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1.
Journal of Marketing Communications ; : 1-19, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1585438
2.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):801-801, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584348

ABSTRACT

To protect one of the most vulnerable populations from COVID-19, nursing homes enacted and enforced visiting restrictions and other measures to limit the spread of this communicable disease. Family members, many of whom are former caregivers, were suddenly cut off from nursing home residents, and struggled to maintain connection with their loved ones residing in nursing homes. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of family members of residents in nursing homes in advocating for residents and themselves during a time of uncertainty and many challenges. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach to conduct individual interviews. Ten family members of residents of two nursing homes in a Northeastern state were interviewed by phone or videoconference using a semi-structured guide. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s Reflexive Thematic Analysis. Family members expressed concerns for the lockdown’s impact on residents’ psychosocial wellbeing in addition to the potential physical dangers of COVID-19. They explored creative means of meeting needs for information and interaction, but often felt that these efforts fell short of replicating the connectedness of in-person visits. Family members identified multiple missed opportunities for involvement in care, and voiced willingness to comply with infection prevention guidelines, such as maintaining distance, to be present with residents. Our findings indicate that family members advocated for residents’ interests to ensure quality care. Future research and policy should consider family members as a potential resource for providing care and companionship during times of crisis.

3.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):883-883, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584323

ABSTRACT

Nursing home residents and staff have accounted for roughly 40% of Coronavirus-related deaths in the U.S. The burden of caring for vulnerable residents coupled with isolation policies has taken a significant emotional toll among direct health care staff in long term care facilities. This study explores nursing home staff’s experiences in caring for residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. A qualitative descriptive approach with a semi-structured guide was used to conduct individual interviews. We recruited nursing home staff employed during the COVID-19 pandemic in long term care facilities located in New York State. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and then analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s Reflexive Thematic analysis. Twelve nursing home staff were interviewed. Participants consistently refer to failure-to-thrive as an extremely concerning problem because many residents demonstrate decreased appetite and poor nutrition, inactivity, and depressive symptoms due to social isolation. They also often feel frustrated and overwhelmed due to uncertainty and shortages of staff. Five main themes were identified, including doing their best to manage residents’ failure-to-thrive, working as a team, keeping family members informed and connected, struggling to balance competing personal and professional demands, and needing support to reduce stress and build strength. Our study findings indicate that nursing home staff experienced a high level of stress and identified failure-to-thrive caused by isolation and loneliness as a common phenomenon among nursing home residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interventions are urgently needed to reduce isolation and loneness in nursing home residents and to provide support for staff.

4.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading pathogen of acute respiratory tract disease among infants and young children. Compared with previous seasons, RSV outbreaks in Taiwan during the 2020-2021 season were delayed because of COVID-19 mitigation measures. We conducted this study to determine the association of viral factors with clinical characteristics of preschool children with RSV infection. METHODS: We performed a molecular epidemiology analysis of RSV among inpatient preschool children in Taiwan. In 80 nasopharyngeal samples positive for RSV, we sequenced and analyzed viral genotypes according to patient data. Patients' clinical data were obtained from medical files, and their clinical profiles were compared with those of RSV cases recorded during the 2014-2017 seasons. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that among the RSV-positive samples, all RSV strains identified during the 2020-2021 season belonged to the ON1 genotype. Most of the Taiwan ON1 strains were categorized into two well-supported clusters with distinct G protein amino acid substitution patterns that had never been demonstrated previously. Furthermore, the proportion of cases among children aged >24 months increased (P < 0.001). Compared with patients infected during the 2014-2017 seasons, patients infected during the 2020-2021 season were hospitalized for shorter days from hospital admission to dereference (P = 0.004) and had a greater need for oxygen supplements (P = 0.021) and systemic steroid therapy (P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: The delayed 2020-2021 RSV outbreak in Taiwan was caused by two novel RSV ON1.1 variants. How the change in RSV epidemiology affects future RSV outbreaks warrants exploration.

