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1.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21255443

ABSTRACT

ImportanceThe ACE D allele is more prevalent among African Americans (AA) compared to other races/ethnicities and has previously been associated with severe COVID-19 pathogenesis through excessive ACE1 activity. ACE-I/ARBs may counteract this mechanism, but their association with COVID-19 outcomes has not been specifically tested in the AA population. ObjectivesTo determine whether the use of ACE-I/ARBs is associated with COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in AA compared with non-AA population. Design, Setting, and ParticipantsIn this observational, retrospective study, patient-level data were extracted from the Mount Sinai Health Systems (MSHS) electronic medical record (EMR) database, and 6,218 patients with a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis from February 24 to May 31, 2020 were identified as ACE-I/ARB users. ExposuresPatients with an active prescription from January 1, 2019 up to the date of admission for ACE-I/ARB (outpatient use) and patients administered ACE-I/ARB during hospitalization (in-hospital use) were identified. Main Outcomes and MeasuresThe primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, assessed in the entire, AA, and non-AA population. ResultsOf the 6,218 COVID-19 patients, 1,138 (18.3%) were ACE-I/ARB users. In a multivariate logistic regression model, ACE-I/ARB use was independently associated with reduced risk of in-hospital mortality in the entire population (OR, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.505-0.850; P=0.001), AA population (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.249-0.779; P=0.005), and non-AA population (OR, 0.748, 95% CI, 0.553-1.012, P=0.06). In the AA population, in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARBs was associated with improved mortality (OR, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.188-0.766; P=0.006) while outpatient use was not (OR, 0.889; 95% CI, 0.375-2.158; P=0.812). When analyzing each medication class separately, ARB in-hospital use was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in the AA population (OR, 0.196; 95% CI, 0.074-0.516; P=0.001), while ACE-I use was not associated with impact on mortality in any population. Conclusion and RelevanceIn-hospital use of ARBs was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality among COVID-19-positive AA patients. These results support further investigation of ARBs to improve outcomes in AA patients at high risk for COVID-19-related mortality.

2.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21255148

ABSTRACT

ImportanceAlpha-1-adrenergic receptor antagonists (1-blockers) can abrogate pro-inflammatory cytokines and may improve outcomes among patients with respiratory infections. Repurposing readily available drugs such as 1-blockers could augment the medical response to the COVID-19 pandemic. ObjectiveTo evaluate the association between 1-blocker exposure and COVID-19 mortality DesignReal-world evidence study SettingPatient level data with 32,355 records tested for SARS-CoV-2 at the Mount Sinai Health System including 8,442 laboratory-confirmed cases extracted from five member hospitals in the New York City metropolitan area. Participants2,627 men aged 45 or older admitted with COVID-19 between February 24 and May 31, 2020 Exposures1-blocker use as an outpatient or while admitted for COVID-19 Main Outcomes and MeasuresIn-hospital mortality ResultsMen exposed to 1-blockers (N=436) were older (median age 73 vs. 64 years, P<0.001) and more likely to have comorbidities than unexposed men (N=2,191). Overall, 758 (28.9%) patients died in hospital, 1,589 (60.5%) were discharged, and 280 (10.7%) were still hospitalized as of May 31, 2020. Outpatient exposure to 1-blockers was not associated with COVID-19 hospital outcomes, though there was a trend towards significance (OR 0.749, 95% CI 0.527-1.064; P=0.106). Conversely, inpatient use of 1-blockers was independently associated with improved in-hospital mortality in both multivariable logistic (OR 0.633, 95% CI 0.434-0.921; P=0.017) and Cox regression analyses (HR 0.721, 95% CI 0.572-0.908; P=0.006) adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities, and baseline vitals and labs. Age-stratified analyses suggested greater benefit from inpatient 1-blocker use among younger age groups: Age 45-65 OR 0.384, 95% CI 0.164-0.896 (P=0.027); Age 55-75 OR 0.511, 95% CI 0.297-0.880 (P=0.015); Age 65-89 OR 0.810, 95% CI 0.509-1.289 (P=0.374). Conclusions and RelevanceInpatient 1-blocker use was independently associated with improved COVID-19 mortality among hospitalized men. Clinical trials to assess the therapeutic value of 1-blockers in COVID-19 are warranted.

3.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 94: 104331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987071

