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1.
Chinese Journal of Gerontology ; 40(8):1627-1630, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1451819

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of elderly patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Methods Four elderly patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the isolation ward of Jinhua Central Hospital from January 22 to February 6, 2020 were selected as the research objects. Clinical data were collected, and general conditions, clinical symptoms, blood tests and CT images were analyzed. The characteristics of learning. Results Among the 4 elderly patients, 3 were general type, 1 was critically ill, 2 were males, and 2 were females, all with a history of underlying diseases. The imaging examination is in line with the typical changes of typical COVID-19 pneumonia. Conclusion Elderly COVID-19 patients should pay more attention to the rapid progress of the disease, other system conditions, combined medication and thrombosis risk, and individualized treatment should be given.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 677025, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403470

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a global crisis; however, our current understanding of the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection remains limited. Herein, we performed RNA sequencing using peripheral blood from acute and convalescent patients and interrogated the dynamic changes of adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection over time. Our results revealed numerous alterations in these cohorts in terms of gene expression profiles and the features of immune repertoire. Moreover, a machine learning method was developed and resulted in the identification of five independent biomarkers and a collection of biomarkers that could accurately differentiate and predict the development of COVID-19. Interestingly, the increased expression of one of these biomarkers, UCHL1, a molecule related to nervous system damage, was associated with the clustering of severe symptoms. Importantly, analyses on immune repertoire metrics revealed the distinct kinetics of T-cell and B-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with B-cell response plateaued in the acute phase and declined thereafter, whereas T-cell response can be maintained for up to 6 months post-infection onset and T-cell clonality was positively correlated with the serum level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Together, the significantly altered genes or biomarkers, as well as the abnormally high levels of B-cell response in acute infection, may contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19 through mediating inflammation and immune responses, whereas prolonged T-cell response in the convalescents might help these patients in preventing reinfection. Thus, our findings could provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of host immune response to COVID-19 and facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies and effective vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/chemistry , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/genetics , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/immunology
3.
Pharmacol Res ; 163: 105224, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364404

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as common life-threatening lung diseases with high mortality rates are mostly associated with acute and severe inflammation in lungs. With increasing in-depth studies of ALI/ARDS, significant breakthroughs have been made, however, there are still no effective pharmacological therapies for treatment of ALI/ARDS. Especially, the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is ravaging the globe, and causes severe respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, developing new drugs for therapy of ALI/ARDS is in great demand, which might also be helpful for treatment of COVID-19. Natural compounds have always inspired drug development, and numerous natural products have shown potential therapeutic effects on ALI/ARDS. Therefore, this review focuses on the potential therapeutic effects of natural compounds on ALI and the underlying mechanisms. Overall, the review discusses 159 compounds and summarizes more than 400 references to present the protective effects of natural compounds against ALI and the underlying mechanism.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Animals , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Signal Transduction
4.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4401-4410, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224977

ABSTRACT

Xiyanping (XYP) is a Chinese herbal medicine used in the clinic to treat respiratory infection and pneumonia. Recent evidence identified XYP as a potential inhibitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, implying XYP as a possible treatment for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we conducted a prospective, multicenter, open-label and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of XYP injection in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. We consecutively recruited 130 COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate symptoms from five study sites, and randomized them in 1:1 ratio to receive XYP injection in combination with standard therapy or receive standard supportive therapy alone. We found that XYP injection significantly reduced the time to cough relief, fever resolution and virus clearance. Less patients receiving XYP injection experienced disease progression to the severe stage during the treatment process. No severe adverse events were reported during the study. Taken together, XYP injection is safe and effective in improving the recovery of patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate the efficacy of XYP in an expanded cohort comprising COVID-19 patients at different disease stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adult , Female , Humans , Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117257, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217544

ABSTRACT

Reusing treated wastewater can effectively alleviate water shortages and water contamination problems but depends on ensuring the safety of the reclaimed water that is produced. The operating and management conditions for water reclamation plants in China have been changed since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in China at the end of 2019 to prevent emerging viruses being spread through wastewater treatment processes and the reclaimed water that is produced. Removal of pathogens and trace organic compounds (e.g., pharmaceuticals and personal care products and endocrine disrupting chemicals) in a real water reclamation plant after the start of COVID-19 epidemic was studied. Disinfection byproduct formation caused by chlorine being added to meet disinfection requirements was also assessed. The pathogenic microorganism concentrations in effluent were <2 (most probable number)/L, and the removal rates for most trace organic compounds were >80% when advanced treatments were performed using ozone, ultraviolet light, and chlorine doses of 2 mg/L, 20.5 mJ/cm2, and 2-3 mg/L, respectively. The main disinfection byproduct produced at a chlorine dose of 2 mg/L and a residence time of 1 h was chloroform (at concentrations <15 µg/L). The results indicated that the water reclamation processes with modified conditions gave high pathogen and trace organic compound removal rates and reasonably well-controlled disinfection byproduct concentrations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Chlorine , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
6.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(4): 292-296, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207215

ABSTRACT

Advanced age is a high-risk factor for exacerbation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes a high rate of mortality. Therefore, it is important to strengthen the warning and monitoring of severe patients, and early identify the severe and critically severe types in time in the clinical treatment of COVID-19. Moreover, it is necessary to pay attention to the adverse reactions and damage to vital target organs caused by treatment drugs. This study reports the successful experience of diagnosis and treatment of an older patient with COVID-19 accompanied by progressive renal impairment, and pertinent literature was reviewed to help clinicians raise awareness of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Kidney Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Clin Respir J ; 15(8): 904-914, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 79 million people and killed exceeding 1.7 million people around the world by the end of 2020. METHOD: We obtained the clinical data of all diagnosed patients and lung function test of followed-up patients in Fuyang, Anhui province to investigate laboratory predictors of severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the impairment of lung function. RESULTS: Of the 155 patients, 87 (56.13%) were males. The mean age was 41.95 (SD 15.34) years. Only 30 (19.35%) patients had the critical condition. Fever (84.52%) was the most common symptoms, and short of breath was more common in severe patients (p < 0.01). Lymphopenia was observed in most patients (74, 47.7%). It showed the elevation of CRP in 100 (64.5%) patients, the elevation of SAA or IL-6 in 104 (67.1%) patients. The calculated cut-off value of CRP was 19.35 mg/ml, the AUC was 0.777, sensitivity was 73.3%, specificity was 69.6%; SAA was 73.55 mg/L, 0.679, 83.3%, 56.8%, respectively; IL-6 was 18.85 pg/ml, 0.797, 83.3%, 64.8%; D-Dimer was 0.325 mg/L, 0.673, 66.7% and 68.8%. The combination of CRP, SAA, IL-6, and D-Dimer was 0.823 in AUC, 73.3% in sensitivity, and 78.4% in specificity. 12 (42.86%) followed-up patients had completely normal lung function indicators. CONCLUSION: Elevated CRP, SAA, IL-6 and D-Dimer can be predictors to severe COVID-19. The combination of these four indicators can improve the effectivity and specificity of assessing severe COVID-19. Most of the followed-up patients showed no abnormalities in lung function test. Abnormal lung function is mainly reflected in the diffusion function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248750, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) results in a tremendous disease burden worldwide. Available research on active surveillance among hospitalized adult patients suffering from SARI in China is limited. This pilot study aimed to identify associated etiologies and describe the demographic, epidemiological and clinical profiles of hospitalized SARI patients aged over 16 years in Jinshan, Shanghai. METHODS: Active surveillance was conducted at 1 sentinel hospital in Jinshan district, Shanghai, from April 2017 to March 2018. Hospitalized SARI patients aged over 16 years old were enrolled, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected within 24 hours of admission and tested for multiple respiratory viruses (including 18 common viruses) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical information was obtained from case report forms. RESULTS: In total, 397 SARI patients were enrolled; the median age was 68 years, and 194 (48.9%) patients were male. A total of 278 (70.0%) patients had at least one underlying chronic medical condition. The most frequent symptoms were cough (99.2%) and sputum production (88.4%). The median duration of hospitalization was 10 days. A total of 250 infection patients (63.0%) were positive for at least one pathogen, of whom 198 (49.9%) were positive for a single pathogen and 52 (13.1%) were positive for multiple pathogens. The pathogens identified most frequently were M. pneumoniae (23.9%, 95/397), followed by adenovirus (AdV) (11.6%, 46/397), influenza virus A/H3N2 (Flu A/H3N2) (11.1%, 44/397), human rhinovirus (HRhV) (8.1%, 32/397), influenza virus B/Yamagata (Flu B/Yamagata) (6.3%, 25/397), pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1 (Flu A/pH1N1) (4.0%, 16/397), parainfluenza virus (PIV) type 1 (2.0%, 8/397), human coronavirus (HCoV) type NL63 (2.0%, 8/397), HCoV 229E (1.5%, 6/397), HCoV HKU1 (1.5%, 6/397), PIV 3 (1.5%, 6/397), human metapneumovirus (HMPV) (1.5%, 6/397), PIV 4 (1.3%, 5/397), HCoV OC43 (1.0%, 4/397), influenza virus B/Victoria (Flu B/Victoria) (0.5%, 2/397), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) type B (0.5%, 2/397), and human bocavirus (HBoV) (0.3%, 1/397). The seasonality of pathogen-confirmed SARI patients had a bimodal distribution, with the first peak in the summer and the second peak in the winter. Statistically significant differences were observed with respect to the rates of dyspnea, radiographically diagnosed pneumonia and the presence of at least one comorbidity in patients who were infected with only M. pneumoniae, AdV, HRhV, Flu A/H3N2, Flu A /pH1N1 or Flu B/Yamagata. The differences in the positivity rates of the above 6 pathogens among the different age groups were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: M. pneumoniae, AdV and Flu A/H3N2 were the main pathogens detected in hospitalized SARI patients aged over 16 years old in Jinshan district, Shanghai. Our findings highlight the importance of sustained multipathogen surveillance among SARI patients in sentinel hospitals, which can provide useful information on SARI etiologies, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics.


Subject(s)
DNA Viruses/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , China , Cough/etiology , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pilot Projects , Prognosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Young Adult
9.
Emerg Med Int ; 2021: 6614523, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138457

ABSTRACT

Difficult airway management in critically ill patients remains a difficult task associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In difficult airway populations, prompt effective intubation is more important to prevent hypoxia and neurological injury. During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, prolonged intubation time and repeated intubation can lead to an increase in the risk of infection. Therefore, digital devices can shorten intubation times and decrease the risk of infection among clinical staff. The advantages of the Trachway videolight intubating stylet suit these conditions. Trachway stylet intubation is an effective method for video laryngoscopy to enhance patient safety and improve the intubation success rate. However, a few studies have focused on the effect of stylet intubation by reducing repeated intubation and oxygen desaturation. In this study, we reviewed current data of Trachway intubation and shared our four major training scenarios in Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital via the Trachway videolight intubating stylet system for emergency intubation, comparing them with other modes of intubation.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17718, 2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880700

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been widely spreading. We aimed to examine adaptive immune cells in non-severe patients with persistent SARS-CoV-2 shedding. 37 non-severe patients with persistent SARS-CoV-2 presence that were transferred to Zhongnan hospital of Wuhan University were retrospectively recruited to the PP (persistently positive) group, which was further allocated to PPP group (n = 19) and PPN group (n = 18), according to their testing results after 7 days (N = negative). Epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. Data from age- and sex-matched non-severe patients at disease onset (PA [positive on admission] patients, n = 37), and lymphocyte subpopulation measurements from matched 54 healthy subjects were extracted for comparison (HC). Compared with PA patients, PP patients had much improved laboratory findings. The absolute numbers of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and NK cells were significantly higher in PP group than that in PA group, and were comparable to that in healthy controls. PPP subgroup had markedly reduced B cells and T cells compared to PPN group and healthy subjects. Finally, paired results of these lymphocyte subpopulations from 10 PPN patients demonstrated that the number of T cells and B cells significantly increased when the SARS-CoV-2 tests turned negative. Persistent SARS-CoV-2 presence in non-severe COVID-19 patients is associated with reduced numbers of adaptive immune cells. Monitoring lymphocyte subpopulations could be clinically meaningful in identifying fully recovered COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/cytology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
11.
Weishengwuxue Tongbao = Microbiology ; - (1):330, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-826327

ABSTRACT

[Background] Bovine coronavirus(BCoV) is one of the main causes of neonatal calf death, and effective detection is the prerequisite to prevent and control the disease. [Objective] At present, BCoV ELISA detection method has some defects, such as low sensitivity, instability and so on. This study aims to improve these defections to establish indirect ELISA detection method. [Methods] The method of indirect ELISA was established by using the soluble recombinant N protein of the epidemic BCoV-CD strain as an antigen. The epitope of the N protein was predicted by DNAStar soft, and was prepared by prokaryotic expression in the non-denatured condition. The seroepidemiological investigation of BCoV infection in Heilongjiang province in recent 5 years was carried out by using this method. [Results] The optimum working conditions of the ELISA method were as follows: the coating solution was 50 mmol/L pH 9.6 carbonate, and the antigen coating concentration was 2.5 μg/mL;The sample diluent was PBST, the dilution concentration was 1 μg/mL, and incubated at 37 °C for 1.5 h;The dilution concentration of HRP-labeled secondary antibody was 1:7 500, and incubated at 37 °C for 1.0 h;The blocked condition was 1% gelatin at 37 °C for 30 minutes. The negative-positive cut off value was 0.225. The method had no cross-reaction with positive serum of bovine rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial body, bovine infectious rhinotracheitis, bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 and Escherichia coli. The intra-and inter-assay coefficient of variation was less than 10%, and the coincident rate with virus neutralization test was 93.5%. The results showed that the positive rate of BCoV antibody was 98.84% in 603 serum samples of cows in some areas of Heilongjiang Province. [Conclusion] The ELISA method established in this study has strong specificity, high sensitivity and good stability, which provides a technical basis for the further development of ELISA kit.

12.
Chin J Traumatol ; 23(4): 196-201, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601868

ABSTRACT

Outbreak of COVID-19 is ongoing all over the world. Spine trauma is one of the most common types of trauma and will probably be encountered during the fight against COVID-19 and resumption of work and production. Patients with unstable spine fractures or continuous deterioration of neurological function require emergency surgery. The COVID-19 epidemic has brought tremendous challenges to the diagnosis and treatment of such patients. To coordinate the diagnosis and treatment of infectious disease prevention and spine trauma so as to formulate a rigorous diagnosis and treatment plan and to reduce the disability and mortality of the disease, multidisciplinary collaboration is needed. This expert consensus is formulated in order to (1) prevent and control the epidemic, (2) diagnose and treat patients with spine trauma reasonably, and (3) reduce the risk of cross-infection between patients and medical personnel during the treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Spinal Injuries/diagnosis , Spinal Injuries/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Team , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation of Patients
14.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20051060

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has continuous outbreaks around the world. Lung is the main organ that be involved. There is a lack of clinical data on the respiratory sounds of COVID-19 infected pneumonia, which includes invaluable information concerning physiology and pathology. The medical resources are insufficient, which are now mainly supplied for the severe patients. The development of a convenient and effective screening method for mild or asymptomatic suspicious patients is highly demanded. MethodsThis is a retrospective case series study. 10 patients with positive results of nucleic acid were enrolled in this study. Lung auscultation was performed by the same physician on admission using a hand-held portable electronic stethoscope delivered in real time via Bluetooth. The recorded audio was exported, and was analyzed by six physicians. Each physician individually described the abnormal breathing sounds that he heard. The results were analyzed in combination with clinical data. Signal analysis was used to quantitatively describe the most common abnormal respiratory sounds. ResultsAll patients were found abnormal breath sounds at least by 3 physicians, and one patient by all physicians. Cackles, asymmetrical vocal resonance and indistinguishable murmurs are the most common abnormal breath sounds. One asymptomatic patient was found vocal resonance, and the result was correspondence with radiographic computed tomography. Signal analysis verified the credibility of the above abnormal breath sounds. ConclusionsThis study describes respiratory sounds of patients with COVID-19, which fills up for the lack of clinical data and provides a simple screening method for suspected patients.

16.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 119(3): 747-751, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of respiratory illness proved to be infected by a 2019 novel coronavirus, officially named Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), was notified first in Wuhan, China, and has spread rapidly in China and to other parts of the world. Herein, we reported the first confirmed case of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) imported from China in Taiwan. This case report revealed a natural course of NCP with self-recovery, which may be a good example in comparison with medical treatments.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Watchful Waiting , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan
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