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World J Pediatr ; 18(8): 538-544, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906548


BACKGROUND: Severe acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in children has recently exhibited a global trend of concentrated occurrence. This review aimed to summarize the current available information regarding the outbreak of severe acute hepatitis and introduce our hospital's previous experiences with the diagnosis and treatment of severe acute hepatitis for reference. DATA SOURCES: Websites including the UK Health Security Agency, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, CDC, WHO, and databases including PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science were searched for articles on severe acute hepatitis in children. RESULTS: As of May 26, 2022, a total of 650 cases have been reported in 33 countries; at least 38 (6%) children required liver transplantation, and nine (1%) died. Cases are predominantly aged between 3 and 5 years old, and there are no epidemiological links among them. The common manifestations are jaundice, vomiting and pale stools. Adenovirus tested positive in most cases, and SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses were detected in a few cases, but virus particles were not found in liver tissue. Adenovirus immunohistochemistry showed immunoreactivity in the intrasinusoidal lumen from some liver samples. The hierarchical treatment includes symptomatic and supportive therapy, management of coagulation disorders and hepatic encephalopathy, artificial liver support, and liver transplantation (approximately 6%-10% of cases require liver transplant). CONCLUSIONS: The etiology of this severe acute hepatitis in children is not clear. The clinical features are severe acute hepatitis with significantly elevated liver enzymes. Clinicians need to be alert to children with hepatitis.

Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Child , Child, Preschool , Hepatitis/diagnosis , Hepatitis/prevention & control , Hepatitis/therapy , Humans
Sci Adv ; 6(33): eabb7238, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733188


Cigarette smoking, the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has been implicated as a risk factor for severe disease in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we show that mice with lung epithelial cell-specific loss of function of Miz1, which we identified as a negative regulator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, spontaneously develop progressive age-related changes resembling COPD. Furthermore, loss of Miz1 up-regulates the expression of Ace2, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Concomitant partial loss of NF-κB/RelA prevented the development of COPD-like phenotype in Miz1-deficient mice. Miz1 protein levels are reduced in the lungs from patients with COPD, and in the lungs of mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke. Our data suggest that Miz1 down-regulation-induced sustained activation of NF-κB-dependent inflammation in the lung epithelium is sufficient to induce progressive lung and airway destruction that recapitulates features of COPD, with implications for COVID-19.

Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phenotype , Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/genetics , Smoking/adverse effects , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism