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1.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608558

ABSTRACT

Data regarding the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features of pediatric hematological patients are limited in this corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis. We investigated the status of 113 pediatric hematological patients in Wuhan union hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic from January 23 to March 10, 2020. All the patients had routine blood and biochemical examination, as well as chest computed tomography scans, and the nucleic acid, immunoglobulin G-immunoglobulin M combined antibodies tests for SARS-CoV-2. After admission, all patients were single-room isolated for 5 to 7 days. The results showed that only 1 (0.88%) child with leukemia was confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection and 15 (13.2%) children were considered as suspected cases. Comparing to the nonsuspected patients, the suspected cases had lower white blood cell count, hemoglobin level, neutrophil count, serum calcium ion level and serum albumin concentration, as well as higher levels of C-reactive protein. All the suspected cases were ruled out of SARS-CoV-2 infection by twice negative tests for the virus. Therefore, the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hematological malignancy children was low during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. COVID-19 got early detected and the virus spread out in the ward was effectively blocked by increasing test frequency and using single-room isolation for 5 to 7 days after admission.

2.
Comput Biol Med ; 141: 105182, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chest computed tomography (CT) is crucial in the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the persistent pandemic and similar CT manifestations between COVID-19 and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) raise methodological requirements. METHODS: A fully automatic pipeline of deep learning is proposed for distinguishing COVID-19 from CAP using CT images. Inspired by the diagnostic process of radiologists, the pipeline comprises four connected modules for lung segmentation, selection of slices with lesions, slice-level prediction, and patient-level prediction. The roles of the first and second modules and the effectiveness of the capsule network for slice-level prediction were investigated. A dataset of 326 CT scans was collected to train and test the pipeline. Another public dataset of 110 patients was used to evaluate the generalization capability. RESULTS: LinkNet exhibited the largest intersection over union (0.967) and Dice coefficient (0.983) for lung segmentation. For the selection of slices with lesions, the capsule network with the ResNet50 block achieved an accuracy of 92.5% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.933. The capsule network using the DenseNet121 block demonstrated better performance for slice-level prediction, with an accuracy of 97.1% and AUC of 0.992. For both datasets, the prediction accuracy of our pipeline was 100% at the patient level. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed fully automatic deep learning pipeline of deep learning can distinguish COVID-19 from CAP via CT images rapidly and accurately, thereby accelerating diagnosis and augmenting the performance of radiologists. This pipeline is convenient for use by radiologists and provides explainable predictions.

3.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of COVID-19 has a persistent impact on global health, yet its sequelae need to be addressed at a wide scale around the globe. This study aims to investigate the characteristics, prevalence, and risk factors for mid-term (>6 months) clinical sequelae in a cohort of COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: Totally 715 COVID-19 survivors discharged before April 1, 2020, from three medical centers in Wuhan, China, were included. The longitudinal study was conducted by telephone interviews based on a questionnaire including the clinical sequelae of general, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Demographics and some characteristics of clinical sequelae of the survivors were recorded and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the risk factors for the sequelae. RESULTS: The median time interval from discharge to telephone interview was 225.0 days. The COVID-19 survivors' median ages were 69 years, and 51.3% were male. Among them, 29.9% had at least one clinical sequela. There were 19.2%, 22.7%, and 5.0% of the survivors reporting fatigue, respiratory symptoms, and cardiovascular symptoms, respectively. Comorbidities, disease severity, the application of mechanical ventilation and high-flow oxygen therapy, and the history of re-admission were associated with the presence of clinical sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides further evidence for the prevalence and characteristics of clinical sequelae of COVID-19 survivors, suggesting long-term monitoring and management is needed for their full recovery.

4.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0028321, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501550

ABSTRACT

The Infectious Disease Surveillance of Pediatrics (ISPED) program was established in 2015 to monitor and analyze the trends of bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in children. Clinical bacterial isolates were collected from 11 tertiary care children's hospitals in China in 2016 to 2020. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems, with interpretation according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2019 breakpoints. A total of 288,377 isolates were collected, and the top 10 predominant bacteria were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic year, we observed a significant reduction in the proportion of respiratory tract samples (from 56.9% to 44.0%). A comparable reduction was also seen in the primary bacteria mainly isolated from respiratory tract samples, including S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and S. pyogenes. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in children were commonly observed and presented higher rates of drug resistance than sensitive strains. The proportions of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP), carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB), carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were 19.7%, 46.4%%, 12.8%, and 35.0%, respectively. The proportions of CRKP, CRAB, and CRPA strains all showed decreasing trends between 2015 and 2020. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and CRPA gradually decreased with age, while CRAB showed the opposite trend with age. Both CRE and CRPA pose potential threats to neonates. MDROs show very high levels of AMR and have become an urgent threat to children, suggesting that effective monitoring of AMR and antimicrobial stewardship among children in China are required. IMPORTANCE AMR, especially that involving multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), is recognized as a global threat to human health; AMR renders infections increasingly difficult to treat, constituting an enormous economic burden and producing tremendous negative impacts on patient morbidity and mortality rates. There are many surveillance programs in the world to address AMR profiles and MDRO prevalence in humans. However, published studies evaluating the overall AMR rates or MDRO distributions in children are very limited or are of mixed quality. In this study, we showed the bacterial epidemiology and resistance profiles of primary pathogens in Chinese children from 2016 to 2020 for the first time, analyzed MDRO distributions with time and with age, and described MDROs' potential threats to children, especially low-immunity neonates. Our study will be very useful to guide antiinfection therapy in Chinese children, as well as worldwide pediatric patients.

5.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291772

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection occurs due to waning immunity time-to-vaccine, to which the globally-dominant, highly-contagious Delta variant is behind the scene. In the primary 2-dose and booster series of clinical Phase-1 trial, UB-612 vaccine, which contains S1-RBD and synthetic Th/CTL peptide pool for activation of humoral and T-cell immunity, induces substantial, prolonged viral-neutralizing antibodies that goes parallel with a long-lasting T-cell immunity;and a booster (3rd ) dose can prompt recall of memory immunity to induce profound, striking antibodies with the highest level of 50% viral-neutralizing GMT titers against live Delta variant reported for any vaccine. The unique design of S1-RBD only plus multitope T-cell peptides may have underpinned UB-612’s potent anti-Delta effect, while the other full S protein-based vaccines are affected additionally by mutations in the N-terminal domain sequence which contains additional neutralizing epitopes. UB-612, safe and well-tolerated, could be effective for boosting other vaccine platforms that have shown modest homologous boosting. [Funded by United Biomedical Inc., Asia;ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04967742 and NCT04545749]

6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450402

ABSTRACT

Efficient annotation of alterations in binding sequences of molecular regulators can help identify novel candidates for mechanisms study and offer original therapeutic hypotheses. In this work, we developed Somatic Binding Sequence Annotator (SBSA) as a full-capacity online tool to annotate altered binding motifs/sequences, addressing diverse types of genomic variants and molecular regulators. The genomic variants can be somatic mutation, single nucleotide polymorphism, RNA editing, etc. The binding motifs/sequences involve transcription factors (TFs), RNA-binding proteins, miRNA seeds, miRNA-mRNA 3'-UTR binding target, or can be any custom motifs/sequences. Compared to similar tools, SBSA is the first to support miRNA seeds and miRNA-mRNA 3'-UTR binding target, and it unprecedentedly implements a personalized genome approach that accommodates joint adjacent variants. SBSA is empowered to support an indefinite species, including preloaded reference genomes for SARS-Cov-2 and 25 other common organisms. We demonstrated SBSA by annotating multi-omics data from over 30,890 human subjects. Of the millions of somatic binding sequences identified, many are with known severe biological repercussions, such as the somatic mutation in TERT promoter region which causes a gained binding sequence for E26 transformation-specific factor (ETS1). We further validated the function of this TERT mutation using experimental data in cancer cells. Availability:http://innovebioinfo.com/Annotation/SBSA/SBSA.php.

7.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(4): 1082-1095, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436331

ABSTRACT

Background: As the spreading of the COVID-19 around the global, we investigated the characteristics and changes of symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Methods: This was an ambispective observational cohort study, and 133 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included and all symptoms over the course were analyzed qualitatively. The symptoms, their changes over the course in the cohort and in the different clinical types, etc. were illustrated. Differences in different periods and severities were analyzed through Chi square test, association with severity was analyzed through LASSO binomial logistic regression analysis. Inter-correlation and classification of symptoms were completed. Major symptoms were screened and their changes were illustrated. Results: A total of 43 symptoms with frequencies as 6067 in this cohort. Differences of symptoms in different stages and clinical types were significant. Expectoration, shortness of breath, dyspnea, diarrhea, poor appetite were positively but vomiting, waist discomfort, pharyngeal discomfort, acid reflux were negatively correlated with the combined-severe and critical type; dyspnea was correlated with the critical type. The 17 major symptoms were identified. The average daily frequency of symptoms per case was decreased continuously before the transition into the severe type and increased immediately one day before the transition and then decreased. It was decreased continuously before the transition date of the critical type and increased from the transition into the critical type to the next day and decreased thereafter. Dyspnea (P<0.001), shortness of breath (P<0.01) and chest distress (P<0.05) were correlated with death and their corresponding coefficient was 0.393, 0.258, 0.214, respectively. Conclusion: The symptoms of COVID-19 patients mainly related to upper respiratory tract infection, cardiopulmonary function, and digestive system. The mild type and the early stage in other types mainly related to upper respiratory tract infection. The cardiopulmonary function and digestive system associated symptoms were found in all other types and stages. Dyspnea was correlated with critical type, and dyspnea, shortness of breath and chest distress were correlated with death. Respiratory dysfunction (or incompleteness) associated symptoms were the characteristic symptoms. The changes of symptoms did not synchronously with the changes of severity before the transition into the severe or critical type.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112065, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is severely threatening and challenging public health worldwide. Epidemiological studies focused on the influence of outdoor air pollution (AP) on COVID-19 risk have produced inconsistent conclusions. We aimed to quantitatively explore this association using a meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched for studies related to outdoor AP and COVID-19 risk in the Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. No language restriction was utilized. The search date entries were up to August 13, 2021. Pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained with random-/fixed-effects models. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021244656. RESULTS: A total of 35 articles were eligible for the meta-analysis. For long-term exposure to AP, COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with 1 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide (NO2; effect size = 1.042, 95% CI 1.017-1.068), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5; effect size = 1.056, 95% CI 1.039-1.072), and sulfur dioxide (SO2; effect size = 1.071, 95% CI 1.002-1.145). The COVID-19 mortality was positively associated with 1 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide (NO2; effect size = 1.034, 95% CI 1.006-1.063), PM2.5 (effect size = 1.047, 95% CI 1.025-1.1071). For short-term exposure to air pollutants, COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with 1 unit increase in air quality index (effect size = 1.001, 95% CI 1.001-1.002), 1 µg/m3 increase NO2 (effect size = 1.014, 95% CI 1.011-1.016), particulate matter with diameter <10 µm (PM10; effect size = 1.005, 95% CI 1.003-1.008), PM2.5 (effect size = 1.003, 95% CI 1.002-1.004), and SO2 (effect size = 1.015, 95% CI 1.007-1.023). CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor air pollutants are detrimental factors to COVID-19 outcomes. Measurements beneficial to reducing pollutant levels might also reduce the burden of the pandemic.

9.
Nurs Outlook ; 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nurses are the majority of the world's health work force and the frontline responders during pandemics. The mental/emotional toll can be profound if it is not identified and treated. PURPOSE: In March 2020, with New York City as the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, Columbia University School of Nursing organized support circles for faculty and students providing clinical care as a healing method to address trauma. METHODS: Columbia University School of Nursing adapted guidelines and conducted Circles of Care to share, listen, and acknowledge the new challenges for nurses via Zoom. Analysis of these sessions produced major themes of concern for nurses. FINDINGS: Between March 31 and May 31, 2020, we facilitated 77 sessions with 636 attendees. Eight major themes emerged: coping mechanisms, patients suffering and dying, feelings of helplessness, frustration with COVID-19 response, silver lining, disconnection from the world, the thread that holds nurses together, and exhaustion. DISCUSSION: This report offers insight into the mental/emotional outcomes of being on the frontlines. Addressing these issues is essential for the well-being of nurses and all health care providers for an effective pandemic response.

10.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 211: 106406, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Given that the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, a method to accurately distinguish COVID-19 from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is urgently needed. However, the spatial uncertainty and morphological diversity of COVID-19 lesions in the lungs, and subtle differences with respect to CAP, make differential diagnosis non-trivial. METHODS: We propose a deep represented multiple instance learning (DR-MIL) method to fulfill this task. A 3D volumetric CT scan of one patient is treated as one bag and ten CT slices are selected as the initial instances. For each instance, deep features are extracted from the pre-trained ResNet-50 with fine-tuning and represented as one deep represented instance score (DRIS). Each bag with a DRIS for each initial instance is then input into a citation k-nearest neighbor search to generate the final prediction. A total of 141 COVID-19 and 100 CAP CT scans were used. The performance of DR-MIL is compared with other potential strategies and state-of-the-art models. RESULTS: DR-MIL displayed an accuracy of 95% and an area under curve of 0.943, which were superior to those observed for comparable methods. COVID-19 and CAP exhibited significant differences in both the DRIS and the spatial pattern of lesions (p<0.001). As a means of content-based image retrieval, DR-MIL can identify images used as key instances, references, and citers for visual interpretation. CONCLUSIONS: DR-MIL can effectively represent the deep characteristics of COVID-19 lesions in CT images and accurately distinguish COVID-19 from CAP in a weakly supervised manner. The resulting DRIS is a useful supplement to visual interpretation of the spatial pattern of lesions when screening for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Pneumonia , Humans , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide/analogs & derivatives , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 48, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on cognitive function is essential for monitoring the cognitive decline in the elderly population. This study aims to assess the current cognitive status and the longitudinal cognitive decline in elderly patients recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 1539 COVID-19 inpatients aged over 60 years who were discharged from three COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. In total, 466 uninfected spouses of COVID-19 patients were selected as controls. The current cognitive status was assessed using a Chinese version of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 (TICS-40) and the longitudinal cognitive decline was assessed using an Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Cognitive assessments were performed 6 months after patient discharge. RESULTS: Compared with controls, COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores [TICS-40 median (IQR): 29 (25 to 32) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR): 3.19 (3.00 to 3.63) vs. 3.06 (3.00 to 3.38), p < 0.001]. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores than non-severe COVID-19 patients [TICS-40 median (IQR): 24 (18 to 28) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR): 3.63 (3.13 to 4.31) vs. 3.13 (3.00 to 3.56), p < 0.001] and controls [TICS-40 median (IQR): 24 (18 to 28) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR) 3.63 (3.13 to 4.31) vs. 3.06 (3.00 to 3.38), p < 0.001]. Severe COVID-19 patients had a higher proportion of cases with current cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline than non-severe COVID-19 patients [dementia: 25 (10.50 %) vs. 9 (0.69 %), p < 0.001; Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): 60 (25.21 %) vs. 63 (4.84 %), p < 0.001] and controls [dementia: 25 (10.50 %) vs. 0 (0 %), p < 0.001; MCI: 60 (25.21 %) vs. 20 (4.29 %), p < 0.001)]. COVID-19 severity, delirium and COPD were risk factors of current cognitive impairment. Low education level, severe COVID-19, delirium, hypertension and COPD were risk factors of longitudinal cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with an increased risk of long-term cognitive decline in elderly population. COVID-19 patients, especially severe patients, should be intensively monitored for post-infection cognitive decline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 26: 308-316, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the trends in serotypes and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) to dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline and other comparator antibiotics from 2017-2020 following implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. METHODS: During the study period, 237 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from non-duplicate patients, covering 15.0% of IPD cases in Taiwan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a Sensititre® system. A latex agglutination method (ImmuLex™ Pneumotest Kit) was used to determine serotypes. RESULTS: Susceptibility rates were high for vancomycin (100%), teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%), followed by ceftaroline (non-meningitis) (98.3%), moxifloxacin (94.9%) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (89.9%). MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline and omadacycline were generally low. Non-vaccine serotype 23A was the leading cause of IPD across the adult age range. Isolates of serotype 15B were slightly fewer than those of PCV-13 serotypes in patients aged ≥65 years. The overall case fatality rate was 15.2% (36/237) but was especially high for non-PCV-13 serotype 15B (21.4%; 3/14). Vaccine coverage was 44.7% for PCV-13 and 49.4% for the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23), but was 57% for both PCV-13 and PPSV-23. CONCLUSION: The incidence of IPD was stationary after PCV-13 introduction and only dramatically decreased in the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline were generally low for S. pneumoniae causing adult IPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adult , Aminoglycosides , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Lipoglycopeptides , Oxazolidinones , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serogroup , Taiwan/epidemiology , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Teicoplanin/pharmacology , Tetracyclines , Tetrazoles
13.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(3): 591-604, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298500

ABSTRACT

As the most successful therapy for missing teeth, dental implant has become increasingly prevalent around the world. A lot of papers have reported diverse local risk factors affecting the success and survival rate of dental implants, either for a short or a long period. However, there are also many types of systemic disorders or relatively administrated medicine that may jeopardize the security and success of dental implant treatment. Additionally, the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic also poses a challenge to dental implant clinicians. Some of these risk factors are clinically common but to some extent unfamiliar to dentists, thus optimal measurements are often lacking when they occur in dental clinics. In this review, we analyze potential systemic risk factors that may affect the success rate of dental implants. Some of them may affect bone mineral density or enhance the likelihood of local infection, thus impeding osseointegration. Others may even systemically increase the risk of the surgery and threaten patients' life. In order to help novices receive high-risk patients who need to get dental implant treatment in a more reasonable way, we accordingly review recent research results and clinical experiments to discuss promising precautions, such as stopping drugs that impact bone mineral density or the operation, and addressing any perturbations on vital signs.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Dental Implants/standards , Dental Restoration Failure/statistics & numerical data , Osseointegration , Humans , Risk Factors
14.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2021 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia and other invasive diseases, and is a leading cause of mortality in the elderly population. The present study aimed to provide current antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 252 nonduplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients admitted to 16 hospitals in Taiwan between January 2017 and December 2019, and were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was determined using the Vitek 2 automated system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Furthermore, epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the strains analyzed, 88% were recognized as invasive pneumococcal strains. According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria for non-meningitis, the prevalence of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae demonstrated a declining trend from 43.6% in 2017 to 17.2% in 2019. However, the rate of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 85.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Furthermore, the prevalence of ceftriaxone-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 62.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Isolates demonstrated higher susceptibility toward doripenem and ertapenem than toward meropenem and imipenem. An increased rate of non-susceptibility toward levofloxacin was observed in southern Taiwan (15.1%) and elderly patients (≥65 years; 11.4%). Most isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with ceftriaxone monotherapy for pneumococcal meningitis should be carefully monitored owing to its high non-susceptibility rate. The susceptibility rates of most isolates to penicillin (used for treating non-meningitis pneumococcal diseases), carbapenems (ertapenem and doripenem), respiratory quinolones (moxifloxacin and levofloxacin), vancomycin, and linezolid suggested the potential of these antibiotics in treating pneumococcal diseases in Taiwan.

15.
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications ; 48:101063, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1263257

ABSTRACT

Mobile applications (apps) have attracted increasing attention as an unprecedented opportunity for retailers. This study aims to explore how a branded app supports customers’ shopping decision during the COVID-19 (coronavirus) crisis. Integrating person-environment fit theory and the theory of exploitation and exploration, this study links person-app fit and person-brand fit to explorative use and exploitative use of a branded app, which both contribute to customer decision performance. Perceived fluency toward cross-channel integration positively moderates the fit-use linkages. Data obtained from 835 app users verify all of the proposed hypotheses. Results indicate that customers with different fits (person-app fit and person-brand fit) hold different thoughts toward their exploitative use and explorative use, which add equal value to support their decision making. Useful theoretical and practical implications are also provided for researchers and marketers interested in this area.

16.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258750

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is the most damaging pandemic in recent human history. Rapid detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and variant strains is paramount for recovery from this pandemic. Conventional SARS-CoV-2 tests interrogate only limited regions of the whole SARS-CoV-2 genome, which are subjected to low specificity and miss the opportunity of detecting variant strains. In this work, we developed the first SARS-CoV-2 tiling array that captures the entire SARS-CoV-2 genome at single nucleotide resolution and offers the opportunity to detect point mutations. A thorough bioinformatics protocol of two base calling methods has been developed to accompany this array. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the tiling array, we genotyped all genomic positions of eight SARS-CoV-2 samples. Using high-throughput sequencing as the benchmark, we show that the tiling array had a genome-wide accuracy of at least 99.5%. From the tiling array analysis results, we identified the D614G mutation in the spike protein in four of the eight samples, suggesting the widespread distribution of this variant at the early stage of the outbreak in the United States. Two additional nonsynonymous mutations were identified in one sample in the nucleocapsid protein (P13L and S197L), which may complicate future vaccine development. With around $5 per array, supreme accuracy, and an ultrafast bioinformatics protocol, the SARS-CoV-2 tiling array makes an invaluable toolkit for combating current and future pandemics. Our SARS-CoV-2 tilting array is currently utilized by Molecular Vision, a CLIA-certified lab for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/genetics , Genomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 575005, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178040

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in a substantial workload and stress for frontline health professionals in high-risk areas. Little research has investigated the mechanism of occupational burnout among the frontline health professionals located in the center of the epidemic in Wuhan, China. Methods: A total of 199 frontline health professionals from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital completed the cross-sectional survey. Mechanisms of occupational burnout (according to the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, MBI-GS) among the health professionals in Jinyintan Hospital during the COVID-19 outbreak were examined using a structural equation model (SEM). Results: The levels of the three burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) were high at 34.2, 50.8, and 35.2%, respectively. Frontline health professionals in this stressful period reported significantly greater emotional exhaustion (p < 0.001) and job-related cynicism (p < 0.001), but no significant difference in professional efficacy (p = 0.449), when compared to employees in a large multinational company. The SEM results revealed that both acute stress symptoms and psychosomatic symptoms significantly predicted the emotional exhaustion and occupation cynicism dimensions of burnout. Conclusion: The study reveals the occupational burnout mechanism of frontline health professionals during the COVID-19 peak at the time of the outbreak. This study provides an important contribution to understanding the future psychological interventions necessary for frontline health professionals during an epidemic crisis.

18.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(1): e23690, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has spread all over the world and brought extremely huge losses. At present, there is a lack of study to systematically analyze the features of hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (α-HBDH) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Electronic medical records including demographics, clinical manifestation, α-HBDH results and outcomes of all included patients were extracted. RESULTS: α-HBDH in COVID-19 group was higher than that in excluded group (p < 0.001), and there was no significant difference in α-HBDH before and after the exclusion of 5 patients with comorbidity in heart or kidney (p = 0.671). In COVID-19 group, the α-HBDH value in ≥61 years old group, severe group, and critical group, death group all increased at first and then decreased, while no obvious changes were observed in other groups. And there were significant differences of the α-HBDH value among different age groups (p < 0.001), clinical type groups (p < 0.001), and outcome groups (p < 0.001). The optimal scale regression model showed that α-HBDH value (p < 0.001) and age (p < 0.001) were related to clinical type. CONCLUSIONS: α-HBDH was increased in COVID-19 patients, obviously in ≥61 years old, death and critical group, indicating that patients in these three groups suffer from more serious heart and kidney and other tissues and organs damage, higher α-HBDH value, and risk of death. The difference between death and survival group in early stage might provide a approach to judge the prognosis. The accuracy of the model to distinguish severe/critical type and other types was 85.84%, suggesting that α-HBDH could judge the clinical type accurately.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/enzymology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Regression Analysis
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