5.
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine ; : 100024, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1560714

ABSTRACT

Background : SARS-CoV-2 has led to a sharp increase in the number of hospitalizations and deaths from pneumonia and multiorgan disease worldwide;therefore, SARS-CoV-2 has become a global health problem. Supportive therapies remain the mainstay treatments against COVID-19, such as oxygen inhalation, antiviral drugs, and antibiotics. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been shown clinically to relieve the symptoms of COVID-19 infection, and TCMs can affect the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Jing Si Herbal Drink (JSHD), an eight herb formula jointly developed by Tzu Chi University and Tzu Chi Hospital, has shown potential as an adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 infection. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of JSHD as an adjuvant treatment in patients with COVID-19 infection is underway Objectives : This article aims to explore the efficacy of the herbs in JSHD against COVID-19 infection from a mechanistic standpoint and provide a reference for the rational utilization of JSHD in the treatment of COVID-19. Method : We compiled evidence of the herbs in JSHD to treat COVID-19 in vivo and in vitro. Results : We described the efficacy and mechanism of action of the active ingredients in JSHD to treat COVID-19 based on experimental evidence. JSHD includes 5 antiviral herbs, 7 antioxidant herbs, and 7 anti-inflammatory herbs. In addition, 2 herbs inhibit the overactive immune system, 1 herb reduces cell apoptosis, and 1 herb possesses antithrombotic ability. Conclusion : Although experimental data have confirmed that the ingredients in JSHD are effective against COVID-19, more rigorously designed studies are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of JSHD as a COVID-19 treatment.

6.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296428

ABSTRACT

Background: The pathological features of severe cardiac injury induced by COVID-19 and relevant clinical features is unknown.<br><br>Methods: This autopsy cohort study, including hearts from 26 deceased patients hospitalized in intensive care unit due to COVID-19, was conducted at four sites in Wuhan, China. Cases were divided into neutrophil-infiltration group and no-neutrophil group according to histopathological identification of neutrophilic infiltrates or not.<br><br>Findings: Among 26 cases, four cases had active myocarditis with histopathological examination. All cases with myocarditis accompanied with extensive neutrophil infiltration, while cases without myocarditis did not. Detection rates of interleukin-6 (100% vs 4.6%) and tumor necrosis factor-α (100% vs 31.8%) in neutrophil-infiltration group were significantly higher compared to no-neutrophil group (p<0.05 for both). At admission, patients with neutrophil infiltration in myocardium had significantly higher baseline values of aspartate aminotransferase, D dimer and high-sensitivity C reactive protein compared to other 22 patients (p<0.05 for all). During hospitalization, patients with neutrophil infiltration had a significantly higher maximum of creatine kinase (CK)-MB (median 280.0 vs 38.7IU/L, p=0.04), and a quantitatively higher top Troponin I (median 1.112 vs 0.220ng/ml, p=0.56) than patients without neutrophil infiltration.<br><br>Interpretation: In hearts from deceased patients with severe COVID-19 , active myocarditis was commonly infiltrated with neutrophils. Cases with neutrophil-infiltrated myocarditis had a series of severe abnormal laboratory tests at admission, and a high maximum of CK-MB during hospitalization. Role of neutrophil on severe heart injury and even systemic condition in COVID-19 should be emphasized.<br><br>Funding Information: : Emergency Key Program of Guangzhou Laboratory, Grant No. EKPG21-32. <br><br>Declaration of Interests: None exist.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: Full autopsy was performed after patient death with the approval of the ethics committees and written consent of patient relatives in accordance with regulations issued by the National Health Commission of China and the Helsinki Declaration.

