducing RALY in vivo as an effective prophylactic and preventive treatment for PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Autophagy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Ribonucleoproteins , Swine , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(34): e2204256119, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991767

ABSTRACT

Antibody therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 have been highly successful. However, the recent emergence of the Omicron variant has posed a challenge, as it evades detection by most existing SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Here, we successfully generated a panel of SARS-CoV-2/SARS-CoV cross-neutralizing antibodies by sequential immunization of the two pseudoviruses. Of the potential candidates, we found that nAbs X01, X10, and X17 offer broad neutralizing potential against most variants of concern, with X17 further identified as a Class 5 nAb with undiminished neutralization against the Omicron variant. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the three antibodies together in complex with each of the spike proteins of the prototypical SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 defined three nonoverlapping conserved epitopes on the receptor-binding domain. The triple-antibody mixture exhibited enhanced resistance to viral evasion and effective protection against infection of the Beta variant in hamsters. Our findings will aid the development of antibody therapeutics and broad vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Conserved Sequence , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
16.
Poult Sci ; 101(10): 102082, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967014

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a prevalent RNA virus that causes respiratory distress, nephritis, salpingitis, and egg production decline in chickens, resulting in significant economic loss. IBV is composed of complex genotypes and serotypes, which poses a great challenge for disease control. The current study reports 2 IBV outbreaks which were characterized by respiratory symptoms in IBV vaccinated commercial broilers and layers in Guangdong, China, in 2021. Two IBV strains, ZH01 and HH09, were identified via a RT-PCR assay through targeting the N gene and further characterization through full-length spike (S) gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene revealed that both ZH01 and HH09 belonged to the GI-19 lineage but contained a certain genetic distance from the GI-19 strain. Of note, the ZH01 and HH09 strains share a low homology of 70 and 86%, respectively, with common vaccine strains (H120), resulting in low vaccine protection. Further recombination analysis based on the S1 sequence suggested the newly identified IBV strains emerged through an intragroup recombination events between CK/CH/SCDY2003-2 and I0305/19 from G1-19 lineage. In addition, a number of novel mutations such as T273I, T292A, and S331K were found in the emerging IBV strains. Taken together, this study reports the genetic characteristics of 2 recent IBV outbreaks in southern China and emphasizes the urgent need for enhanced surveillance and development of novel vaccines for the control of IBV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Female , Genotype , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control
17.
J Virol ; 96(13): e0061822, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962091

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the globally distributed alphacoronavirus that can cause lethal watery diarrhea in piglets, causing substantial economic damage. However, the current commercial vaccines cannot effectively the existing diseases. Thus, it is of great necessity to identify the host antiviral factors and the mechanism by which the host immune system responds against PEDV infection required to be explored. The current work demonstrated that the host protein, the far upstream element-binding protein 3 (FUBP3), could be controlled by the transcription factor TCFL5, which could suppress PEDV replication through targeting and degrading the nucleocapsid (N) protein of the virus based on selective autophagy. For the ubiquitination of the N protein, FUBP3 was found to recruit the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8/MARCHF8, which was then identified, transported to, and degraded in autolysosomes via NDP52/CALCOCO2 (cargo receptors), resulting in impaired viral proliferation. Additionally, FUBP3 was found to positively regulate type-I interferon (IFN-I) signaling and activate the IFN-I signaling pathway by interacting and increasing the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3). Collectively, this study showed a novel mechanism of FUBP3-mediated virus restriction, where FUBP3 was found to degrade the viral N protein and induce IFN-I production, aiming to hinder the replication of PEDV. IMPORTANCE PEDV refers to the alphacoronavirus that is found globally and has re-emerged recently, causing severe financial losses. In PEDV infection, the host activates various host restriction factors to maintain innate antiviral responses to suppress virus replication. Here, FUBP3 was detected as a new host restriction factor. FUBP3 was found to suppress PEDV replication via the degradation of the PEDV-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein via E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 as well as the cargo receptor NDP52/CALCOCO2. Additionally, FUBP3 upregulated the IFN-I signaling pathway by interacting with and increasing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) expression. This study further demonstrated that another layer of complexity could be added to the selective autophagy and innate immune response against PEDV infection are complicated.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Interferon Type I , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Transcription Factors , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3 , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Vero Cells
18.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 854630, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952414

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an unprecedented public health crisis worldwide. Although several vaccines are available, the global supply of vaccines, particularly within developing countries, is inadequate, and this necessitates a need for the development of less expensive, accessible vaccine options. To this end, here, we used the Escherichia coli expression system to produce a recombinant fusion protein comprising the receptor binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; residues 319-541) and the fragment A domain of Cross-Reacting Material 197 (CRM197); hereafter, CRMA-RBD. We show that this CRMA-RBD fusion protein has excellent physicochemical properties and strong reactivity with COVID-19 convalescent sera and representative neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Furthermore, compared with the use of a traditional aluminum adjuvant, we find that combining the CRMA-RBD protein with a nitrogen bisphosphonate-modified zinc-aluminum hybrid adjuvant (FH-002C-Ac) leads to stronger humoral immune responses in mice, with 4-log neutralizing antibody titers. Overall, our study highlights the value of this E. coli-expressed fusion protein as an alternative vaccine candidate strategy against COVID-19.

19.
Clinical eHealth ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1936135

ABSTRACT

Background The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic acute infectious disease, especially with the features of possible asymptomatic carriers and high contagiousness. Currently, it is difficult to quickly identify asymptomatic cases or COVID-19 patients with pneumonia due to limited access to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nucleic acid tests and CT scans. Goal This study aimed to develop a scientific and rigorous clinical diagnostic tool for the rapid prediction of COVID-19 cases based on a COVID-19 clinical case database in China, and to assist doctors to efficiently and precisely diagnose asymptomatic COVID-19 patients and cases who had a false-negative RT-PCR test result. Methods With online consent, and the approval of the ethics committee of Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University (NCT04275947, B2020-032R) to ensure that patient privacy is protected, clinical information has been uploaded in real-time through the New Coronavirus Intelligent Auto-diagnostic Assistant Application of cloud plus terminal (nCapp) by doctors from different cities (Wuhan, Shanghai, Harbin, Dalian, Wuxi, Qingdao, Rizhao, and Bengbu) during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. By quality control and data anonymization on the platform, a total of 3,249 cases from COVID-19 high-risk groups were collected. The effects of different diagnostic factors were ranked based on the results from a single factor analysis, with 0.05 as the significance level for factor inclusion and 0.1 as the significance level for factor exclusion. Independent variables were selected by the step-forward multivariate logistic regression analysis to obtain the probability model. Findings We applied the statistical method of a multivariate regression model to the training dataset (1,624 cases) and developed a prediction model for COVID-19 with 9 clinical indicators that are accessible. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for the model was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.89) in the training dataset and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.86) in the validation dataset (1,625 cases). Discussion With the assistance of nCapp, a mobile-based diagnostic tool developed from a large database that we collected from COVID-19 high-risk groups in China, frontline doctors can rapidly identify asymptomatic patients and avoid misdiagnoses of cases with false-negative RT-PCR results.

20.
Clinical eHealth ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1926264

ABSTRACT

The metaverse has entered people's horizons through virtual reality, digital twinning, the Internet of Things, blockchain technology, etc. In the current healthcare system, the management of chronic diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), still faces challenges, such as uneven distribution of medical resources, and difficulty in follow-up, overburdening of specialists, and so on. However, metaverse medical platforms incorporating advanced AI technologies, such as industrial-scale digital twins, may address these issues. In this article, we discuss the application prospect of these technologies in digital medicine and the future of the medical metaverse.

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