Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 19 de 19
Filter
1.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(8):5495-5514, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1811067

ABSTRACT

PM2.5, generated via both direct emission and secondary formation, can have varying environmental impacts due to different physical and chemical properties of its components. However, traditional methods to quantify different PM2.5 components are often based on online or offline observations and numerical models, which are generally high economic cost- or labor-intensive. In this study, we develop a new method, named Multi-Tracer Estimation Algorithm (MTEA), to identify the primary and secondary components from routine observation of PM2.5. By comparing with long-term and short-term measurements of aerosol chemical components in China and the United States, it is proven that MTEA can successfully capture the magnitude and variation of the primary PM2.5 (PPM) and secondary PM2.5 (SPM). Applying MTEA to the China National Air Quality Network, we find that (1) SPM accounted for 63.5 % of the PM2.5 in cities in southern China on average during 2014–2018, while the proportion dropped to 57.1 % in the north of China, and at the same time the secondary proportion in regional background regions was ∼ 19 % higher than that in populous regions;(2) the summertime secondary PM2.5 proportion presented a slight but consistent increasing trend (from 58.5 % to 59.2 %) in most populous cities, mainly because of the recent increase in O3 pollution in China;(3) the secondary PM2.5 proportion in Beijing significantly increased by 34 % during the COVID-19 lockdown, which might be the main reason for the observed unexpected PM pollution in this special period;and finally, (4) SPM and O3 showed similar positive correlations in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions, but the correlations between total PM2.5 and O3 in these two regions, as determined from PPM levels, were quite different. In general, MTEA is a promising tool for efficiently estimating PPM and SPM, and has huge potential for future PM mitigation.

2.
Biosensors ; 12(5):265, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1809707

ABSTRACT

The timely detecting of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus antigens for infection validation is an urgent request for COVID-19 pandemic control. This study constructed label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based immunosensors based on gold nanostructured screen-printed carbon electrodes (AuNS/SPCEs) to detect the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N-protein) in saliva. Using short-chain 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a linker to covalently bond streptavidin (SA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for controlling the oriented immobilization of the biotinylated anti-N-protein antibody (BioAb) can offer a greater sensitivity, a lower limit of detection (LOD), and better reproducibility of immunosensors (defined as BioAb/SA-BSA/MPA/AuNS/SPCEs) than the antibody randomly immobilized immunosensors and the long-chain 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA)-modified immunosensors (BioAb/SA-BSA/MUA/AuNS/SPCEs). The BioAb/SA-BSA/MPA/AuNS/SPCE-based immunosensors presented good linearity from 0.01 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL and a low LOD of 6 pg/mL in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and PBS-diluted saliva. Moreover, the immunosensor exhibited little cross-activity with other viral antigens such as MERS-CoV N-protein, influenza A N-protein, influenza B N-protein, and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, indicating the high specificity of the immunosensors. The disposable label-free EIS-based immunosensors have promising potential in facilitating the rapid and sensitive tests of saliva-based COVID-19 diagnostics.

3.
Heliyon ; 8(3): e09134, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747972

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected businesses worldwide, including the hotel industry in Taiwan. This study aims to explore the influence of the perceived threat of COVID-19 on job satisfaction. SPSS software was used for data analysis, and the PROCESS macro was used to test the mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation hypotheses. An online survey (n = 681) was conducted on hotels in Taiwan in 2021, and the results indicate that job stress activation has a mediating effect on employees' job satisfaction and the hotels' business performances. Moreover, organizational resilience has a moderating effect on job stress. This study contributes theoretically to a better understanding of the factors that determine the impact of traumatic events such as a pandemic on people's mental health. This study suggests that interventions may be carried out to minimize the pandemic's negative psychological consequences. The implications of this study are also applicable to hoteliers in other affected countries.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324182

ABSTRACT

Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a pandemic disease in over 200 countries, influencing billions of humans. To control the infection, identifying and separating the infected people is the most crucial step. The main diagnostic tool is the Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test. Still, the sensitivity of the RT-PCR test is not high enough to effectively prevent the pandemic. The chest CT scan test provides a valuable complementary tool to the RT-PCR test, and it can identify the patients in the early-stage with high sensitivity. However, the chest CT scan test is usually time-consuming, requiring about 21.5 minutes per case. This paper develops a novel Joint Classification and Segmentation (JCS) system to perform real-time and explainable COVID-19 chest CT diagnosis. To train our JCS system, we construct a large scale COVID-19 Classification and Segmentation (COVID-CS) dataset, with 144,167 chest CT images of 400 COVID-19 patients and 350 uninfected cases. 3,855 chest CT images of 200 patients are annotated with fine-grained pixel-level labels of opacifications, which are increased attenuation of the lung parenchyma. We also have annotated lesion counts, opacification areas, and locations and thus benefit various diagnosis aspects. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed JCS diagnosis system is very efficient for COVID-19 classification and segmentation. It obtains an average sensitivity of 95.0% and a specificity of 93.0% on the classification test set, and 78.5% Dice score on the segmentation test set of our COVID-CS dataset. The COVID-CS dataset and code are available at https://github.com/yuhuan-wu/JCS.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315048

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a large-scale outbreak and has rapidly spread across China and multiple countries. We reported countermeasures in infection control for diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) infection and the experiences of point of care diagnostics and medical quarantine for presumed SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on subjects came to Chung Shan Medical University Hospital with suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection during January to March, 2020. We performed the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction testing (rRT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2-infection and reported the results of testing and treatment. A total of 212 participants were enrolled due to suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Five of those were confirmed COVID-19 cases after monitoring for a period of 14 days and were cured. The time to rRT-PCR test conversion after treatment is variate. The infection control measures of home quarantine and mandatory medical quarantine combined with rapid diagnosis seem to postpone the speed of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection at once in Taiwan. Due to lack of vaccination and confirmed antiviral therapy, it is important to strictly abide by the infection control measures.

6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 414, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556321

ABSTRACT

Azvudine (FNC) is a nucleoside analog that inhibits HIV-1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Recently, we discovered FNC an agent against SARS-CoV-2, and have taken it into Phase III trial for COVID-19 patients. FNC monophosphate analog inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 coronavirus with an EC50 between 1.2 and 4.3 µM, depending on viruses or cells, and selective index (SI) in 15-83 range. Oral administration of FNC in rats revealed a substantial thymus-homing feature, with FNC triphosphate (the active form) concentrated in the thymus and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Treating SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques with FNC (0.07 mg/kg, qd, orally) reduced viral load, recuperated the thymus, improved lymphocyte profiles, alleviated inflammation and organ damage, and lessened ground-glass opacities in chest X-ray. Single-cell sequencing suggested the promotion of thymus function by FNC. A randomized, single-arm clinical trial of FNC on compassionate use (n = 31) showed that oral FNC (5 mg, qd) cured all COVID-19 patients, with 100% viral ribonucleic acid negative conversion in 3.29 ± 2.22 days (range: 1-9 days) and 100% hospital discharge rate in 9.00 ± 4.93 days (range: 2-25 days). The side-effect of FNC is minor and transient dizziness and nausea in 16.12% (5/31) patients. Thus, FNC might cure COVID-19 through its anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity concentrated in the thymus, followed by promoted immunity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Azides/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thymus Gland , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Deoxycytidine/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rats , Thymus Gland/metabolism , Thymus Gland/virology
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292884

ABSTRACT

Remarkable progress has been made in developing intramuscular vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2);however, they are limited with respect to eliciting local immunity in the respiratory tract, which is the primary infection site for SARS-CoV-2. To overcome the limitations of intramuscular vaccines, we constructed a nasal vaccine candidate based on an influenza vector by inserting a gene encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, named CA4-dNS1-nCoV-RBD (dNS1-RBD). A preclinical study showed that in hamsters challenged 1 day and 7 days after single-dose vaccination or 6 months after booster vaccination, dNS1-RBD largely mitigated lung pathology, with no loss of body weight, caused by either the prototype-like strain or beta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Lasted data showed that the animals could be well protected against beta variant challenge 9 months after vaccination. Notably, the weight loss and lung pathological changes of hamsters could still be significantly reduced when the hamster was vaccinated 24 h after challenge. Moreover, such cellular immunity is relatively unimpaired for the most concerning SARS-CoV-2 variants. The protective immune mechanism of dNS1-RBD could be attributed to the innate immune response in the nasal epithelium, local RBD-specific T cell response in the lung, and RBD-specific IgA and IgG response. Thus, this study demonstrates that the intranasally delivered dNS1-RBD vaccine candidate may offer an important addition to fight against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, compensating limitations of current intramuscular vaccines, particularly at the start of an outbreak.

8.
International Insolvency Review ; 30(3):329-343, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1525436

ABSTRACT

Business bankruptcy in China is governed by the Enterprise Bankruptcy Law (EBL), a national insolvency code enacted in 2007. The EBL contains provisions for business liquidation, reorganization, and compromise of debt. Although adjustment of debt through bankruptcy is far less common in China than in western nations, Chinese courts have established a body of bankruptcy procedures and judicial interpretations that give insolvency in China a measure of predictability and effectiveness. Notwithstanding the EBL provisions, soon after the onset of the pandemic, PRC courts began to adopt ad‐hoc rules and guidelines in bankruptcy cases for businesses whose financial woes were caused or exacerbated by coronavirus, or for enterprises that produced medical equipment and supplies to help prevent and control the virus. This paper examines these court measures, explores their political and judicial context, and demonstrates how they produced bankruptcy outcomes that were often significantly different than what would have resulted if the EBL had been applied based on pre‐COVID‐19 EBL practices.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(45)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475573

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other pathogens with pandemic potential requires safe, protective, inexpensive, and easily accessible vaccines that can be developed and manufactured rapidly at a large scale. DNA vaccines can achieve these criteria, but induction of strong immune responses has often required bulky, expensive electroporation devices. Here, we report an ultra-low-cost (<1 USD), handheld (<50 g) electroporation system utilizing a microneedle electrode array ("ePatch") for DNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The low cost and small size are achieved by combining a thumb-operated piezoelectric pulser derived from a common household stove lighter that emits microsecond, bipolar, oscillatory electric pulses and a microneedle electrode array that targets delivery of high electric field strength pulses to the skin's epidermis. Antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 induced by this electroporation system in mice were strong and enabled at least 10-fold dose sparing compared to conventional intramuscular or intradermal injection of the DNA vaccine. Vaccination was well tolerated with mild, transient effects on the skin. This ePatch system is easily portable, without any battery or other power source supply, offering an attractive, inexpensive approach for rapid and accessible DNA vaccination to combat COVID-19, as well as other epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Electroporation/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Costs and Cost Analysis , Electroporation/economics , Electroporation/methods , Equipment Design , Female , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microelectrodes , Needles , Pandemics/prevention & control , Proof of Concept Study , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Skin/immunology , Skin/metabolism , Transfection , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/instrumentation , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology
10.
Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences ; 33(12):2912-2920, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1319885

ABSTRACT

Objective: To provide theoretical basis for further optimizing the cultivation measures and improving the wine quality of Vitis quinquangularis Rehd. grape in Guangxi, the effects of application of reflecting film and leaf removal at the beginning veraison on the microclimate in the fruiting zone and fruit quality of V. quinquangularis Rehd. Grape cv. Yeniang No.2 were analyzed. Method: In Nanning, Guangxi, Yeniang No.2 was material, and leaf removal and reflective transfer film laying treatments were conducted when fruits started to change color, and without leaf removal and reflective transfer film laying treatments were as control. The variations in temperature, humidity and light conditions before and after the treatments were traced using HOBO weather stations. The berry quality indexes of fruit samples under the two kinds of light control treatments and the control at each developmental stage were determined. Result: Both treatments achieved the purpose of enhancing the light intensity around fruiting zone of Yeniang No.2, and the effect of leaf removal treatment was more obvious. The daily average photosynthetic effective radiation was increased by 6 to 13 times compared with the control, and the daily average of total solar radiation increased by 2 to 4 times when compared with the control. The two treatments also reduced the temperature difference between day and night for Yeniang No.2, the daily maximum temperature, the humidity difference between day and night and the daily maximum humidity and increased the daily minimum temperature and humidity. Leaf removal and reflective film treatments reduced the fresh weight and titratable acid content of grape at harvest, but increased the soluble solids, improved skin color and red hue.

11.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(606)2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319371

ABSTRACT

Multiple safe and effective vaccines that elicit immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are necessary to respond to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we developed a protein subunit vaccine composed of spike ectodomain protein (StriFK) plus a nitrogen bisphosphonate-modified zinc-aluminum hybrid adjuvant (FH002C). StriFK-FH002C generated substantially higher neutralizing antibody titers in mice, hamsters, and cynomolgus monkeys than those observed in plasma isolated from COVID-19 convalescent individuals. StriFK-FH002C also induced both TH1- and TH2-polarized helper T cell responses in mice. In hamsters, StriFK-FH002C immunization protected animals against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, as shown by the absence of virus-induced weight loss, fewer symptoms of disease, and reduced lung pathology. Vaccination of hamsters with StriFK-FH002C also reduced within-cage virus transmission to unvaccinated, cohoused hamsters. In summary, StriFK-FH002C represents an effective, protein subunit-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Humans , Mice , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 648360, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221994

ABSTRACT

The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 pneumonia is varied. Thus, it is important to identify risk factors at an early stage for predicting deterioration that require transferring the patients to ICU. A retrospective multicenter study was conducted on COVID-19 patients admitted to designated hospitals in China from Jan 17, 2020, to Feb 17, 2020. Clinical presentation, laboratory data, and quantitative CT parameters were also collected. The result showed that increasing risks of ICU admission were associated with age > 60 years (odds ratio [OR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.42-24.61; P = 0.032), coexisting conditions (OR, 5.55; 95% CI, 1.59-19.38; P = 0.007) and CT derived total opacity percentage (TOP) (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.45-39.29; P = 0.016). In conclusion, older age, coexisting conditions, larger TOP at the time of hospital admission are associated with ICU admission in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Early monitoring the progression of the disease and implementing appropriate therapies are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , China/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 136, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164823

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies of the COVID-19 patients have suggested the male bias in outcomes of lung illness. To experimentally demonstrate the epidemiological results, we performed animal studies to infect male and female Syrian hamsters with SARS-CoV-2. Remarkably, high viral titer in nasal washings was detectable in male hamsters who presented symptoms of weight loss, weakness, piloerection, hunched back and abdominal respiration, as well as severe pneumonia, pulmonary edema, consolidation, and fibrosis. In contrast with the males, the female hamsters showed much lower shedding viral titers, moderate symptoms, and relatively mild lung pathogenesis. The obvious differences in the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and severity of lung pathogenesis between male and female hamsters provided experimental evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of COVID-19 are associated with gender.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sex Characteristics , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Male , Mesocricetus
14.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 3113-3126, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087891

ABSTRACT

Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a pandemic disease in over 200 countries, influencing billions of humans. To control the infection, identifying and separating the infected people is the most crucial step. The main diagnostic tool is the Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test. Still, the sensitivity of the RT-PCR test is not high enough to effectively prevent the pandemic. The chest CT scan test provides a valuable complementary tool to the RT-PCR test, and it can identify the patients in the early-stage with high sensitivity. However, the chest CT scan test is usually time-consuming, requiring about 21.5 minutes per case. This paper develops a novel Joint Classification and Segmentation (JCS) system to perform real-time and explainable COVID- 19 chest CT diagnosis. To train our JCS system, we construct a large scale COVID- 19 Classification and Segmentation (COVID-CS) dataset, with 144,167 chest CT images of 400 COVID- 19 patients and 350 uninfected cases. 3,855 chest CT images of 200 patients are annotated with fine-grained pixel-level labels of opacifications, which are increased attenuation of the lung parenchyma. We also have annotated lesion counts, opacification areas, and locations and thus benefit various diagnosis aspects. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed JCS diagnosis system is very efficient for COVID-19 classification and segmentation. It obtains an average sensitivity of 95.0% and a specificity of 93.0% on the classification test set, and 78.5% Dice score on the segmentation test set of our COVID-CS dataset. The COVID-CS dataset and code are available at https://github.com/yuhuan-wu/JCS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
15.
旅遊健康學刊 ; 19(1):1-20, 2020.
Article in English | Airiti Library | ID: covidwho-984210

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has been a major blow to Taiwan's tourism industry. In the face of the plight of the tourism industry. The government of Taiwan put forward the Key Points for implementation of the Ministry of transport's assistance in the transformation of tourism related industry training affected by major epidemics (Taiwan officials' external notes referred to as the "training for relief or learning for relief" plan). This plan is not just to directly distribute subsidies to industrial employees, but to require employees to receive specific training courses, and then the government will distribute the subsidy amount to the enterprises of the trainees, and the enterprises will forward it as part of the employees' salaries. Another way to understand it is that when there is no daily busy workload due to the impact of the epidemic, employees can spend their spare working time in classes and learn new working abilities and knowledge, so that their participation in training is also equal to work and earn salary. In this paper, the details of the implementation of the training transformation policy are introduced, and the "win-win-win" for the government, operators and employees are discussed, so as to provide reference for other countries affected by the epidemic. 新冠肺炎疫情對於臺灣觀光旅遊產業對來巨大衝擊,臺灣政府面對觀光業者困境,提出「觀光相關產業轉型培訓實施要點」(臺灣官員對外說明簡稱「以訓代賑或以學代賑」計畫),這項計畫不是單純直接發放補助給產業員工,而是要求員工接受特定訓練課程之後,政府再將補助金額發放給受訓人員所屬企業,企業再轉發為員工薪資之一部分。亦即員工在疫情影響沒有日常忙碌工作量時,能將多餘工作時間用於上課,學習新的工作能力和知識,參與訓練也等於是工作和賺取薪資。本文將介紹此項轉型培訓政策執行細節,並討論對於政府、業者、員工之三贏效益和檢討執行問題點,提供給其他受疫情影響國家參考。

16.
Front Public Health ; 8: 550220, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890355

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Data collection in the ascending phase is crucial to address a rapidly evolving crisis by helping us understand the uncertain relationship between risk communication and psychological responses. Data were collected from 26 January 26, 2020, until February 17, 2020, with a mean test-retest interval of 16 days. A total of 846 adults from four residential communities in high-risk areas (Wuhan city) and low-risk areas (Zhengzhou city) were invited to complete a set of Internet-based questionnaires measuring the adoption of preventive behaviors, appraisal of risk communication, anxiety level, and susceptibility to emotional contagion. At the baseline assessment (Wave 1), 58 withdrew from the study, and 788 (433 females) completed the questionnaires. At the Wave 2 survey, 318 (185 females) adults from Wave 1 were retained. The results from cross-lagged models demonstrated reciprocal negative associations between anxiety and risk communication and between the appraisal of risk communication and the adoption of preventive behaviors. In addition, a higher appraisal of risk communication in the initial period of the outbreak mitigated the respondents' susceptibility to emotional contagion later on. Susceptibility to emotional contagion was positively associated with preventive behaviors taken. Furthermore, multiple-group structural equation modeling suggested that risk communication was more likely to affect the susceptibility to emotional contagion of people on the frontline of the outbreak than people living in low-risk areas. This study demonstrated the importance of risk communication aimed at encouraging appropriate countermeasures against virus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , China/epidemiology , Communication , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Infect ; 80(4): 394-400, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833124

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical and imaging characteristics of computed tomography (CT) in novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) caused by SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the imaging findings of patients confirmed with COVID-19 pneumonia who had chest CT scanning and treatment after disease onset. The clinical and imaging data were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty patients were enrolled, including mild type in nine, common in 28, severe in 10 and critically severe in the rest three. Mild patients (29 years) were significantly (P<0.03) younger than either common (44.5 years) or severe (54.7) and critically severe (65.7 years) patients, and common patients were also significantly (P<0.03) younger than severe and critically severe patients. Mild patients had low to moderate fever (<39.1 °C), 49 (98%) patients had normal or slightly reduced leukocyte count, 14 (28%) had decreased counts of lymphocytes, and 26 (52%) patients had increased C-reactive protein. Nine mild patients were negative in CT imaging. For all the other types of NCP, the lesion was in the right upper lobe in 30 cases, right middle lobe in 22, right lower lobe in 39, left upper lobe in 33 and left lower lobe in 36. The lesion was primarily located in the peripheral area under the pleura with possible extension towards the pulmonary hilum. Symmetrical lesions were seen in 26 cases and asymmetrical in 15. The density of lesion was mostly uneven with ground glass opacity as the primary presentation accompanied by partial consolidation and fibrosis. CONCLUSION: CT imaging presentations of NCP are mostly patchy ground glass opacities in the peripheral areas under the pleura with partial consolidation which will be absorbed with formation of fibrotic stripes if improved. CT scanning provides important bases for early diagnosis and treatment of NCP.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cough , Female , Fever , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
18.
Geophys Res Lett ; : e2020GL087978, 2020 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209849

ABSTRACT

Spaceborne NO2 column observations from two high-resolution instruments, TROPOMI onboard Sentinel-5 Precursor and OMI on Aura, reveal unprecedented NO2 decreases over China, South Korea, Western Europe and the U.S. as a result of public health measures enforced to contain the coronavirus disease outbreak (Covid-19) in January-April 2020. The average NO2 column drop over all Chinese cities amounts to -40% relative to the same period in 2019, and reaches up to a factor of ~2 at heavily hit cities, e.g. Wuhan, Jinan, while the decreases in Western Europe and the U.S. are also significant (-20 to -38%). In contrast with this, although Iran is also strongly affected by the disease, the observations do not show evidence of lower emissions, reflecting more limited health measures.

19.
Chin J Nat Med ; 18(3): 206-210, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-30671

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pneumonia broke out in 2019 and spread rapidly. In 30 different countries, there are over seventy thousand patients have been diagnosed in total. Therefore, it is urgent to develop the effective program to prevent and treat for the novel coronavirus pneumonia. In view of Traditional Chinese Medicine has accumulated a solid theoretical foundation of plague in ancient and recent decades. Meanwhile, Traditional Chinese Medicine can provide the more effective and personalized treatment via adjusting the specific medicine for each patient based on the different syndromes. In addition, TCM often has different effect on the distinct stages of diseases, contributing to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. Nowadays, TCM has exhibited decent effect in the in the fight against NCP. Therefore, it is convinced that Traditional Chinese Medicine is an effective treatment for 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL