Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 52
Filter
1.
Nature ; 604(7907): 723-731, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799583

ABSTRACT

Studying tissue composition and function in non-human primates (NHPs) is crucial to understand the nature of our own species. Here we present a large-scale cell transcriptomic atlas that encompasses over 1 million cells from 45 tissues of the adult NHP Macaca fascicularis. This dataset provides a vast annotated resource to study a species phylogenetically close to humans. To demonstrate the utility of the atlas, we have reconstructed the cell-cell interaction networks that drive Wnt signalling across the body, mapped the distribution of receptors and co-receptors for viruses causing human infectious diseases, and intersected our data with human genetic disease orthologues to establish potential clinical associations. Our M. fascicularis cell atlas constitutes an essential reference for future studies in humans and NHPs.


Subject(s)
Macaca fascicularis , Transcriptome , Animals , Cell Communication , Macaca fascicularis/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Wnt Signaling Pathway
2.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 803031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753384

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has caused more than 2.6 billion infections and several million deaths since its outbreak 2 years ago. We know very little about the long-term cellular immune responses and the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to SARS-CoV-2 because it has emerged only recently in the human population. Methods: We collected blood samples from individuals who were from the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan between December 30, 2019, and February 24, 2020. We analyzed NAbs to SARS-CoV-2 using pseudoviruses and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) protein using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients' sera and determined SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses of patients with ELISpot assays. Results: We found that 91.9% (57/62) and 88.9% (40/45) of COVID-19 patients had NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in a year (10-11 months) and one and a half years (17-18 months), respectively, after the onset of illness, indicating that NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 waned slowly and possibly persisted over a long period time. Over 80% of patients had IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 S and N protein one and a half years after illness onset. Most patients also had robust memory T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 one and a half years after the illness. Among the patients, 95.6% (43/45) had an IFN-γ-secreting T-cell response and 93.8% (15/16) had an IL-2-secreting T-cell response. The T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 were positively correlated with antibodies (including neutralizing antibodies and IgG antibodies to S and N protein) in COVID-19 patients. Eighty percent (4/5) of neutralizing antibody-negative patients also had SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response. After long-term infection, protective immunity was independent of disease severity, sex, and age. Conclusions: We concluded that SARS-CoV-2 infection elicited a robust and persistent neutralizing antibody and memory T-cell response in COVID-19 patients, indicating that these sustained immune responses, among most SARS-CoV-2-infected people, may play a crucial role in protection against reinfection.

3.
Atmospheric Pollution Research ; : 101373, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1698250

ABSTRACT

Adequate classroom air quality is vital to student health and learning outcomes. Prolonged periods of air conditioner use in enclosed classrooms may result in poor air quality. However, opening classroom windows may expose students to air pollutants if the outdoor air quality is poor. This study investigated CO2 and PM2.5 concentrations in 86 classrooms installed with air conditioners in elementary and middle schools in southern Taiwan, each additionally installed with a fresh air ventilation system equipped with an E11-class filter. Enclosed air-conditioned classrooms generally have a CO2 concentration greater than 2500 ppm;occasionally, this figure reaches 3500 ppm. With the installed air ventilation system operating, mean classroom CO2 concentration decreased to 1084 ± 203 ppm, and the median CO2 concentration decreased to 1120 ppm. However, the CO2 concentrations of over half the classrooms remained higher than the concentration advised by the World Health Organization (1000 ppm). This high CO2 concentration was a result of the short distance (1.5–2 m) between the indoor air outlet and the recirculated air inlet resulting in a shortened circuit of air travel. Also, the initial filter installed over the indoor air outlet of the system reduced air penetration into the classroom. When the ventilation system was manually activated without activating the air conditioners, the median PM2.5 concentration measured at the indoor air outlet and the median classroom PM2.5 concentration were 2 μg/m3 and 20 μg/m3, respectively. This implied the presence of other sources of PM2.5 in classrooms, particularly ceiling and wall-mounted fans. The activation of these fans spread dust onto classroom furniture. Overall, fresh air ventilation systems providing filtered air improve classroom ventilation efficiency and indoor air quality by reducing CO2 and PM2.5 concentrations, but the cleanliness of fans and furniture must be maintained.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324802