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Older adults with COVID-19 have disproportionately higher rates of severe disease and mortality. It is unclear whether this is attributable to age or attendant age-associated risk factors. This retrospective cohort study aims to characterize hospitalized older adults and examine if comorbidities, frailty and acuity of clinical presentation exert an age-independent effect on COVID-19 severity. METHODS: We studied 275 patients admitted to the National Centre of Infectious Disease, Singapore. We measured: 1)Charlson Comorbidity Index(CCI) as burden of comorbidities; 2)Clinical Frailty Scale(CFS) and Frailty Index(FI); and 3)initial acuity. We studied characteristics and outcomes of critical illness, stratified by age groups (50-59,60-69 and ≥70). We conducted hierarchical logistic regression in primary model(N = 262, excluding direct admissions to intensive care unit) and sensitivity analysis(N = 275): age and gender in base model, entering CCI, frailty (CFS or FI) and initial acuity sequentially. RESULTS: The ≥70 age group had highest CCI(p<.001), FI(p<.001) and CFS(p<.001), and prevalence of geriatric syndromes (polypharmacy,53.5%; urinary symptoms,37.5%; chronic pain,23.3% and malnutrition,23.3%). Thirty-two (11.6%) developed critical illness. In the primary regression model, age was not predictive for critical illness when a frailty predictor was added. Significant predictors in the final model (AUC 0.809) included male gender (p=.012), CFS (p=.038), and high initial acuity (p=.021) but not CCI or FI. In sensitivity analysis, FI (p=.028) but not CFS was significant. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized older adults with COVID-19, geriatric syndromes are not uncommon. Acuity of clinical presentation and frailty are important age-independent predictors of disease severity. CFS and FI provide complimentary information in predicting interval disease progression and rapid disease progression respectively.


Subject(s)
Aged , Critical Illness , Frail Elderly , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Singapore/epidemiology
4.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040441, 2020 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894876

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess association of clinical features on COVID-19 patient outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study using electronic medical record data. SETTING: Five member hospitals from the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City (NYC). PARTICIPANTS: 28 336 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 from 24 February 2020 to 15 April 2020, including 6158 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Positive test rates and in-hospital mortality were assessed for different racial groups. Among positive cases admitted to the hospital (N=3273), we estimated HR for both discharge and death across various explanatory variables, including patient demographics, hospital site and unit, smoking status, vital signs, lab results and comorbidities. RESULTS: Hispanics (29%) and African Americans (25%) had disproportionately high positive case rates relative to their representation in the overall NYC population (p<0.05); however, no differences in mortality rates were observed in hospitalised patients based on race. Outcomes differed significantly between hospitals (Gray's T=248.9; p<0.05), reflecting differences in average baseline age and underlying comorbidities. Significant risk factors for mortality included age (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.06; p=1.15e-32), oxygen saturation (HR 0.985, 95% CI 0.982 to 0.988; p=1.57e-17), care in intensive care unit areas (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.92; p=7.81e-6) and elevated creatinine (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.10; p=7.48e-10), white cell count (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04; p=8.4e-3) and body mass index (BMI) (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03; p=1.09e-2). Deceased patients were more likely to have elevated markers of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: While race was associated with higher risk of infection, we did not find racial disparities in inpatient mortality suggesting that outcomes in a single tertiary care health system are comparable across races. In addition, we identified key clinical features associated with reduced mortality and discharge. These findings could help to identify which COVID-19 patients are at greatest risk of a severe infection response and predict survival.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Age Factors , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Ethnic Groups , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , New York City/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-870

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected pneumonia suddenly outbreak in 2019 in Wuhan, China The duration of viral RNA shedding

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(5): 850-858, 2020 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory virus-laden particles are commonly detected in the exhaled breath of symptomatic patients or in air sampled from healthcare settings. However, the temporal relationship of detecting virus-laden particles at nonhealthcare locations vs surveillance data obtained by conventional means has not been fully assessed. METHODS: From October 2016 to June 2018, air was sampled weekly from a university campus in Hong Kong. Viral genomes were detected and quantified by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of ecological and environmental factors associated with the detection of virus-laden airborne particles. RESULTS: Influenza A (16.9% [117/694]) and influenza B (4.5% [31/694]) viruses were detected at higher frequencies in air than rhinovirus (2.2% [6/270]), respiratory syncytial virus (0.4% [1/270]), or human coronaviruses (0% [0/270]). Multivariate analyses showed that increased crowdedness (aOR, 2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.5-3.8]; P < .001) and higher indoor temperature (aOR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1-1.3]; P < .001) were associated with detection of influenza airborne particles, but absolute humidity was not (aOR, 0.9 [95% CI, .7-1.1]; P = .213). Higher copies of influenza viral genome were detected from airborne particles >4 µm in spring and <1 µm in autumn. Influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B viruses that caused epidemics during the study period were detected in air prior to observing increased influenza activities in the community. CONCLUSIONS: Air sampling as a surveillance tool for monitoring influenza activity at public locations may provide early detection signals on influenza viruses that circulate in the community.

7.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20075788

ABSTRACT

ImportanceThere is an urgent need to understand patient characteristics of having COVID-19 disease and evaluate markers of critical illness and mortality. ObjectiveTo assess association of clinical features on patient outcomes. Design, Setting, and ParticipantsIn this observational case series, patient-level data were extracted from electronic medical records for 28,336 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 at the Mount Sinai Health System from 2/24/ to 4/15/2020, including 6,158 laboratory-confirmed cases. ExposuresConfirmed COVID-19 diagnosis by RT-PCR assay from nasal swabs. Main Outcomes and MeasuresEffects of race on positive test rates and mortality were assessed. Among positive cases admitted to the hospital (N = 3,273), effects of patient demographics, hospital site and unit, social behavior, vital signs, lab results, and disease comorbidities on discharge and death were estimated. ResultsHispanics (29%) and African Americans (25%) had disproportionately high positive case rates relative to population base rates (p<2e-16); however, no differences in mortality rates were observed in the hospital. Outcome differed significantly between hospitals (Grays T=248.9; p<2e-16), reflecting differences in average baseline age and underlying comorbidities. Significant risk factors for mortality included age (HR=1.05 [95% CI, 1.04-1.06]; p=1.15e-32), oxygen saturation (HR=0.985 [95% CI, 0.982-0.988]; p=1.57e-17), care in ICU areas (HR=1.58 [95% CI, 1.29-1.92]; p=7.81e-6), and elevated creatinine (HR=1.75 [95% CI, 1.47-2.10]; p=7.48e-10), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR=1.002, [95% CI 1.001-1.003]; p=8.86e-5) white blood cell (WBC) (HR=1.02, [95% CI 1.01-1.04]; p=8.4e-3) and body-mass index (BMI) (HR=1.02, [95% CI 1.00-1.03]; p=1.09e-2). Asthma (HR=0.78 [95% CI, 0.62-0.98]; p=0.031) was significantly associated with increased length of hospital stay, but not mortality. Deceased patients were more likely to have elevated markers of inflammation. Baseline age, BMI, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, WBC count, creatinine, and ALT were significant prognostic indicators of mortality. Conclusions and RelevanceWhile race was associated with higher risk of infection, we did not find a racial disparity in inpatient mortality suggesting that outcomes in a single tertiary care health system are comparable across races. We identified clinical features associated with reduced mortality and discharge. These findings could help to identify which COVID-19 patients are at greatest risk and evaluate the impact on survival.

8.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(3): 473-480, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17539

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the dynamic changes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in respiratory and fecal specimens in children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: From January 17, 2020 to February 23, 2020, three paediatric cases of COVID-19 were reported in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment data were collected. Patients were followed up to March 10, 2020, and dynamic profiles of nucleic acid testing results in throat swabs and fecal specimens were closely monitored. RESULTS: Clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory tract occurred within two weeks after abatement of fever, whereas viral RNA remained detectable in stools of pediatric patients for longer than 4 weeks. Two children had fecal SARS-CoV-2 undetectable 20 days after throat swabs showing negative, while that of another child lagged behind for 8 days. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 may exist in children's gastrointestinal tract for a longer time than respiratory system. Persistent shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in stools of infected children raises the possibility that the virus might be transmitted through contaminated fomites. Massive efforts should be made at all levels to prevent spreading of the infection among children after reopening of kindergartens and schools.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Virus Shedding/physiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/virology
9.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20033118

ABSTRACT

BackgroundsSince December 2019, a novel coronavirus epidemic has emerged in Wuhan city, China and then rapidly spread to other areas. As of 20 Feb 2020, a total of 2,055 medical staff confirmed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-Cov-2 in China had been reported. We sought to explore the epidemiological, clinical characteristics and prognosis of novel coronavirus-infected medical staff. MethodsIn this retrospective study, 64 confirmed cases of novel coronavirus-infected medical staff admitted to Union Hospital, Wuhan between 16 Jan, 2020 to 15 Feb, 2020 were included. Two groups concerned were extracted from the subjects based on duration of symptoms: group 1 ([≤]10 days) and group 2 (>10 days). Epidemiological and clinical data were analyzed and compared across groups. The Kaplan-Meier plot was used to inspect the change in hospital discharge rate. The Cox regression model was utilized to identify factors associated with hospital discharge. FindingsThe median age of medical staff included was 35 years old. 64% were female and 67% were nurses. None had an exposure to Huanan seafood wholesale market or wildlife. A small proportion of the cohort had contact with specimens (5%) as well as patients in fever clinics (8%) and isolation wards (5%). Fever (67%) was the most common symptom, followed by cough (47%) and fatigue (34%). The median time interval between symptoms onset and admission was 8.5 days. On admission, 80% of medical staff showed abnormal IL-6 levels and 34% had lymphocytopenia. Chest CT mainly manifested as bilateral (61%), septal/subpleural (80%) and ground-glass (52%) opacities. During the study period, no patients was transferred to intensive care unit or died, and 34 (53%) had been discharged. Higher body mass index (BMI) ([≥] 24 kg/m2) (HR 0.14; 95% CI 0.03-0.73), fever (HR 0.24; 95% CI 0.09-0.60) and higher levels of IL-6 on admission (HR 0.31; 95% CI 0.11-0.87) were unfavorable factors for discharge. InterpretationIn this study, medical staff infected with COVID-19 have relatively milder symptoms and favorable clinical course, which may be partly due to their medical expertise, younger age and less underlying diseases. Smaller BMI, absence of fever symptoms and normal IL-6 levels on admission are favorable for discharge for medical staff. Further studies should be devoted to identifying the exact patterns of SARS-CoV-2 infection among medical staff.

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