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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 44(6): 3117-3129, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238772

ABSTRACT

The short-term reduction of air pollutant emissions is an important emergency control measure for avoiding air pollution exceedances in Chinese cities. However, the impacts of short-term emission reductions on the air qualities in southern Chinese cities in spring has not been fully explored. We analyzed the changes in air quality in Shenzhen, Guangdong before, during, and after a city-wide lockdown associated with COVID-19 control during March 14 to 20, 2022. Stable weather conditions prevailed before and during the lockdown, such that local air pollution was strongly affected by local emissions. In-situ measurements and WRF-GC simulations over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) both showed that, due to reductions in traffic emissions during the lockdown, the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), respirable particulate matter (PM10), and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) in Shenzhen decreased by (-26±9.5)%, (-28±6.4)%, and (-20±8.2)%, respectively. However, surface ozone (O3) concentration did not change significantly[(-1.0±6.5)%]. TROPOMI satellite observations of formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide column concentrations indicated that the ozone photochemistry in the PRD in spring 2022 was mainly controlled by the volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations and was not sensitive to the reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations. Reduction in NOx may even have increased O3, because the titration of O3 by NOx was weakened. Due to the small spatial-temporal extent of emission reductions, the air quality effects caused by this short-term urban-scale lockdown were weaker than the air quality effects across China during the widespread COVID-19 lockdown in 2020. Future air quality management in South China cities should consider the impacts of NOx emission reduction on ozone and focus on the co-reduction scenarios of NOx and VOCs.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Volatile Organic Compounds , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide , Communicable Disease Control , Nitric Oxide , Particulate Matter
2.
Health Sci Rep ; 6(5): e1225, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316553

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, many cases of COVID-19 were reported in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. In the following 3 months, the disease out broke in China. Preisolation measures was used to screen out COVID-19 patients in the pediatric respiratory ward of our hospital. Aims: To investigate the new measures for screening COVID-19 patients and to analyze the clinical features of children with suspicious COVID-19. Methods: A total of 50 preisolated children with suspicious COVID-19 who were admitted to our hospital in Mianyang, China, between January 28 and March 5, 2020, were included. Patients presented with fever and cough or fever accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea. A detailed epidemiological history screening was performed. A real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) was applied when pneumonia was suspicious. Routine blood tests were performed to rule out COVID-19. Patients' data were collected, and the basic clinical features, epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, auxiliary examination results, and outcomes were analyzed and summarized. Results: No definite cases were detected, while two patients were suspected of having COVID-19. The pathogenic results of the 50 patients mainly included Mycoplasma pneumoniae, followed by Epstein-Barr virus, and rotavirus. Thirty-five patients suffered from bronchopneumonia. The preisolated patients had similar clinical and epidemiological characteristics as patients with fever, cough, vomiting, and diarrhea. Conclusions: Preisolation measures combined with pathogen screening can minimize the risk of hospital-acquired infections by preventing patients with suspicious COVID-19 from contacting other patients before they are explicitly excluded. Clinical analysis of the patients was helpful for clinical nursing management.

3.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 238: 107584, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) than healthy population, but there is still no therapeutic strategy available for RA patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Guizhi-Shaoyao-Zhimu decoction (GSZD), Chinese ancient experience decoction, has a significant effect on the treatment of Rheumatism and gout. To prevent RA patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 from developing into severe COVID-19, this study explored the potential possibility and mechanism of GSZD in the treatment of this population. METHODS: In this study, we used bioinformatic approaches to explore common pharmacological targets and signaling pathways between RA and mild-to-moderate COVID-19, and to assess the potential mechanisms of in the treatment of patients with both diseases. Beside, molecular docking was used to explore the molecular interactions between GSZD and SARS-CoV-2 related proteins. RESULTS: Results showed that 1183 common targets were found in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and RA, of which TNF was the most critical target. The crosstalk signaling pathways of the two diseases focused on innate immunity and T cells pathways. In addition, GSZD intervened in RA and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 mainly by regulating inflammation-related signaling pathways and oxidative stress. Twenty hub compounds in GSZD exhibited good binding potential to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, 3C-like protease (3CLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), papain-like protease (PLpro) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), thereby intervening in viral infection, replication and transcription. CONCLUSIONS: This finding provides a therapeutic option for RA patients against mild-to-moderate COVID-19, but further clinical validation is still needed.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Computational Biology
4.
Environ Dev Sustain ; : 1-21, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305834

ABSTRACT

Predicting energy consumption is an essential part of energy planning and management. The reliable prediction of regional energy consumption is crucial for the authority in China to formulate policies by with respect to the dual control of its energy consumption and energy intensity. Given that energy consumption is affected by a number of factors, this study proposes a non-homogeneous, discrete, multivariate grey prediction model based on adjacent accumulation to predict the regional energy consumption in China. Interestingly regional GDP was selected by grey relational analysis as the independent variable in the proposed model. The results show that it can outperform the other multivariate grey models considered in terms of predicting regional energy consumption in China. Moreover, we found that economic development and energy consumption of each region in China remain closely related. In the post-COVID-19 period, regional economic development will continue to grow and increase energy consumption.

5.
Frontiers in public health ; 11, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2276100

ABSTRACT

Introduction With the COVID-19 pandemic in China, a large number of mild or ordinary confirmed cases have been sent to Fangcang shelter hospitals for treatment. We aimed to investigate the mental health condition of Fangcang patients 2 years after the pandemic when patients knew more about COVID-19 and the virus was less virulent. We focused on the effect of dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep on depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Methods A total of 1,014 patients from two large Fangcang shelter hospitals in Shanghai between 22 April and 8 May 2022 completed a set of questionnaires comprising: the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the Insomnia Severity Index scale. Results Results show that the positive screening rates for anxiety, depression, and insomnia among tested patients were 55.3, 27.0, and 47.8%, respectively. Patients were more likely to report higher anxiety, depression, and insomnia, and to endorse affective and sleep disorders if they were: female, aged 18–40 years, with undergraduate course or above, white-collar employees, or those who thought the pandemic would have severe economic effects. About 51.4% of the participants had dysfunctional beliefs about sleep to varying degrees. Compared with patients who had accurate beliefs about sleep, the ratios of insomnia, anxiety, and depression were significantly higher among patients with dysfunctional beliefs about sleep. Discussion Attention should be paid to the mental health problems of patients in Fangcang shelter hospitals. The results indicate that dysfunctional beliefs about sleep significantly increased anxiety, depression, and insomnia of Fangcang patients.

6.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1129322, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276101

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the COVID-19 pandemic in China, a large number of mild or ordinary confirmed cases have been sent to Fangcang shelter hospitals for treatment. We aimed to investigate the mental health condition of Fangcang patients 2 years after the pandemic when patients knew more about COVID-19 and the virus was less virulent. We focused on the effect of dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep on depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Methods: A total of 1,014 patients from two large Fangcang shelter hospitals in Shanghai between 22 April and 8 May 2022 completed a set of questionnaires comprising: the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the Insomnia Severity Index scale. Results: Results show that the positive screening rates for anxiety, depression, and insomnia among tested patients were 55.3, 27.0, and 47.8%, respectively. Patients were more likely to report higher anxiety, depression, and insomnia, and to endorse affective and sleep disorders if they were: female, aged 18-40 years, with undergraduate course or above, white-collar employees, or those who thought the pandemic would have severe economic effects. About 51.4% of the participants had dysfunctional beliefs about sleep to varying degrees. Compared with patients who had accurate beliefs about sleep, the ratios of insomnia, anxiety, and depression were significantly higher among patients with dysfunctional beliefs about sleep. Discussion: Attention should be paid to the mental health problems of patients in Fangcang shelter hospitals. The results indicate that dysfunctional beliefs about sleep significantly increased anxiety, depression, and insomnia of Fangcang patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Female , Mental Health , Sleep Quality , Pandemics , Hospitals, Special , Depression/psychology , Mobile Health Units , China , Sleep
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(8): e55, 2023 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 omicron variant has been triggering the new wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) globally. However, the risk factors and outcomes for radiological abnormalities in the early convalescent stage (1 month after diagnosis) of omicron infected patients are still unknown. METHODS: Patients were retrospectively enrolled if they were admitted to the hospital due to COVID-19. The chest computed tomography (CT) images and clinical data obtained at baseline (at the time of the first CT image that showed abnormalities after diagnosis) and 1 month after diagnosis were longitudinally analyzed. Uni-/multi-variable logistic regression tests were performed to explore independent risk factors for radiological abnormalities at baseline and residual pulmonary abnormalities after 1 month. RESULTS: We assessed 316 COVID-19 patients, including 47% with radiological abnormalities at baseline and 23% with residual pulmonary abnormalities at 1-month follow-up. In a multivariate regression analysis, age ≥ 50 years, body mass index ≥ 23.87, days after vaccination ≥ 81 days, lymphocyte count ≤ 1.21 × 10-9/L, interleukin-6 (IL-6) ≥ 10.05 pg/mL and IgG ≤ 14.140 S/CO were independent risk factors for CT abnormalities at baseline. The age ≥ 47 years, presence of interlobular septal thickening and IL-6 ≥ 5.85 pg/mL were the independent risk factors for residual pulmonary abnormalities at 1-month follow-up. For residual abnormalities group, the patients with less consolidations and more parenchymal bands at baseline could progress on CT score after 1 month. There were no significant changes in the number of involved lung lobes and total CT score during the early convalescent stage. CONCLUSION: The higher IL-6 level was a common independent risk factor for CT abnormalities at baseline and residual pulmonary abnormalities at 1-month follow-up. There were no obvious radiographic changes during the early convalescent stage in patients with residual pulmonary abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Middle Aged , Follow-Up Studies , Retrospective Studies , Convalescence , Interleukin-6
10.
Transitions ; 6(1-2):3-26, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2197216