7.
Smart Health (Amst) ; 23: 100242, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537081

ABSTRACT

Accurately predicting users' perceived stress is beneficial to aid early intervention and prevent both mental illness and physical disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the existing perceived stress predicting system needs to collect a large amount of previous data for training but has a limited prediction range (i.e., next 1-2 days). Therefore, we propose a perceived stress prediction system based on the history data of micro-EMA for identifying risks 7 days earlier. Specifically, we first select and deliver an optimal set of micro-EMA questions to users every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for reducing the burden. Then, we extract time-series features from the past micro-EMA responses and apply an Elastic net regularization model to discard redundant features. After that, selected features are fed to an ensemble prediction model for forecasting fine-grained perceived stress in the next 7 days. Experiment results show that our proposed prediction system can achieve around 4.26 (10.65% of the scale) mean absolute error for predicting the next 7 day's PSS scores, and higher than 81% accuracy for predicting the next 7 day's stress labels.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534246

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed (1) to identify distinct latent classes of motivation to get vaccinated against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and previous seasonal influenza vaccination among people in Taiwan and (2) to examine the roles of sources of information, risk perception, and cognitive appraisals of vaccination against COVID-19 in these classes. We recruited 1047 participants through a Facebook advertisement. The participants' motivation to get vaccinated against COVID-19, previous seasonal influenza vaccination, sources of information about COVID-19 vaccination, risk perception of COVID-19, and cognitive appraisals of vaccination against COVID-19 were determined. We examined the participants' motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and previous seasonal influenza vaccination through latent profile analysis. Four latent classes of motivation were identified: participants with high motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and high seasonal influenza vaccination, those with high motivation for COVID-19 vaccination but low seasonal influenza vaccination, those with low motivation for COVID-19 vaccination but high seasonal influenza vaccination, and those with low motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and low seasonal influenza vaccination. Compared with participants in the latent class of high motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and high seasonal influenza vaccination, those in the other three latent classes had lower levels of positive appraisals of COVID-19 vaccination; participants in the latent class of low motivation for COVID-19 vaccination and low seasonal influenza vaccination had lower risk perception of COVID-19 and were also less likely to obtain information about COVID-19 vaccination from the internet, friends, and family members. The various motivations and behaviors for vaccination, sources of information, risk perception, and cognitive appraisals of vaccination against COVID-19 should be considered in intervention programs aiming to increase people's motivation to get vaccinated against COVID-19.

9.
Health Services Research ; 56(S2):52-52, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1409256

ABSTRACT

Research Objective In 2020 COVID-19 became the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] with nursing home (NH) residents accounting for approximately 40% of all COVID-19 deaths.[2] To help NHs combat COVID-19, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) directed targeted response (TR) interventions through its twelve Quality Improvement Network ? Quality Improvement Organization (QIN-QIOs) contractors. TR involves focused onsite and/or virtual one-on-one technical assistance to nursing homes. For COVID-19 TR, the most common QIN-QIO-reported activities include: assistance with developing and implementing policies and improved processes for hand hygiene, ensuring availability and proper use of personal protective equipment, and general infection control. CMS? criteria to refer NHs for QIN-QIO assistance varied over the entire study period as the program evolved. At various times, these criteria included: infection control-related health inspection deficiencies, NHs located in counties designated as geographic hot spots, having 30 or more new COVID-19 cases in the past week. NH participation in TR is voluntary and free-of-charge. The objective of this study was to assess TR impact on COVID-19 incidence in NHs. Study Design We used a quasi-experimental observational design. NHs may have started receiving TR any time between April 24, and October 28, 2020. COVID-19 incidence data were obtained for May 31 through November 29, 2020 from the National Healthcare Safety Network. Each program NH was matched at the time of first QIN-QIO interaction with a similar non-TR NH. Matching characteristics were: overall NH star rating, health inspections star rating, bed size, state, area deprivation index, and county-level COVID incidence in the month of and the month prior to first receipt of TR. We used longitudinal regression models in the period following first QIN-QIO interaction to compare COVID-19 incidence between NHs that received TR to matched controls that did not. Generalized estimating equations with a Poisson distribution and log-link were used to model COVID-19 incidence, TR status and a full set of covariates. Population Studied CMS-certified NHs providing short-stay, long-stay, or both types of care. Principal Findings Among the 2474 NHs that received TR in the study period, 2013 were matched to 2013 similar NHs that did not. Depending on the month, COVID-19 incidence after matching was similar or higher in the TR group at baseline, but all other covariates were balanced. In this preliminary analysis, NHs receiving TR had 27.7% (p-value <0.0001, 95% CI: 17.2%?36.9%) lowered COVID-19 incidence compared to similar NHs that did not receive TR. Effect estimates withstood early sensitivity analyses. Conclusions The TR intervention was associated with a decline in COVID-19 incidence in TR NHs relative to non-TR NHs. Future analyses will explore which aspects of TR and QIN-QIOs may have been most effective and the attributes of nursing homes that demonstrated improvement. Implications for Policy or Practice Deploying TR for quality improvement in NHs in real-time demonstrated a relative improvement in infection control. CMS should consider expanding TR to a broader range of outcomes. In addition, we must continue to conduct real-time evaluation of the QIN-QIO program as the tools and technologies evolve to prevent infections and other negative outcomes in facilities. Primary Funding Source Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.

