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Clin. Infect. Dis. ; 5(70): 850-858, 20200301.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-326398


Background. Respiratory virus-laden particles are commonly detected in the exhaled breath of symptomatic patients or in air sampled from healthcare settings. However, the temporal relationship of detecting virus-laden particles at nonhealthcare locations vs surveillance data obtained by conventional means has not been fully assessed. Methods. From October 2016 to June 2018, air was sampled weekly from a university campus in Hong Kong. Viral genomes were detected and quantified by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of ecological and environmental factors associated with the detection of virus-laden airborne particles. Results. Influenza A (16.9% [117/694]) and influenza B (4.5% [31/694]) viruses were detected at higher frequencies in air than rhinovirus (2.2% [6/270]), respiratory syncytial virus (0.4% [1/270]), or human coronaviruses (0% [0/270]). Multivariate analyses showed that increased crowdedness (aOR, 2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.5-3.8]; P < .001) and higher indoor temperature (aOR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1-1.3]; P < .001) were associated with detection of influenza airborne particles, but absolute humidity was not (aOR, 0.9 [95% CI, .7-1.1]; P = .213). Higher copies of influenza viral genome were detected from airborne particles >4 μm in spring and <1 μm in autumn. Influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B viruses that caused epidemics during the study period were detected in air prior to observing increased influenza activities in the community. Conclusions. Air sampling as a surveillance tool for monitoring influenza activity at public locations may provide early detection signals on influenza viruses that circulate in the community.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(3): 473-480, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17539


OBJECTIVE: To determine the dynamic changes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in respiratory and fecal specimens in children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: From January 17, 2020 to February 23, 2020, three paediatric cases of COVID-19 were reported in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment data were collected. Patients were followed up to March 10, 2020, and dynamic profiles of nucleic acid testing results in throat swabs and fecal specimens were closely monitored. RESULTS: Clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory tract occurred within two weeks after abatement of fever, whereas viral RNA remained detectable in stools of pediatric patients for longer than 4 weeks. Two children had fecal SARS-CoV-2 undetectable 20 days after throat swabs showing negative, while that of another child lagged behind for 8 days. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 may exist in children's gastrointestinal tract for a longer time than respiratory system. Persistent shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in stools of infected children raises the possibility that the virus might be transmitted through contaminated fomites. Massive efforts should be made at all levels to prevent spreading of the infection among children after reopening of kindergartens and schools.

Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Virus Shedding/physiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/virology