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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1657-1663, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890733

ABSTRACT

Pangolins have gained increasing global attention owing to their public health significance as potential zoonotic hosts since the identification of SARS-CoV-2-related viruses in them. Moreover, these animals could carry other respiratory viruses. In this study, we investigated the virome composition of 16 pangolins that died in 2018 with symptoms of pneumonia using metagenomic approaches. A total of eight whole virus sequences belonging to the Paramyxoviridae or Pneumoviridae families were identified, including one human parainfluenza virus 3, one human respiratory syncytial virus A, and six human respiratory syncytial virus B. All of these sequences showed more than 99% nucleotide identity with the virus isolated from humans at the whole-genome level and clustered with human viruses in the phylogenetic tree. Our findings provide evidence that pangolins are susceptible to HPIV3 and HRSV infection. Therefore, public awareness of the threat of pangolin-borne pathogens is essential to stop their human consumption and to prevent zoonotic viral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Animals , Humans , Pangolins , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human/genetics , Phylogeny , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Nurs Manag ; 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807188

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of work-family conflict and the moderating role of job autonomy on the association between risk perception of COVID-19 and job withdrawal among Chinese nurses during the initial disease outbreak. BACKGROUND: Nurses' job withdrawal can not only reduce the quality and efficiency of care but also give rise to turnover during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, it is essential to clarify how and when the risk perception of COVID-19 influences the job withdrawal behaviours of nurses and to provide guidelines for reducing nurses' job withdrawal. METHODS: A two-wave study was conducted among 287 Chinese nurses from 11 COVID-19-designated hospitals during the initial outbreak of the disease from March through April 2020. Data on the risk perception of COVID-19, job autonomy and work-family conflict were collected at time 1, and 1 month later, job withdrawal data were collected at time 2. Model 4 and Model 14 from SPSS macro PROCESS were used to test the mediating effect of work-family conflict and the moderating effect of job autonomy, respectively. RESULTS: Work-family conflict mediated 60.54% of the relationship between risk perception of COVID-19 and job withdrawal. Job autonomy positively moderated the relation between work-family conflict and job withdrawal (ß = 0.12, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Risk perception of COVID-19 influenced nurses' job withdrawal through work-family conflict. Job autonomy exaggerated the association between work-family conflict and job withdrawal. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Managers should provide more supportive resources to help nurses cope with the risk of COVID-19 to decrease work-family conflict and job withdrawal, and they should strengthen supervision over the work processes of nurses.

3.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; 22(7):7231-7239, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1774677

ABSTRACT

With the further development of online shopping and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the logistics industry has further increased the demand for unmanned, automated warehousing and logistics handling. To realize intelligent warehousing and logistics handling, reliable positioning navigation technology is indispensable. Therefore, this paper designs a Dual-lidar high-precision natural navigation system based on the ROS (Robot Operating System) platform, which can fulfill the basic warehousing and logistics requirements. The natural navigation system uses the Lidar-SLAM method based on graph optimization to construct the 2D environment map, the PF (Particle Filter) algorithm in MRPT (Mobile Robot Programming Toolkit) is used for system positioning, and the real-time correction algorithm is used for motion control. On the built hardware platform, the navigation system completed the fixed-point cruise navigation task, and finally achieved a navigation accuracy of 4 cm and an average repeatable navigation accuracy of 6 mm. The designed navigation system has reference significance for multi-sensor fusion navigation. In reality, it can be applied to the transportation of warehousing and logistics, and it is expected to be mass-produced in the future.

4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 802147, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753359

ABSTRACT

Owing to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) worldwide at the end of 2019, the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine became an urgent need. In this study, we developed a type 9 adeno-associated virus vectored vaccine candidate expressing a dimeric receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S protein) and evaluated its immunogenicity in a murine model. The vaccine candidate, named AAV9-RBD virus, was constructed by inserting a signal peptide to the N-terminus of two copies of RBD, spaced by a linker, into the genome of a type 9 adeno-associated virus. In vitro assays showed that HeLa cells infected by the recombinant AAV virus expressed high levels of the recombinant RBD protein, mostly found in the cell culture supernatant. The recombinant AAV9-RBD virus was cultured and purified. The genome titer of the purified recombinant AAV9-RBD virus was determined to be 2.4 × 1013 genome copies/mL (GC/mL) by Q-PCR. Balb/c mice were immunized with the virus by intramuscular injection or nasal drip administration. Eight weeks after immunization, neutralizing antibodies against the new coronavirus pseudovirus were detected in the sera of all mice; the mean neutralizing antibody EC50 values were 517.7 ± 292.1 (n=10) and 682.8 ± 454.0 (n=10) in the intramuscular injection group and nasal drip group, respectively. The results of this study showed that the recombinant AAV9-RBD virus may be used for the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dependovirus/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322274

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has spread rapidly around the world, affecting a large percentage of the population. When lifting certain mandatory measures for an economic restart, robust surveillance must be established and implemented, with nucleic acid detection for SARS-CoV-2 as an essential component. Methods: : We tried to develop a o ne-tube detection platform based on R T- R PA (Reverse Transcription and Recombinase Polymerase Isothermal Amplification) and D NA E ndonuclease- T arg e ted C RISPR T rans R eporter ( DETECTR ) technology, termed OR-DETECTR, to detect SARS-CoV-2. We designed RT-RPA primers of the RdRp and N genes following the SARS-CoV-2 gene sequence. We optimized reaction components so that the detection process could be carried out in one tube. Specificity was demonstrated by detecting nucleic acid samples from pseudoviruses from seven human coronaviruses and Influenza A (H1N1). Clinical samples were used to validate the platform and all results were compared to rRT-PCR. RNA standards and pseudoviruses diluted by different gradients were used to demonstrate the detection limit. Additionally, we have developed a lateral flow assay based on OR-DETECTR for detecting COVID-19. Results: : The OR-DETECTR detection process can be completed in one tube, which takes approximately 50 min. This method can specifically detect SARS-CoV-2 from seven human coronaviruses and Influenza A (H1N1), with a low detection limit of 2.5 copies/µl input (RNA standard) and 1 copy/µl input (pseudovirus). Results of six samples from SARS-CoV-2 patients, eight samples from patients with fever but no SARS-CoV-2 infection, and one mixed sample from 40 negative controls showed that OR-DETECTR is 100% consistent with rRT-PCR. The lateral flow assay based on OR-DETECTR can be used for the detection of COVID-19, and the detection limit is 2.5 copies/µl input. Conclusions: : The OR-DETECTR platform for the detection of COVID-19 is rapid, accurate, tube closed, easy-to-operate, and free of large instruments.

6.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):735-736, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584388

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought terrible difficulties to nursing homes, as they were locations with the highest number of confirmed Covid-19 cases and deaths in the US. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) applies the Five-Star Quality Ratings to indicate the quality of care in nursing homes based on health inspection survey, staffing, and resident outcome. Studies to date have contradictory findings regarding the relationship between nursing home reported Quality Ratings and Covid-19 cases and deaths based on US regional data. The purpose of this study is to examine whether nursing homes’ Quality Ratings were related to the total number of resident Covid-19 cases and deaths at the US National level. The study examined US nursing homes (N=13,494) linked with CMS Nursing Home Compare data and Covid-19 Nursing Home data. Using multiple linear regression analyses, results showed nursing home Quality Ratings were significantly associated with Covid-19 residents’ cases and deaths controlling for ownership type, size, occupation rate, and years of operation (p<.001;p<.001). Five-star nursing homes were less likely to have Covid-19 cases and deaths. Further, comparing lower Star Ratings nursing homes, 1-Star nursing homes showed no significant difference to 2-Star and 3-Star nursing homes when examining Covid-19 cases and deaths. Overall, the Five-Star Quality Ratings is a useful measure when investigating nursing homes’ performance during the Covid-19 pandemic. Future policymakers and administrators should also focus on nursing homes with lower star ratings when improving the quality of nursing homes, particularly with regard to resident health.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 753823, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502330

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Understanding the influence of mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 gene on clinical outcomes is critical for treatment and prevention. Here, we analyzed all high-coverage complete SARS-CoV-2 sequences from GISAID database from January 1, 2020, to January 1, 2021, to mine the mutation hotspots associated with clinical outcome and developed a model to predict the clinical outcome in different epidemic strains. Exploring the cause of mutation based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and RNA-editing enzyme, mutation was more likely to occur in severe and mild cases than in asymptomatic cases, especially A > G, C > T, and G > A mutations. The mutations associated with asymptomatic outcome were mainly in open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) and N genes; especially R6997P and V30L mutations occurred together and were correlated with asymptomatic outcome with high prevalence. D614G, Q57H, and S194L mutations were correlated with mild and severe outcome with high prevalence. Interestingly, the single-nucleotide variant (SNV) frequency was higher with high percentage of nt14408 mutation in RdRp in severe cases. The expression of ADAR and APOBEC was associated with clinical outcome. The model has shown that the asymptomatic percentage has increased over time, while there is high symptomatic percentage in Alpha, Beta, and Gamma. These findings suggest that mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 genome may have a direct association with clinical outcomes and pandemic. Our result and model are helpful to predict the prevalence of epidemic strains and to further study the mechanism of mutation causing severe disease.

9.
PLoS ONE ; 16(2), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1410573

ABSTRACT

The restrictive measures implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have triggered sudden massive changes to travel behaviors of people all around the world. This study examines the individual mobility patterns for all transport modes (walk, bicycle, motorcycle, car driven alone, car driven in company, bus, subway, tram, train, airplane) before and during the restrictions adopted in ten countries on six continents: Australia, Brazil, China, Ghana, India, Iran, Italy, Norway, South Africa and the United States. This cross-country study also aims at understanding the predictors of protective behaviors related to the transport sector and COVID-19. Findings hinge upon an online survey conducted in May 2020 (N = 9,394). The empirical results quantify tremendous disruptions for both commuting and non-commuting travels, highlighting substantial reductions in the frequency of all types of trips and use of all modes. In terms of potential virus spread, airplanes and buses are perceived to be the riskiest transport modes, while avoidance of public transport is consistently found across the countries. According to the Protection Motivation Theory, the study sheds new light on the fact that two indicators, namely income inequality, expressed as Gini index, and the reported number of deaths due to COVID-19 per 100,000 inhabitants, aggravate respondents' perceptions. This research indicates that socio-economic inequality and morbidity are not only related to actual health risks, as well documented in the relevant literature, but also to the perceived risks. These findings document the global impact of the COVID-19 crisis as well as provide guidance for transportation practitioners in developing future strategies.

10.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(6): 1298, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279258

ABSTRACT

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. There was an error in Xiaorong Hu's name. The original article has been corrected. The authors apologize for the mistake.

11.
Ambio ; 51(3): 531-545, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274973

ABSTRACT

As largely documented in the literature, the stark restrictions enforced worldwide in 2020 to curb the COVID-19 pandemic also curtailed the production of air pollutants to some extent. This study investigates the perception of the air pollution as assessed by individuals located in ten countries: Australia, Brazil, China, Ghana, India, Iran, Italy, Norway, South Africa and the USA. The perceptions towards air quality were evaluated by employing an online survey administered in May 2020. Participants (N = 9394) in the ten countries expressed their opinions according to a Likert-scale response. A reduction in pollutant concentration was clearly perceived, albeit to a different extent, by all populations. The survey participants located in India and Italy perceived the largest drop in the air pollution concentration; conversely, the smallest variation was perceived among Chinese and Norwegian respondents. Among all the demographic indicators considered, only gender proved to be statistically significant.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 366-374, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206778

ABSTRACT

The serological testing of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and/or IgM is widely used in the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, its diagnostic efficacy remains unclear. In this study, we searched for diagnostic studies from the Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang databases to calculate the pooled diagnostic accuracy measures using bivariate random-effects model meta-analysis. As a result, 22 from a total of 1613 articles, including 2282 patients with SARS-CoV-2 and 1485 healthy persons or patients without SARS-CoV-2, were selected for a meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and area under curve of the summary receiver operator curve (SROC) were: (a) 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.90), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-1.00), and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-0.99) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and (b) 0.74 (95% CI: 0.65-0.81), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00), and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93-0.97) for IgM. A subgroup analysis among detection methods indicated the sensitivity of IgG and IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were slightly lower than those using gold immunochromatography assay (GICA) and chemiluminescence immunoassay (P > .05). These results showed that the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM had high diagnostic efficiency to assist the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. And, GICA might be used as the preferred method for its accuracy and simplicity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Chromatography, Affinity , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 4(1): 2-15, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122088

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are top two chronic comorbidities that increase the severity and mortality of COVID-19. However, how SARS-CoV-2 alters the progression of chronic diseases remain unclear. Methods: We used adenovirus to deliver h-ACE2 to lung to enable SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. SARS-CoV-2's impacts on pathogenesis of chronic diseases were studied through histopathological, virologic and molecular biology analysis. Results: Pre-existing CVDs resulted in viral invasion, ROS elevation and activation of apoptosis pathways contribute myocardial injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral infection increased fasting blood glucose and reduced insulin response in DM model. Bone mineral density decreased shortly after infection, which associated with impaired PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Conclusion: We established mouse models mimicked the complex pathological symptoms of COVID-19 patients with chronic diseases. Pre-existing diseases could impair the inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which further aggravated the pre-existing diseases. This work provided valuable information to better understand the interplay between the primary diseases and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Animals , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 74, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has spread rapidly around the world, affecting a large percentage of the population. When lifting certain mandatory measures for an economic restart, robust surveillance must be established and implemented, with nucleic acid detection for SARS-CoV-2 as an essential component. METHODS: We tried to develop a one-tube detection platform based on RT-RPA (Reverse Transcription and Recombinase Polymerase Isothermal Amplification) and DNA Endonuclease-Targeted CRISPR Trans Reporter (DETECTR) technology, termed OR-DETECTR, to detect SARS-CoV-2. We designed RT-RPA primers of the RdRp and N genes following the SARS-CoV-2 gene sequence. We optimized reaction components so that the detection process could be carried out in one tube. Specificity was demonstrated by detecting nucleic acid samples from pseudoviruses from seven human coronaviruses and Influenza A (H1N1). Clinical samples were used to validate the platform and all results were compared to rRT-PCR. RNA standards and pseudoviruses diluted by different gradients were used to demonstrate the detection limit. Additionally, we have developed a lateral flow assay based on OR-DETECTR for detecting COVID-19. RESULTS: The OR-DETECTR detection process can be completed in one tube, which takes approximately 50 min. This method can specifically detect SARS-CoV-2 from seven human coronaviruses and Influenza A (H1N1), with a low detection limit of 2.5 copies/µl input (RNA standard) and 1 copy/µl input (pseudovirus). Results of six samples from SARS-CoV-2 patients, eight samples from patients with fever but no SARS-CoV-2 infection, and one mixed sample from 40 negative controls showed that OR-DETECTR is 100% consistent with rRT-PCR. The lateral flow assay based on OR-DETECTR can be used for the detection of COVID-19, and the detection limit is 2.5 copies/µl input. CONCLUSIONS: The OR-DETECTR platform for the detection of COVID-19 is rapid, accurate, tube closed, easy-to-operate, and free of large instruments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcription/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Base Sequence , Humans , Limit of Detection , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
PLoS One ; 16(2), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1059838

ABSTRACT

Diego Maria Barbieri, Baowen Lou, Marco Passavanti, Cang Hui, Inge Hoff Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Visualization, Writing – original draft * E-mail: diego.barbieri@ntnu.no (DMB);loubaowen@chd.edu.cn (BL) Affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Trøndelag, Norway ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5924-9367 Baowen Lou Contributed equally to this work with: Diego Maria Barbieri, Baowen Lou, Marco Passavanti, Cang Hui, Inge Hoff Roles Methodology, Supervision, Visualization, Writing – review & editing Affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Trøndelag, Norway Daniela Antunes Lessa Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Visualization, Writing – review & editing ¶‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work. Affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, United States of America Akshay Gupta Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Visualization, Writing – review & editing ¶‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work. Affiliation: Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee Department of Civil Engineering, Transportation Engineering Group, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India ORCID logo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3109-9245 Kevin Fang Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Visualization, Writing – review & editing ¶‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work. Affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Trøndelag, Norway Sahra Naseri Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Visualization, Writing – review & editing ¶‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work. Affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Trøndelag, Norway Benan Shu Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Visualization, Writing – review & editing ¶‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

16.
Respiration ; 100(2): 116-126, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is still no clinical evidence available to support or to oppose corticosteroid treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of corticosteroid given to the hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, single-blind, randomized control trial. Adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were admitted to the general ward were randomly assigned to either receive methylprednisolone or not for 7 days. The primary end point was the incidence of clinical deterioration 14 days after randomization. RESULTS: We terminated this trial early because the number of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in all the centers decreased in late March. Finally, a total of 86 COVID-19 patients underwent randomization. There was no difference of the incidence of clinical deterioration between the methylprednisolone group and control group (4.8 vs. 4.8%, p = 1.000). The duration of throat viral RNA detectability in the methylprednisolone group was 11 days (interquartile range, 6-16 days), which was significantly longer than that in the control group (8 days [2-12 days], p = 0.030). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in other secondary outcomes. Mass cytometry discovered CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and NK cells in the methylprednisolone group which were significantly lower than those in the control group after randomization (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: From this prematurely closed trial, we found that the short-term early use of corticosteroid could suppress the immune cells, which may prolong severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 shedding in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04273321.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pharynx/chemistry , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , CD3 Complex , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Disease Progression , Early Medical Intervention , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Patients' Rooms , Pharynx/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Data Brief ; 33: 106459, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023537

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has heavily impacted the global community. To curb the viral transmission, travel restrictions have been enforced across the world. The dataset documents the mobility disruptions and the modal shifts that have occurred as a consequence of the restrictive measures implemented in ten countries: Australia, Brazil, China, Ghana, India, Iran, Italy, Norway, South Africa and the United States. An online questionnaire was distributed during the period from the 11st to the 31st of May 2020, with a total of 9 394 respondents. The first part of the survey has characterized the frequency of use of all transport modes before and during the enforcement of the restrictions, while the second part of the survey has dealt with perceived risks of contracting COVID-19 from different transport modes and perceived effectiveness of travel mitigation measures. Overall, the dataset (stored in a repository publicly available) can be conveniently used to quantify and understand the modal shifts and people's cognitive behavior towards travel due to COVID-19. The collected responses can be further analysed by considering other demographic and socioeconomic covariates.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 103036, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) has been the most effective and widely implemented diagnostic technology since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, fuzzy rRT-PCR readouts with high Ct values are frequently encountered, resulting in uncertainty in diagnosis. METHODS: A Specific Enhancer for PCR-amplified Nucleic Acid (SENA) was developed based on the Cas12a trans-cleavage activity, which is specifically triggered by the rRT-PCR amplicons of the SARS-CoV-2 Orf1ab (O) and N fragments. SENA was first characterized to determine its sensitivity and specificity, using a systematic titration experiment with pure SARS-CoV-2 RNA standards, and was then verified in several hospitals, employing a couple of commercial rRT-PCR kits and testing various clinical specimens under different scenarios. FINDINGS: The ratio (10 min/5 min) of fluorescence change (FC) with mixed SENA reaction (mix-FCratio) was defined for quantitative analysis of target O and N genes, and the Limit of Detection (LoD) of mix-FCratio with 95% confidence interval was 1.2≤1.6≤2.1. Totally, 295 clinical specimens were analyzed, among which 21 uncertain rRT-PCR cases as well as 4 false negative and 2 false positive samples were characterized by SENA and further verified by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The cut-off values for mix-FCratio were determined as 1.145 for positive and 1.068 for negative. INTERPRETATION: SENA increases both the sensitivity and the specificity of rRT-PCR, solving the uncertainty problem in COVID-19 diagnosis and thus providing a simple and low-cost companion diagnosis for combating the pandemic. FUNDING: Detailed funding information is available at the end of the manuscript.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/genetics , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Endodeoxyribonucleases/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/standards , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polyproteins , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
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