10.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1508-1510, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343639

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 has caused a severe public health burden and will challenge global health for the future. The discovery and mechanistic investigation of drugs against Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is in deadly demand. The paper published by Li and colleagues proposed the hypothesis that vitamin C combined with glycyrrhizic acid in treating COVID-19 and its mechanistic investigation was performed by a database-based network pharmacology. In this letter, we present critical comments on the limitations and insufficiencies involved, from both the perspective of network pharmacology and current evidence on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drug Repositioning , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/virology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/administration & dosage , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325809

ABSTRACT

The aims of the present study were (1) to identify the variables related to denying the justification for vaccination during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Taiwan and (2) to examine the associations of such denial with perceived risk of COVID-19 and the extrinsic and intrinsic intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19. We recruited 1047 participants by using a Facebook advertisement. We investigated whether the participants denied justification for vaccination as well as their sociodemographic characteristics, mental health status, sources of information about COVID-19 vaccination, perceived risk of COVID-19, and extrinsic and intrinsic intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19. The results indicated that 20.0% of the participants denied justification for vaccination. Participants who were older, had an educational level below college, were not health care workers, were in poor general mental health state, or did not obtain information about COVID-19 vaccination from the Internet were more likely to deny justification for vaccination. Denial was negatively associated with both extrinsic and intrinsic intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19 but not associated with the perceived risk of COVID-19. Multiple variables related to denying the justification for vaccination; the denial was negatively associated with the intention to get vaccinated against COVID-19.

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302327

ABSTRACT

The present study compared the levels of explicit and intrinsic intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination among sexual minority and heterosexual individuals and examined the association of explicit and intrinsic intentions with sexual orientation. We enrolled 171 sexual minority and 876 heterosexual individuals through a Facebook advertisement. The participants' explicit and intrinsic intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccination and their risk perception of COVID-19 were measured. We discovered that sexual minority individuals had higher levels of explicit and intrinsic intention to receive vaccination relative to heterosexual individuals. Intrinsic intention was positively associated with explicit intention after the effects of demographic characteristics and risk perception of COVID-19 were controlled for. Sexual orientation did not moderate the association between explicit and intrinsic intentions. The present study determined the relationship between sexual orientation and intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Heterosexuality , Humans , Intention , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Taiwan , Vaccination
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302305

ABSTRACT

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the mediating effects of individual affect and relationship satisfaction on the relationship between self-esteem and Problematic Internet Use (PIU). Affect was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), relationship satisfaction was assessed using a positive and negative semantic dimension scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and PIU was measured using the Problematic Internet Use scale with a sample of 507 Chinese university students (Mage = 20.41 years, SD = 2.49). The relationships between the variables were tested using structural equation modelling with a multiple mediation model. The results revealed that negative affect and the negative semantic dimensions of relationship satisfaction mediated the relationship between self-esteem and PIU. The implications of the results and the study's theoretical contributions are discussed.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Personal Satisfaction , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Internet Use , Students
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295826

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to identify the distinct classes of motivations to get vaccinated and to adopt preventive behaviors against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among people in Taiwan and to examine the roles of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) cognitive constructs in these unique classes of motivations to get vaccinated and to adopt preventive behaviors. We recruited 1047 participants by using a Facebook advertisement. Participants' motivations to get vaccinated and to adopt preventive behaviors against COVID-19, PMT constructs of threat appraisal (perceived severity and perceived vulnerability), and PMT constructs of coping appraisal (self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost, knowledge, and previous vaccination for seasonal influenza) were determined. We analyzed participants' motivations to get vaccinated and to adopt preventive behaviors against COVID-19 by using latent profile analysis. The present study identified three latent classes, including the participants with high motivation for vaccination and preventive behaviors (the class of Both High), those with low motivation for vaccination and preventive behaviors (the class of Both Low), and those with high motivation for vaccination but low motivation for preventive behaviors (the class of High Vaccination but Low Preventive Behaviors). Compared with the participants in the class of Both High, participants in the class of Both Low had lower levels of perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, self-efficacy to have vaccination, response efficacy of vaccination, knowledge about vaccination, and previous vaccination for seasonal influenza; participants in the class of High Vaccination but Low Preventive Behaviors had lower levels of perceived vulnerability and perceived severity but higher levels of response cost of vaccination. We concluded that varieties of motivations, threat, and coping appraisals should be considered in intervention programs aiming to increase motivation to adopt recommended protective behaviors against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan , Vaccination
15.
Int J Dermatol Venereol ; 2020 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292185

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus infection has brought a great challenge in prevention and control of the national epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. During the fight against the epidemic of COVID-19, properly carrying out pre-examination and triage for patients with skin lesions and fever has been a practical problem encountered in hospitals for skin diseases as well as clinics of dermatology in general hospitals. Considering that certain skin diseases may have symptom of fever, and some of the carriers of 2019 novel coronavirus and patients with COVID-19 at their early stage may do not present any symptoms of COVID-19, to properly deal with the visitors to clinics of dermatology, the Chinese Society of Dermatology organized experts to formulate the principles and procedures for pre-examination and triage of visitors to clinics of dermatology during the epidemic of COVID-19.

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244153

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the differences in motivation to receive a COVID-19 vaccination between frontline physicians and nurses and the Taiwanese public. The associations of threat and coping appraisals, as described in Protection Motivation Theory (PMT), with motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination were compared between these groups, too. We recruited 279 frontline physicians and nurses and 768 members of the public by a Facebook advertisement. Participants' motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination, perceived severity of and vulnerability to COVID-19, self-efficacy and response efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination, response cost of COVID-19 vaccination, and knowledge about the mechanism of COVID-19 vaccination in light of PMT were determined. The results demonstrated that frontline health workers had higher motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination than the public. Response efficacy and knowledge of COVID-19 vaccination were positively associated with motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination in both frontline health workers and the public, whereas perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, and response cost of COVID-19 vaccination were positively associated with motivation in the public but not in frontline physicians and nurses. The factors related to motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination should be considered when designing programs to increase motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination among frontline health workers and the public.

17.
Front Neurol ; 12: 642912, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202073

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Patients with comorbidities are at increased risk for poor outcomes in COVID-19, yet data on patients with prior neurological disease remains limited. Our objective was to determine the odds of critical illness and duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with prior cerebrovascular disease and COVID-19. Methods: A observational study of 1,128 consecutive adult patients admitted to an academic center in Boston, Massachusetts, and diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. We tested the association between prior cerebrovascular disease and critical illness, defined as mechanical ventilation (MV) or death by day 28, using logistic regression with inverse probability weighting of the propensity score. Among intubated patients, we estimated the cumulative incidence of successful extubation without death over 45 days using competing risk analysis. Results: Of the 1,128 adults with COVID-19, 350 (36%) were critically ill by day 28. The median age of patients was 59 years (SD: 18 years) and 640 (57%) were men. As of June 2nd, 2020, 127 (11%) patients had died. A total of 177 patients (16%) had a prior cerebrovascular disease. Prior cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with critical illness (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.14-2.07), lower rate of successful extubation (cause-specific HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33-0.98), and increased duration of intubation (restricted mean time difference = 4.02 days, 95% CI = 0.34-10.92) compared to patients without cerebrovascular disease. Interpretation: Prior cerebrovascular disease adversely affects COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients. Further study is required to determine if this subpopulation requires closer monitoring for disease progression during COVID-19.

18.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 38(7): 869-876, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Visitor restrictions caused challenges for family members when their loved ones had coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and were ventilated. Limited studies have reported on family members' experiences and support needs. AIM: To explore the experiences and support needs of family members of ventilated COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: Exploratory, qualitative design, using in-depth individual telephone interviews, and analyzed using thematic analysis. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Ten family members of adult COVID-19 patients in the ICU. RESULT: Seven key themes represented family members' experiences: (a) reactions to the COVID-19 diagnosis, (b) COVID-19 as a destabilizing force on the family unit, (c) COVID-19's effects on bereavement outcomes, (d) desperately seeking information, (e) family member needs, (f) conflicting feelings about video calls, and (g) appreciation of care. Family members' feelings about the patient's diagnosis and how the virus was contracted exacerbated their stress and anxiety. They struggled to feel informed about care that they could not witness and had difficulty understanding information. Family members reported that video calls were unhelpful. While these experiences made them question the quality of care, they expressed their appreciation of the frontline healthcare providers taking care of their loved ones. CONCLUSION: The stress and uncertainty of family members of critically ill patients with COVID-19 were influenced by their inability to feel connected to the patient and informed about care. Healthcare providers should assess each individual family's burden and preferences, and this should include establishing structured, timely, and consistent communication regarding patient care during the pandemic including early referral to palliative care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/therapy , Family , Adult , Aged , Anxiety , Bereavement , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Professional-Family Relations , Qualitative Research , Respiration, Artificial , Stress, Psychological
19.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid testing is a reliable method for diagnosing viral infection in clinical samples. However, when the number of cases is huge and there are individual differences in the virus itself, the probability of false-negative results increases. With the advancement in research on the new coronavirus, new detection technologies that use serum-specific antibodies as detection targets have been developed. These detection technologies have high efficiency and shorter turnaround time, which ultimately shortens the time required for diagnosis. This article summarizes the methods that have been reported to date for the detection of the new coronavirus and discusses their principles and technical characteristics. AIMS: Compare the advantages and disadvantages of various SARS-CoV-2 detection methods and analyze their principles. METHODS: Searched reports on SARS-CoV-2 detection methods published so far, extracted the data and analyzed them. Use the primer blast function of NCBI to analyze the primers used in qRT-PCR detection. RESULTS: The detection sensitivity was the highest when nucleocapsid protein gene was used as the target, reaching 96.6%. The detection efficiency of the remaining targets ranged from 66.7% to 96.0%. Various new detection methods, like Serum specific antibody detection, can speed up the test time. However, due to the complexity of the method and higher testing requirements, it seems that it cannot be used as a complete replacement for qRT-PRC testing. CONCLUSIONS: With the advancement of technology and the improvement of methods, the detection methods of SARSCoV-2 have become more mature. These advances provided great help to the detection of SARS-CoV-2.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090336

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to identify the distinct levels of risk perception and preventive behaviors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak among people in Taiwan and to examine the roles of information sources in various levels of risk perception and preventive behavior. The online survey recruited 1984 participants through a Facebook advertisement. Their self-reported risk perception, adopted preventive behaviors and COVID-19-related information were collected. We analyzed individuals' risk perception and adopted preventive behaviors by using latent profile analysis and conducted multinomial logistic regression of latent class membership on COVID-19-related information sources. Four latent classes were identified, including the risk neutrals with high preventive behaviors, the risk exaggerators with high preventive behaviors, the risk deniers with moderate preventive behaviors, and the risk deniers with low preventive behaviors. Compared with the risk neutrals, the risk exaggerators with high preventive behaviors were more likely to obtain COVID-19 information from multiple sources, whereas the risk deniers with moderate preventive behaviors and risk deniers with low preventive behaviors were less likely to obtain COVID-19 information compared with the risk neutrals. Governments and health professions should take the variety of risk perception and adopted preventive behaviors into consideration when disseminating information on COVID-19 to the general public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology
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