ABSTRACT

Background: : Novel coronavirus disease(COVID-19)has become a worldwide pandemic and precise fatality data by age group are needed urgently. This study to delineate the clinical characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 patients aged ≥75 years and identify the risk factors of in-hospital death. Methods: : A total of 141 consecutive patients aged ≥75 years who were admitted to the hospital between 12 th and 19 th February 2020. In-hospital death, clinical characteristics and laboratory findings on admission were obtained from medical records. The final follow-up observation was 31 st March 2020. Results: : The median age was 81 years (84 female, 59.6%). Thirty-eight (27%) patients were classified as severe or critical cases. 18 (12.8%) patients had died in hospital and the remaining 123 were discharged. Patients who died were more likely to present with fever (38.9% vs. 7.3%);low percutaneous oxygen saturation(SpO 2 ) (55.6% vs. 7.3%);reduced lymphocytes (72.2% vs. 35.8%) and platelets (27.8% vs. 4.1%);and increased D-dimer (94.4% vs. 42.3%), creatinine (50.0% vs. 22.0%), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (77.8% vs. 30.1%), high sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) (72.2% vs. 14.6%), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (72.2% vs. 6.5%;all P<0.05) than patients who recovered. Male sex (odds ratio [OR]=13.1, 95% confidence interval[CI] 1.1 to 160.1, P=0.044), body temperature >37.3°C (OR=80.5, 95% CI 4.6 to 1407.6, P=0.003), SpO 2 ≤90% (OR=70.1, 95% CI 4.6 to 1060.4, P=0.002), and NT-proBNP>1800ng/L (OR=273.5, 95% CI 14.7 to 5104.8, P<0.0001) were independent risk factors of in-hospital death. Conclusions: : In-hospital fatality among COVID-19 patients can be estimated by sex and on-admission measurements of body temperature, SpO 2 , and NT-proBNP.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317950

ABSTRACT

Background: To analyze the online course efficiency of a combined mode of Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) micro-video and E-learning platform in Nanjing Medical University during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: : We developed a new questionnaire to assess the efficiency of online teaching of medical statistics in Nanjing Medical University. This investigation enrolled students participating in the online course of medical statistics from January 2020 to June 2020. The “Questionnaire Star” electronic questionnaire collection system was used to collect data. Results: : In total, 1050 of the 1210 (86.78%) students completed the questionnaire, including 971 (92.48%) juniors. To be specific, 57.33% of the students majored in clinical medicine, 15.14% in pharmacy, 10.38% in pediatrics, 8.00% in medical imageology, and 6.29% in basic medicine. As to the question "Are you satisfied with the current online teaching method?", 354 (32.77%) students responded with "Agree" and "Strongly Agree", and 1012 (96.47%) thought they needed to consolidate what they had learned after returning to school. Most students reported their "Difficulties in the learning process" by "Learning motivation" and "Personal inertia" (59.90% and 58.29%, respectively). Conclusions: : The online course of medical statistics was favored by most students, suggesting its efficiency an efficient alternative to classroom study during the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet there were still some problems, such as inconvenient communication between teachers and students, poor mastery of key knowledge, which should be resolved in classroom teaching at school.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315790

ABSTRACT

An urgent problem in controlling COVID-19 spreading is to understand the role of undocumented infection. We develop a five-state model for COVID-19, taking into account the unique features of the novel coronavirus, with key parameters determined by the government reports and mathematical optimization. Tests using data from China, South Korea, Italy, and Iran indicate that the model is capable of generating accurate prediction of the daily accumulated number of confirmed cases and is entirely suitable for real-time prediction. The drastically disparate testing and diagnostic standards/policies among different countries lead to large variations in the estimated parameter values such as the duration of the outbreak, but such uncertainties have little effect on the occurrence time of the inflection point as predicted by the model, indicating its reliability and robustness. Model prediction for Italy suggests that insufficient government action leading to a large fraction of undocumented infection plays an important role in the abnormally high mortality in that country. With the data currently available from United Kingdom, our model predicts catastrophic epidemic scenarios in the country if the government did not impose strict travel and social distancing restrictions. A key finding is that, if the percentage of undocumented infection exceeds a threshold, a non-negligible hidden population can exist even after the the epidemic has been deemed over, implying the likelihood of future outbreaks should the currently imposed strict government actions be relaxed. This could make COVID-19 evolving into a long-term epidemic or a community disease a real possibility, suggesting the necessity to conduct universal testing and monitoring to identify the hidden individuals.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308052

