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1.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039950

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become the worst public health crisis in a century. However, knowledge about the dynamics of antibody responses in patients with COVID-19 is still poorly understood. In this study, we performed a serological study with serum specimens collected at the acute and the convalescent phases from 104 patients with severe COVID-19 who were part of the first wave of COVID-19 cases in Wuhan, China. Our findings revealed that neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are persistent for at least 6 months in patients with severe COVID-19, despite that IgG levels against the receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (N) IgG declined from the acute to the convalescent phase. Moreover, we demonstrate that the level of RBD-IgG is capable of correlating with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activities in COVID-19 serum. In summary, our findings identify the magnitude, functionality, and longevity of antibody responses in patients with COVID-19, which sheds light on the humoral immune response to COVID-19 and would be beneficial for developing vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immune Sera , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Survivors , Time Factors
2.
Vaccine ; 39(8): 1241-1247, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039581

ABSTRACT

Without approved vaccines and specific treatments, COVID-19 is spreading around the world with above 26 million cases and approximately 864 thousand deaths until now. An efficacious and affordable vaccine is urgently needed. The Val308 - Gly548 of spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 linked with Gln830 - Glu843 of Tetanus toxoid (TT peptide) (designated as S1-4) and without TT peptide (designated as S1-5) were expressed and renatured. The antigenicity and immunogenicity of S1-4 were evaluated by Western Blotting (WB) in vitro and immune responses in mice, respectively. The protective efficiency was measured preliminarily by microneutralization assay (MN50). The soluble S1-4 and S1-5 protein was prepared to high homogeneity and purity. Adjuvanted with Alum, S1-4 protein stimulated a strong antibody response in immunized mice and caused a major Th2-type cellular immunity supplemented with Th1-type immunity. Furthermore, the immunized sera could protect the Vero E6 cells from SARS-CoV-2 infection with neutralizing antibody titer 256. Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD with a built in T helper epitope could stimulate both strong humoral immunity supplemented with cellular immunity in mice, demonstrating that it could be a promising subunit vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
3.
Phytomed Plus ; 1(2): 100027, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032443

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 caused a series of acute atypical respiratory diseases worldwide. However, there is still a lack of drugs with clear curative effects, and the clinical trial research of vaccines has not been completely finished. Purpose: LH capsules are approved TCM patent medicine that are widely used for the treatment of respiratory tract infectious diseases caused by colds and flu. On April 12, 2020, LH capsules and granules were officially repurposed by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) for patients with mild COVID-19 based on their safety and efficacy demonstrated through multicentre, randomized, controlled clinical trials. We hope to conduct a comprehensive review of it through modern pharmacy methods, and try to explain its possible mechanism. Methods: Using the full names of LH capsules Lianhuaqingwen, Lianhua Qingwen andSARS-COV-2, COVID-19 as the keywords of the search terms, systemically search for existing related papers in various databases such as Web of Science and PubMed. And completed the collection of clinical data in ClinicalTrials.gov and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Last but not least, we have sorted out the anti-inflammatory and antiviral mechanisms of LH capsules through literature and Selleck. Results: This review systematically sorted out the active ingredients in LH capsules. Furthermore, the related pharmacological and clinical trials of LH capsule on SARS-CoV-2, IAV and IBV were discussed in detail. Moreover, the present review provides the first summary of the potential molecular mechanism of specific substances in LH capsules involved in resistance to SARS-COV-2 infection and the inhibition of cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) caused by IL-6. Conclusion: This review summarizes the available reports and evidence that support the use of LH capsules as potential drug candidates for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. However, TCM exerts its effects through multiple targets and multiple pathways, and LH capsules are not an exception. Therefore, the relevant mechanisms need to be further improved and experimentally verified.

4.
Vaccine ; 38(32): 5071-5075, 2020 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592568

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 that has been characterized as a pandemic by the WHO. Since the first report of COVID-19 on December 31, 2019, 179,111 cases were confirmed in 160 countries/regions with 7426 deaths as of March 17, 2020. However, there have been no vaccines approved in the world to date. In this study, we analyzed the biological characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, Pro330-Leu650 (SARS-CoV-2-SPL), using biostatistical methods. SARS-CoV-2-SPL possesses a receptor-binding region (RBD) and important B (Ser438-Gln506, Thr553-Glu583, Gly404-Aps427, Thr345-Ala352, and Lys529-Lys535) and T (9 CD4 and 11 CD8 T cell antigenic determinants) cell epitopes. High homology in this region between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV amounted to 87.7%, after taking the biological similarity of the amino acids into account and eliminating the receptor-binding motif (RBM). The overall topology indicated that the complete structure of SARS-CoV-2-SPL was with RBM as the head, and RBD as the trunk and the tail region. SARS-CoV-2-SPL was found to have the potential to elicit effective B and T cell responses. Our findings may provide meaningful guidance for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Drug Design , Models, Immunological , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Vaccines, Subunit/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
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