ABSTRACT

Impacted by the global COVID-19 crisis and its sociopolitical shockwaves, pre-existing physical mobility patterns and traditional study-abroad experiences have been thoroughly disrupted and transformed. US higher education institutions have utilized the practices of transnational hybrid learning to sustain the quality and progress of international higher education. This article focuses on a study programme that integrates online and offline learning in Shanghai, China, coordinated by a non-profit international higher education exchange agency in partnership with eight US universities and one Chinese university from August 2020 to June 2021. Through semi-structured interviews with 32 Chinese students, this article finds that transnational hybrid learning offers students greater geographical and time flexibility, room for self-paced learning and controls on health risks while ensuring face-to-face interactions and physical activities. In addition, the localization of international education might motivate Chinese students to consider their career development that balances their interests and career prospects in response to political and economic uncertainties. However, the communication and learning gaps, weakened intercultural communication, sustained sociocultural alienation and contradictions of two sociocultural contexts render the overall programme experience less desirable. In sum, this article identifies the potential of virtual mobility beyond geographical and policy constraints in transforming and reimagining the practices of transnational higher education in a post-pandemic world.

11.
Front Chem ; 10: 1060322, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141704

ABSTRACT

As a powerful and effective analytical tool, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has attracted considerable research interest in the fields of wearable flexible sensing and non-invasive point-of-care testing (POCT) medical diagnosis. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the design strategy, the development progress of wearable SERS sensors and its applications in this field. We present SERS substrate analysis of material design requirements for wearable sensors and highlight the benefits of novel plasmonic particle-in-cavity (PIC)-based nanostructures for flexible SERS sensors, as well as the unique interfacial adhesion effect and excellent mechanical properties of natural silk fibroin (SF) derived from natural cocoons, indicating promising futures for applications in the field of flexible electronic, optical, and electrical sensors. Additionally, SERS wearable sensors have shown great potential in the fields of different disease markers as well as in the diagnosis testing for COVID-19. Finally, the current challenges in this field are pointed out, as well as the promising prospects of combining SERS wearable sensors with other portable health monitoring systems for POCT medical diagnosis in the future.

12.
Journal of Diversity in Higher Education ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2133244

ABSTRACT

This article examines how Chinese international students perceived U.S. racial justice movements, such as Black Lives Matter and Stop Asian Hate protests, given the sociopolitical context of U.S.-China geopolitical tensions, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the surging tides of anti-Asian racism and violence. Through semistructured interviews and follow-up exchanges with 21 Chinese international undergraduate students at a U.S. public research university, this article argues that students' understanding of grassroots racial justice movements is jointly shaped by their political socialization in mainland China and by their observation of the United States' lack of explicit action to dismantle racism and discrimination. Both of these are in turn mediated by these students' elite social status. More specifically, the research finds that Chinese students perceive United States' racial justice activism as merely an emotional outlet, which cannot address racial inequality and social injustice in multiracial America. The research further indicates that, despite being racialized in the United States, Chinese students do not show much interest in fighting against racism and xenophobia. This article contributes a transnational perspective and intersectional analysis of how Chinese international students with different valued social statuses-as both economic elites and racialized others-understand racial tensions and class struggles in the United States. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

13.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10354, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024160

ABSTRACT

Although island tourism is vital to the economy of developing countries, many islands with great potential for tourism development do not plan for it adequately. The objective of this paper is to establish an island tourism value mining and promotion model from the tourist perspective by selecting the status value indicators of basic conditions, vacation tourism resources, and sightseeing tourism resources, as well as the promotion indicators of five types of recreational fisheries, including beach activities, recreational fishing, marine sports, rock climbing, and sightseeing platforms. Then, we evaluate the whole island and develop suitable areas by using an analytic hierarchy process. This study took Tianheng Island as an example and divided the study area into grids and land use types. The results indicate that the basic conditions and tourism resources of Tianheng Island are in a general level, and the vacation tourism resources are in high quality, while there is further room to improve them. We identified that the island has four areas which are suitable for scenic development, two sandy beaches, two recreation fishing areas, one marine sports area, and one island rock climbing area. Our findings are consistent with the actual situation in Tianheng Island, demonstrating that the model is practical and can provide an essential reference for the scientific protection and utilization of island tourism resources.

14.
Journal of International Students ; 11:1-18, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1717622

ABSTRACT

Due to uneven and hierarchical global context, the United States has been the world's number one "Educational Hub" (Knight, 2011), leading the internationalization of higher education in multiple forms, the top priority of which lies in international student recruitment and enrollment. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has thoroughly disrupted the traditional mobility experience-a situation that has broader implications for the demographic landscape of US higher education. This article explores how COVID-19 and pandemic-related Sinophobia affect Chinese students' perspectives on their educational decision-making. Based on Zoom interviews of a sample of 21 Chinese undergraduate students, this study demonstrates that despite the leading role of the US in international education, it is gradually losing appeal to Chinese students due to disillusionment with the romanticized imaginary of the US, anxiety about uncertain policies, and safety concerns. The unidirectional student mobility from mainland China to the US may be interrupted with Singapore and Hong Kong as the emerging destinations.

15.
Journal of Multivariate Analysis ; : 104956, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1665206

ABSTRACT

In the process of modeling longitudinal data, we focus on the case that the studied population is comprised of different groups of individuals and individuals within the same group share the similar kind of mean progression trajectories, where finite mixture models (FMM) are often used to address this kind of unobserved heterogeneity in terms of mean. Existing methods, such as parametric and semiparametric mixture regression, usually model the mean in each subpopulation with assumption that observations sharing a common trajectory are independent or their covariance structure is pre-specified, but less research considers modeling of covariance structures while accounting for heterogeneity. In this paper, we introduce a joint model which models the mean and covariance structures simultaneously in a finite normal mixture regression, demonstrating how important the within-subject correlation is in clustering longitudinal data. Model parameters are estimated with an iteratively re-weighted least squares EM algorithm (IRLS-EM). Our estimators are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal. We can identify different mean trajectories and covariance structures in all clusters. Simulations show that the proposed method performs well and gives more accurate clustering results by introducing covariance modeling. Real data analysis is also used to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method, and it presents good performance in clustering COVID-19 deaths for European countries in terms of progression trajectory.

16.
Hypertens Res ; 45(5): 856-865, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641956

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a health crisis. It remains unclear how anxiety affects blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular risk among older patients with hypertension. In this study, we extracted longitudinal data on home BP monitored via a smartphone-based application in 3724 elderly patients with hypertension from a clinical trial (60-80 years; 240 in Wuhan and 3484 in non-Wuhan areas) to examine changes in morning BP during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Anxiety was evaluated using Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 item scores. Changes in morning systolic BP (SBP) were analyzed for five 30-day periods during the pandemic (October 21, 2019 to March 21, 2020), including the pre-epidemic, incubation, developing, outbreak, and plateau periods. Data on cardiovascular events were prospectively collected for one year. A total of 262 individuals (7.0%) reported an increased level of anxiety, and 3462 individuals (93.0%) did not. Patients with anxiety showed higher morning SBP than patients without anxiety, and the between-group differences in SBP change were +1.2 mmHg and +1.7 mmHg during the outbreak and plateau periods (P < 0.05), respectively. The seasonal BP variation in winter among patients with anxiety was suppressed during the pandemic. Anxious patients had higher rates of uncontrolled BP. During the 1-year follow-up period, patients with anxiety had an increased risk of cardiovascular events with a hazard ratio of 2.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.58; P = 0.03). In summary, COVID-19-related anxiety was associated with a short-term increase in morning SBP among older patients and led to a greater risk of cardiovascular events. (ClinicalTrials. gov number, NCT03015311).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics
17.
J Proteome Res ; 21(1): 90-100, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531980

ABSTRACT

RT-PCR is the primary method to diagnose COVID-19 and is also used to monitor the disease course. This approach, however, suffers from false negatives due to RNA instability and poses a high risk to medical practitioners. Here, we investigated the potential of using serum proteomics to predict viral nucleic acid positivity during COVID-19. We analyzed the proteome of 275 inactivated serum samples from 54 out of 144 COVID-19 patients and shortlisted 42 regulated proteins in the severe group and 12 in the non-severe group. Using these regulated proteins and several key clinical indexes, including days after symptoms onset, platelet counts, and magnesium, we developed two machine learning models to predict nucleic acid positivity, with an AUC of 0.94 in severe cases and 0.89 in non-severe cases, respectively. Our data suggest the potential of using a serum protein-based machine learning model to monitor COVID-19 progression, thus complementing swab RT-PCR tests. More efforts are required to promote this approach into clinical practice since mass spectrometry-based protein measurement is not currently widely accessible in clinic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Proteomics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling
18.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(4): 1079-1087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524445

ABSTRACT

Fibrinogen-associated protein (FREP) family is a family of proteins with a fibrin domain at the carboxyl terminus. Recent investigations illustrated that two members of FREP family, fibrinogen-like protein-1 (FGL1) and fibrinogen-like protein-2 (FGL2), play crucial roles in cancer by regulating the proliferation, invasion, and migration of tumor cells, or regulating the functions of immune cells in tumor microenvironment. Meanwhile, they are potential targets for medical intervention of tumor development. In this review, we discussed the structure, and the roles of FGL1 and FGL2 in tumors, especially the roles in regulating immune cell functions.


Subject(s)
Fibrinogen/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunotherapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Signal Transduction
19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390815

ABSTRACT

This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccines according to vaccine platform and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection severity. Articles published between 24 January 2020 and 30 May 2021 were retrieved via a PubMed and EMBASE search. A total of 12 reports on phase-3 clinical trials and observational studies of COVID-19 vaccines were included in the review. In terms of vaccine safety, mRNA vaccines showed more relevance to serious adverse events than viral vector and inactivated vaccines, but no solid evidence indicated that COVID-19 vaccines directly caused serious adverse events. Serious metabolic, musculoskeletal, immune-system, and renal disorders were more common among inactivated vaccine recipients, and serious gastrointestinal complications and infections were more common among viral vector and inactivated vaccine recipients. The occurrence of serious vessel disorders was more frequent in mRNA vaccines. In terms of efficacy, two mRNA vaccine doses conferred a lesser risk of SARS-COV-2 infection (odds ratio: 0.05; 95% confidence interval: 0.02-0.13) than did vaccination with viral vector and inactivated vaccines. All vaccines protected more against symptomatic than asymptomatic cases (risk ratio, 0.11 vs. 0.34), but reduced the risk of severe SARS-COV-2 infection. The COVID-19 vaccines assessed in this study are sufficiently safe and effective. The results indicate that two mRNA vaccine doses prevent SARS-COV-2 infection most effectively, but further research is needed due to the high degree of heterogeneity among studies in this sample. Interventions should be implemented continuously to reduce the risks of infection after one vaccine dose and asymptomatic infection.

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