ABSTRACT

A metal nanoparticle composite TPNT1, which contains Au-NP (1 ppm), Ag-NP (5 ppm), ZnO-NP (60 ppm) and ClO 2 (42.5 ppm) in aqueous solution was prepared and characterized by spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis and potentiometric titration. Based on the in vitro cell-based assay, TPNT1 can inhibit six major clades of SARS-CoV-2 with effective concentration within the range to be used as food additives. TPNT1 was shown to block viral entry by inhibiting the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins to ACE2 receptor and to interfere with the syncytium formation. In addition, TPNT1 also effectively reduced the cytopathic effects induced by human (H1N1) and avian (H5N1) influenza viruses, including the wild-type and Tamiflu-resistant virus isolates. Together with previously demonstrated efficacy as antimicrobials, TPNT1 can block viral entry and inhibit or prevent viral infection to provide prophylactic effects against both SARS-CoV-2 and opportunistic infections.

9.
Prev Vet Med ; 198: 105532, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616704

ABSTRACT

In the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, the yak is an animal of particular economic interest, which provides protein and income for herders in daily life. Brucellosis is a bacterial disease that can infect humans and animals, including yaks. It can damage the yak reproductive system, causing miscarriage and orchitis. At the same time, brucellosis threatens the health of herders. We performed this meta-analysis using R software to explore the combined prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in yak in China. Variability was assessed by the I2 statistic and Cochran Q statistic. We identified 52 publications of related research from four databases (Wanfang Data, VIP Chinese Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and of PubMed). The pooled prevalence of yak brucellosis was 8.39 %. Prevalence was highest in Southwestern China (11.1 %). The point estimate of brucellosis in yak from 2012 to 2016 was the highest (11.47 %). The point estimate of age ≤ 12 months (1.44 %) was lower than that of age > 12 months (15.6 %). This study shows that yak brucellosis is serious, and its incidence is higher than before 2012. We recommend carrying out large-scale yak brucellosis investigations in Western China and conducting comprehensive testing planning. The detection of brucellosis in adult animals should be strengthened to reduce the economic loss caused by brucellosis to herders and to improve public health.


Subject(s)
Brucellosis , Cattle Diseases , Animals , Brucellosis/epidemiology , Brucellosis/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Male , Prevalence , Tibet
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2163, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to analyze the trends of premature mortality caused from four major non-communicable diseases (NCDs), namely cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in Nanjing between 2007 and 2018 and project the ability to achieve the "Healthy China 2030" reduction target. METHODS: Mortality data of four major NCDs for the period 2007-2018 were extracted from the Death Information Registration and Management System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Population data for Nanjing were provided by the Nanjing Bureau of Public Security. The premature mortality was calculated using the life table method. Joinpoint regression model was used to estimate the average annual percent changes (AAPC) in mortality trends. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2018, the premature mortality from four major NCDs combined in Nanjing decreased from 15.5 to 9.5%, with the AAPC value at - 4.3% (95% CI [- 5.2% to - 3.4%]). Overall, it can potentially achieve the target, with a relative reduction 28.6%. The premature mortality from cancer, CVD, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes all decreased, with AAPC values at - 4.2, - 5.0%, - 5.9% and - 1.6% respectively. A relative reduction of 40.6 and 41.2% in females and in rural areas, but only 21.0 and 12.8% in males and in urban areas were projected. CONCLUSION: An integrated approach should be taken focusing on the modifiable risk factors across different sectors and disciplines in Nanjing. The prevention and treatment of cancers, diabetes, male and rural areas NCDs should be enhanced.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Noncommunicable Diseases , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Life Tables , Male , Mortality, Premature , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology
12.
Phytomedicine ; 95: 153784, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has caused a high number of deaths worldwide. Inflammatory factors may play important roles in COVID-19 progression. Yindan Jiedu granules (YDJDG) can inhibit the progression of COVID-19, but the associated mechanism is unclear. PURPOSE: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of YDJDG on COVID-19 and explore its underlying mechanism. METHODS: We recruited 262 participants and randomly assigned 97 patients each to the YDJDG and control groups using one-to-one propensity score matching (PSM). Clinical effects were observed and serum inflammatory and immune indicators were measured. The target network model of YDJDG was established by predicting and determining the targets of identified compounds. The main constituents of the YDJDG extracts were identified and evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and molecular docking. Besides, the anti-inflammatory effects of YDJDG and its specific biological mechanism of action were studied. RESULTS: After PSM, the results showed that compared with the control group, the YDJDG group had a shorter time of dissipation of acute pulmonary exudative lesions (p < 0.0001), shorter time to negative conversion of viral nucleic acid (p < 0.01), more rapid decrease in serum amyloid A level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p < 0.0001), and a higher rate of increase in CD4+T cell count (p = 0.0155). By overlapping the genes of YDJDG and COVID-19, 213 co-targeted genes were identified. Metascape enrichment analysis showed that 25 genes were significantly enriched in the NF-κB pathway, which were mainly targets of luteolin, quercetin, and kaempferol as confirmed by MS analysis. Molecular docking revealed that the ligands of three compounds had strong interaction with NF-κB p65 and IκBα. In vivo, YDJDG significantly protected animals from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI), decreasing the lung wet/dry weight ratio, ALI score, and lung histological damage. In LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells, YDJDG suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In vivo and in vitro, YDJDG exerted anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α). These effects were accompanied by the inhibition of NF-ĸB activation and IκBα phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: YDJDG may shorten the COVID-19 course and delay its progression by suppressing inflammation via targeting the NF-κB pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , NF-kappa B , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
13.
Remote Sensing ; 13(22):4507, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1512553

ABSTRACT

Global Fishing Watch (GFW) provides global open-source data collected via automated monitoring of vessels to help with sustainable management of fisheries. Limited previous global fishing effort analyses, based on Automatic Identification System (AIS) data (2017–2020), suggest economic and environmental factors have less influence on fisheries than cultural and political events, such as holidays and closures, respectively. As such, restrictions from COVID-19 during 2020 provided an unprecedented opportunity to explore added impacts from COVID-19 restrictions on fishing effort. We analyzed global fishing effort and fishing gear changes (2017–2019) for policy and cultural impacts, and then compared impacts of COVID-19 lockdowns across several countries (i.e., China, Spain, the US, and Japan) in 2020. Our findings showed global fishing effort increased from 2017 to 2019 but decreased by 5.2% in 2020. We found policy had a greater impact on monthly global fishing effort than culture, with Chinese longlines decreasing annually. During the lockdown in 2020, trawling activities dropped sharply, particularly in the coastal areas of China and Spain. Although Japan did not implement an official lockdown, its fishing effort in the coastal areas also decreased sharply. In contrast, fishing in the Gulf of Mexico, not subject to lockdown, reduced its scope of fishing activities, but fishing effort was higher. Our study demonstrates, by including the dimensions of policy and culture in fisheries, that large data may materially assist decision-makers to understand factors influencing fisheries’ efforts, and encourage further marine interdisciplinary research. We recommend the lack of data for small-scale Southeast Asian fisheries be addressed to enable future studies of fishing drivers and impacts in this region.

14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114830, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of September 17, 2021, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 226 million people in a worldwide pandemic, with conservative estimates suggesting that there are more than 204 million convalescent patients with COVID-19. Previous studies have indicated that patients in the recovery phase exhibit decreased function of multiple organs. In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment is recommended in the rehabilitation period of COVID-19; however, the safety and efficacy of such treatment remain to be confirmed. AIM OF STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Bufei Huoxue (BFHX) in restoring the functional status and exercise tolerance of patients recovering from COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 131 patients in the rehabilitation period of COVID-19 infection were randomly divided into a Bufei Huoxue (BFHX) group (n = 66) and a placebo group (n = 65). BFHX or placebo was given orally three times a day (1.4 g/dose) for 90 days. The primary outcomes was to evaluate improvements in exercise tolerance and imaging manifestations on chest computed tomography (CT). RESULTS: After the exclusion of two patients who withdrew prior to receiving any medications, 129 patients were recruited, including 64 patients in the BFHX group and 65 patients in the placebo group. After 3 months of treatment, the BFHX group exhibited greater attenuation of pneumonia lesions on chest CT than the placebo group (P<0.05). Improvements in 6-min walk distance (6MWD) relative to baseline were also significantly better in the BFHX group than in the placebo group (P<0.01). Scores on the Fatigue Assessment Inventory (FAI) were lower in the BFHX group than in the placebo group (P<0.05). Although the rate of adverse events was higher in the BFHX group than in the placebo group (9.38% vs. 4.62%), the difference was not significant (P=0.3241). CONCLUSIONS: BFHX may exert strong rehabilitative effects on physiological activity in patients recovering from COVID-19, which may in turn attenuate symptoms of fatigue and improve exercise tolerance.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Convalescence , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 759152, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497097

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can present with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. However, the prevalence of GI symptoms and their association with outcomes remain controversial in COVID-19 patients. Methods: All COVID-19 patients consecutively admitted to the Wuhan Huoshenshan hospital from February 2020 to April 2020 were collected. Disease severity and outcomes were compared between COVID-19 patients with and without GI symptoms. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of GI symptoms with the composite endpoint and death in COVID-19 patients. A composite endpoint was defined as transfer to intensive care unit, requirement of mechanical ventilation, and death. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Overall, 2,552 COVID-19 patients were included. The prevalence of GI symptoms was 21.0% (537/2,552). Diarrhea (8.9%, 226/2,552) was the most common GI symptom. Patients with GI symptoms had significantly higher proportions of severe COVID-19 and worse outcomes than those without. Univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that GI symptoms were significantly associated with the composite endpoint (OR = 2.426, 95% CI = 1.608-3.661; P < 0.001) and death (OR = 2.137, 95% CI = 1.209-3.778; P = 0.009). After adjusting for age, sex, and severe/critical COVID-19, GI symptoms were still independently associated with the composite endpoint (OR = 2.029, 95% CI = 1.294-3.182; P = 0.002), but not death (OR = 1.726, 95% CI = 0.946-3.150; P = 0.075). According to the type of GI symptoms, GI bleeding was an independent predictor of the composite endpoint (OR = 8.416, 95% CI = 3.465-20.438, P < 0.001) and death (OR = 6.640, 95% CI = 2.567-17.179, P < 0.001), but not other GI symptoms (i.e., diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, nausea and/or vomiting, constipation, acid reflux and/or heartburn, or abdominal pain). Conclusion: GI symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients and may be associated with their worse outcomes. Notably, such a negative impact of GI symptoms on the outcomes should be attributed to GI bleeding.

16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 187: 976-987, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474606

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 3C-like protease (3CLpro) is a crucial target for treating coronavirus diseases including COVID-19. Our preliminary screening showed that Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (AGE) displayed potent SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activity, but the key constituents with SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory effect and their mechanisms were unrevealed. Herein, a practical strategy via integrating bioactivity-guided fractionation and purification, mass spectrometry-based peptide profiling and time-dependent biochemical assay, was applied to identify the crucial constituents in AGE and to uncover their inhibitory mechanisms. The results demonstrated that the flavonoid-rich fractions (10-17.5 min) displayed strong SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activities, while the constituents in these fractions were isolated and their SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activities were investigated. Among all isolated flavonoids, dihydromyricetin, isodihydromyricetin and myricetin strongly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro in a time-dependent manner. Further investigations demonstrated that myricetin could covalently bind on SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro at Cys300 and Cys44, while dihydromyricetin and isodihydromyricetin covalently bound at Cys300. Covalent docking coupling with molecular dynamics simulations showed the detailed interactions between the orthoquinone form of myricetin and two covalent binding sites (surrounding Cys300 and Cys44) of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Collectively, the flavonoids in AGE strongly and time-dependently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, while the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors in AGE offer promising lead compounds for developing novel antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
3C Viral Proteases/chemistry , 3C Viral Proteases/metabolism , Ampelopsis/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites/drug effects , Cysteine/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonols/chemistry , Flavonols/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Conformation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 368, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467093

ABSTRACT

The long-term immunity and functional recovery after SARS-CoV-2 infection have implications in preventive measures and patient quality of life. Here we analyzed a prospective cohort of 121 recovered COVID-19 patients from Xiangyang, China at 1-year after diagnosis. Among them, chemiluminescence immunoassay-based screening showed 99% (95% CI, 98-100%) seroprevalence 10-12 months after infection, comparing to 0.8% (95% CI, 0.7-0.9%) in the general population. Total anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies remained stable since discharge, while anti-RBD IgG and neutralization levels decreased over time. A predictive model estimates 17% (95% CI, 11-24%) and 87% (95% CI, 80-92%) participants were still 50% protected against detectable and severe re-infection of WT SARS-CoV-2, respectively, while neutralization levels against B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants were significantly reduced. All non-severe patients showed normal chest CT and 21% reported COVID-19-related symptoms. In contrast, 53% severe patients had abnormal chest CT, decreased pulmonary function or cardiac involvement and 79% were still symptomatic. Our findings suggest long-lasting immune protection after SARS-CoV-2 infection, while also highlight the risk of immune evasive variants and long-term consequences for COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Models, Immunological , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
World J Stem Cells ; 13(8): 1058-1071, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441314

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has become a sudden public emergency of international concern and seriously threatens millions of people's life health. Two current studies have indicated a favorable role for mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) in clinical remission of COVID-19 associated pulmonary diseases, yet the systematical elaboration of the therapeutics and underlying mechanism is far from satisfaction. In the present review, we summarize the therapeutic potential of MSCs in COVID-19 associated pulmonary diseases such as pneumonia induced acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, we review the underlying mechanism of MSCs including direct- and trans-differentiation, autocrine and paracrine anti-inflammatory effects, homing, and neovascularization, as well as constitutive microenvironment. Finally, we discuss the prospects and supervision of MSC-based cytotherapy for COVID-19 management before large-scale application in clinical practice. Collectively, this review supplies overwhelming new references for understanding the landscapes of MSCs in the remission of COVID-19 associated pulmonary diseases.

19.
One Health ; 13: 100332, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433701

ABSTRACT

The emerging coronavirus diseases such as COVID-19, MERS, and SARS indicated that animal coronaviruses (CoVs) spillover to humans are a huge threat to public health. Therefore, we needed to understand the CoVs carried by various animals. Wild hedgehogs were collected from rural areas in Wuhan and Xianning cities in Hubei Province for analysis of CoVs. PCR results showed that 5 out of 51 (9.8%) hedgehogs (Erinaceus amurensis) were positive to CoVs in Hubei Province with 3 samples from Wuhan City and 2 samples from Xianning City. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase showed that the CoVs from hedgehogs are classified into Merbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus; the hedgehog CoVs formed a phylogenetic sister cluster with human MERS-CoVs and bat MERS-related CoVs. Among the 12 most critical residues of receptor binding domain in MERS-CoV for binding human Dipeptidyl peptidase 4, 3 residuals were conserved between the hedgehog MERS-related CoV obtained in this study and the human MERS-CoV. We concluded that hedgehogs from Hubei Province carried MERS-related CoVs, indicating that hedgehogs might be important in the evolution and transmission of MERS-CoVs, and continuous surveillance of CoVs in hedgehogs was important.

20.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 588013, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430704

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Given the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the consequent global healthcare crisis, there is an urgent need to better understand risk factors for symptom deterioration and mortality among patients with COVID-19. This systematic review aimed to meet the need by determining the predictive value of chronic diseases for COVID-19 severity and mortality. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Complete to identify studies published between December 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020. Two hundred and seventeen observational studies from 26 countries involving 624,986 patients were included. We assessed the risk of bias of the included studies and performed a cumulative meta-analysis. Results: We found that among COVID-19 patients, hypertension was a very common condition and was associated with higher severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and mortality. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the strongest predictor for COVID-19 severity, admission to ICU, and mortality, while asthma was associated with a reduced risk of COVID-19 mortality. Patients with obesity were at a higher risk of experiencing severe symptoms of COVID-19 rather than mortality. Patients with cerebrovascular disease, chronic liver disease, chronic renal disease, or cancer were more likely to become severe COVID-19 cases and had a greater probability of mortality. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients with chronic diseases were more likely to experience severe symptoms and ICU admission and faced a higher risk of mortality. Aggressive strategies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic should target patients with chronic diseases as a priority.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL