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1.
Microbiology Spectrum ; : e0387222, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161815

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a continuously evolving pathogen, causes severe diarrhea in piglets, with high mortality rates. To prevent or mitigate the disease, it is common practice to develop live or inactivated PEDV vaccines based on cell-adapted viral variants. Propagating wild-type PEDV in cultured cells is, however, often challenging due to the lack of knowledge about the requirements for the cell adaptation of PEDV. In the present study, by using the RNA-targeted reverse genetic system for PEDV to apply S protein swapping followed by the rescue of the recombinant viruses, three key amino acid mutations in the S protein, A605E, E633Q, and R891G, were identified, which enable attenuated PEDV strain DR13 (DR13att) to efficiently and productively infect Vero cells, in contrast to the parental DR13 strain (DR13par). The former two key mutations reside inside and in the vicinity of the receptor binding domain (RBD), respectively, while the latter occurs at the N-terminal end of the fusion peptide (FP). Besides the three key mutations, other mutations in the S protein further enhanced the infection efficiency of the recombinant viruses. We hypothesize that the three mutations changed PEDV tropism by altering the S2' cleavage site and the RBD structure. This study provides basic molecular insight into cell adaptation by PEDV, which is also relevant for vaccine design. IMPORTANCE Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a lethal pathogen for newborn piglets, and an efficient vaccine is needed urgently. However, propagating wild-type PEDV in cultured cells for vaccine development is still challenging due to the lack of knowledge about the mechanism of the cell adaptation of PEDV. In this study, we found that three amino acid mutations, A605E, E633Q, and R891G, in the spike protein of the Vero cell-adapted PEDV strain DR13att were critical for its cell adaptation. After analyzing the mutation sites in the spike protein, we hypothesize that the cell adaptation of DR13att was achieved by altering the S2' cleavage site and the RBD structure. This study provides new molecular insight into the mechanism of PEDV culture adaptation and new strategies for PEDV vaccine design.

2.
J Endocr Soc ; 6(Suppl 1):A513, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2119513

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic brought not only physical and mental health problems but also negative impacts on social, economic and educational activities. Trainees, including medical students, residents, and clinical fellows had fewer opportunities to see and discuss patients with supervisors in person. In contrast, recent advances in technology have made it possible to review cases with overseas experts through online conferences. We launched a biannual inter-facility endocrine case review meeting in a video conference format during the pandemic of COVID-19. Here we present the format of our inter-facility online case conference and its impact on trainees. Methods: The conference was organized by clinical faculty members from Japan, USA and Canada. For each conference, each facility prepared one to two cases in English. Four to five cases were presented and discussed with participants and guest commentators. After completion of the 4th conference, an anonymous multiple-choice online survey was administered to all attendees, and data was collected and analyzed by the committee members. Differences in responses before and after attendance were analyzed by paired t-test. Results: Four conferences were held between July/31/2020, and Dec/10/2021 (CST). The facilities participating was as follows: University of Minnesota, Hokkaido Univ., University of Alberta, and Kobe Univ. Participants included medical students, residents, endocrine fellows, and faculty. Presenters were medical students (n=1), endocrine fellows (n=15), and neurosurgery faculty (n=1). Presented topics included the following: 11 cases with pituitary disorders, 3 cases with neuroendocrine tumors, 2 cases with adrenal disorders and 1 case of thyroid disorder. Sixty-two percent of the attendees stated that 3-4 facilities are an ideal size of the collaborations in inter-facility case conference, and 82% of the attendees felt twice a year is an appropriate frequency of the conference. Ninety-seven percent of the participants indicated their willingness to continue to attend. The survey results also revealed that the conference has a positive impact on trainees’ clinical practice and career development. Furthermore, the confidence in presenting skills in English significantly increased after the conference (p<0. 01). Conclusion: Under the COVID-19 pandemic, we launched a new format of inter-institutional case review meeting using a video conferencing system that transcends national boundaries. This represents a new educational method for trainees. A small-scale (3-4 facilities) international collaboration in a video format may provide opportunities for learning rare endocrine cases, cultural diversity of endocrine care, enhanced active learning for trainees, and the opportunity for international presentation. This may lead to the development of a novel educational system in the future.Presentation: No date and time listed

3.
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2088060

ABSTRACT

To fight against infectious diseases (e.g., SARS, COVID-19, Ebola, etc.), government agencies, technology companies and health institutes have launched various contact tracing approaches to identify and notify the people exposed to infection sources. However, existing tracing approaches can lead to severe privacy and security concerns, thereby preventing their secure and widespread use among communities. To tackle these problems, this paper proposes CoAvoid, an edge-based, privacy-preserved contact tracing system that features good dependability and usability. CoAvoid leverages the Google/Apple Exposure Notification (GAEN) API to achieve decent device compatibility and operating efficiency. It utilizes Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) to detect close contact with other people and leverages GPS with fine-grained matching algorithms to verify user information. In addition, to enhance privacy protection, CoAvoid applies fuzzification and obfuscation measures to shelter sensitive data, making both servers and users agnostic to information of both low and high-risk populations. The evaluation demonstrates good efficacy and security of CoAvoid. Compared with four state-of-the-art contact tracing applications, CoAvoid can reduce the size of upload data by at least 90% and reduce the verification time by 92%. More importantly, CoAvoid can preserve user privacy and resist replay and wormhole attacks in all analysis scenarios. IEEE

4.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 54(5):907-919, 2022.
Article in Chinese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2073768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Jingfang Granules have been recommended for the prevention and treatment of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Through chemical analysis and bioactivity evaluation, this study aims to elucidate the potential effective components of Jingfang Granules. METHODS: The inhibitory acti-vities of Jingfang Granules extract against 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL(pro)), papain like protease (PL(pro)), spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) and human cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were evaluated using enzyme assay. The antitussive effects were evaluated using the classical ammonia-induced cough model. The chemical constituents of Jingfang Granules were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The 3CL(pro) and PL(pro) inhibitory activities of the major compounds were determined by enzyme assay, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. RESULTS: Jingfang Granules exhibited 3CL(pro) and PL(pro) inhibitory activities, as well as COX-2 inhibitory and antitussive activities. By investigating the MS/MS behaviors of reference standards, a total of fifty-six compounds were characterized in Jingfang Granules. Sixteen of them were unambiguously identified by comparing with reference standards. The contents of the 16 major compounds were also determined, and their total contents were 2 498.8 μg/g. Naringin, nodakenin and neohesperidin were three dominating compounds in Jingfang Granules, and their contents were 688.8, 596.4 and 578.7 μg/g, respectively. In addition, neohesperidin and naringin exhibited PL(pro) inhibitory activities, and the inhibition rates at 8 μmol/L were 53.5% and 46.1%, respectively. Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin showed significant inhibitory activities against 3CL(pro) and PL(pro), and the inhibitory rates at 8 μmol/L were 76.8% and 78.2%, respectively. Molecular docking indicated that hydrogen bonds could be formed between prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and amino acid residues H163, E166, Q192, T190 of 3CL(pro) (binding energy, -7.7 kcal/mol) and K157, D164, R166, E167, T301 of PL(pro)(-7.3 kcal/mol), respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated amino acid residue K157 was a key active site for the interaction between prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and PL(pro). CONCLUSION: Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin, neohesperidin, and naringin as the major compounds from Jingfang Granules could inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus proteases 3CL(pro) and PL(pro). The results are valuable for rational clinical use of Jingfang Granules.

5.
23rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, AIED 2022 ; 13356 LNCS:453-457, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013941

ABSTRACT

Students’ conversations in academic settings evolve over time and can be affected by events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we employ a Contextualized Topic Modeling technique to detect coherent topics from students’ posts in online discussion forums. We construct topic chains by connecting semantically similar topics across months using Word Mover’s Distance. Consistent academic discourse and contemporary events such as the COVID-19 outbreak and the Black Lives Matter movement were found among prominent topics. In later months, new themes around students’ lived experiences emerged and evolved into discussions reflecting the shift in educational experiences. Results revealed a significant increase in more general topics after the onset of pandemic. Our proposed framework can also be applied to other contexts investigating temporal topic trends in large-scale text data. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

6.
2022 3rd International Conference on Computer Information and Big Data Applications, CIBDA 2022 ; : 177-183, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012894

ABSTRACT

With the continuous innovation of Internet technology, the explosive growth of information has become one of its most obvious characteristics, and how to break through the problem of data storage has become an urgent challenge to be solved. The knowledge graph proposed by Google can intuitively describe the relationship between entities in the objective world in the form of a graph, which is of great help in solving this problem. Firstly, the basic concept of knowledge graph is expounded, and include the key steps of knowledge extraction, knowledge fusion, knowledge storage, etc. Taking the relationship between confirmed cases of the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in a certain city over the recent period as an example, a knowledge graph of case relationship is constructed. The results indicated that the knowledge graph intuitively shows the transmission path of the epidemic, which can provide certain help for the effective prevention and control of the epidemic. © VDE VERLAG GMBH - Berlin - Offenbach.

7.
Cancer Research ; 82(12), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1986463

ABSTRACT

Background: HPV vaccination is highly effective at preventing several squamous cell carcinomas. However, the uptake of this vaccine remains sub-optimal in the US, with further exacerbation of this poor uptake during the pandemic. This study aims to describe changes and barriers to HPV vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic as observed by healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the state of Texas. Methods: Data for this study were derived from a statewide cross-sectional survey of HCPs in the state of Texas (n=1283). Survey instruments were developed at MD Anderson Cancer Center, and reviewed by its IRB. Survey frequencies were used to estimate for the proportional distribution of changes as observed by HCPs regarding HPV vaccination i) uptake ii) hesitancy and iii) refusal during the COVID-19 pandemic. HCPs who observed increases in vaccination hesitancy or refusal, were then asked for the reasons cited by their patients. Survey frequencies were then used to determine the proportional distribution of the reasons cited for HPV vaccination hesitancy and refusal during the pandemic. All statistical analysis were conducted using R version 3.5.2. Results: Overall, 730 HCPs responded to the study questions of interest. A predominant proportion of respondents were employed in group practice settings or university teaching/affiliated hospitals. About 20% of HCPs in Texas observed decreases in HPV vaccination uptake. Observed increments in HPV vaccination hesitancy and refusal were reported by 17.1% and 14.8% of HCPs, respectively. Among HCPs who observed increased hesitancy and refusal, difficulties in scheduling clinic visit during the pandemic and fear of contracting corona virus during the clinic visit were the most cited reasons. Discussion: Findings of the index study suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on HPV vaccination in Texas. Results identify perceived barriers to HPV vaccination unique to the pandemic. With the pandemic still ongoing, amid the emergence of novel strains with heightened virulence, despite the presence of highly effective FDA-approved vaccines, findings of this study provides useful insight for public health interventions, as well as to guide physician-patient interactions around HPV vaccination.

8.
Campbell Systematic Reviews ; 18(2):43, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1881396

ABSTRACT

Background More than half of the global population is not effectively covered by any type of social protection benefit and women's coverage lags behind. Most girls and boys living in low-resource settings have no effective social protection coverage. Interest in these essential programmes in low and middle-income settings is rising and in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic the value of social protection for all has been undoubtedly confirmed. However, evidence on whether the impact of different social protection programmes (social assistance, social insurance and social care services and labour market programmes) differs by gender has not been consistently analysed. Evidence is needed on the structural and contextual factors that determine differential impacts. Questions remain as to whether programme outcomes vary according to intervention implementation and design. Objectives This systematic review aims to collect, appraise, and synthesise the evidence from available systematic reviews on the differential gender impacts of social protection programmes in low and middle-income countries. It answers the following questions: What is known from systematic reviews on the gender-differentiated impacts of social protection programmes in low and middle-income countries? What is known from systematic reviews about the factors that determine these gender-differentiated impacts? What is known from existing systematic reviews about design and implementation features of social protection programmes and their association with gender outcomes? 1.2.3. Search Methods We searched for published and grey literature from 19 bibliographic databases and libraries. The search techniques used were subject searching, reference list checking, citation searching and expert consultations. All searches were conducted between 10 February and 1 March 2021 to retrieve systematic reviews published within the last 10 years with no language restrictions. Selection Criteria We included systematic reviews that synthesised evidence from qualitative, quantitative or mixed-methods studies and analysed the outcomes of social protection programmes on women, men, girls, and boys with no age restrictions. The reviews included investigated one or more types of social protection programmes in low and middle-income countries. We included systematic reviews that investigated the effects of social protection interventions on any outcomes within any of the following six core outcome areas of gender equality: economic security and empowerment, health, education, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing, safety and protection and voice and agency. Data Collection and Analysis A total of 6265 records were identified. After removing duplicates, 5250 records were screened independently and simultaneously by two reviewers based on title and and 298 full texts were assessed for eligibility. Another 48 records, identified through the initial scoping exercise, consultations with experts and citation searching, were also screened. The review includes 70 high to moderate quality systematic reviews, representing a total of 3289 studies from 121 countries. We extracted data on the following areas of interest: population, intervention, methodology, quality appraisal, and findings for each research question. We also extracted the pooled effect sizes of gender equality outcomes of meta-analyses. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed, and framework synthesis was used as the synthesis method. To estimate the degree of overlap, we created citation matrices and calculated the corrected covered area. Main Results Most reviews examined more than one type of social protection programme. The majority investigated social assistance programmes (77%, N = 54), 40% (N = 28) examined labour market programmes, 11% (N = 8) focused on social insurance interventions and 9% (N = 6) analysed social care interventions. Health was the most researched (e.g., maternal health;70%, N = 49) outcome area, followed by economic security and empowerment (e.g., savings;39%, N = 27) and education (e.g., school enrolment and attendance;24%, N = 17). Five key findings were consistent across intervention and outcomes areas: (1) Although pre-existing gender differences should be considered, social protection programmes tend to report higher impacts on women and girls in comparison to men and boys;(2) Women are more likely to save, invest and share the benefits of social protection but lack of family support is a key barrier to their participation and retention in programmes;(3) Social protection programmes with explicit objectives tend to demonstrate higher effects in comparison to social protection programmes without broad objectives;(4) While no reviews point to negative impacts of social protection programmes on women or men, adverse and unintended outcomes have been attributed to design and implementation features. However, there are no one-size-fits-all approaches to design and implementation of social protection programmes and these features need to be gender-responsive and adapted;and (5) Direct investment in individuals and families' needs to be accompanied by efforts to strengthen health, education, and child protection systems. Social assistance programmes may increase labour participation, savings, investments, the utilisation of health care services and contraception use among women, school enrolment among boys and girls and school attendance among girls. They reduce unintended pregnancies among young women, risky sexual behaviour, and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections among women. Social insurance programmes increase the utilisation of sexual, reproductive, and maternal health services, and knowledge of reproductive health;improve changes in attitudes towards family planning;increase rates of inclusive and early initiation of breastfeeding and decrease poor physical wellbeing among mothers. Labour market programmes increase labour participation among women receiving benefits, savings, ownership of assets, and earning capacity among young women. They improve knowledge and attitudes towards sexually transmitted infections, increase self-reported condom use among boys and girls, increase child nutrition and overall household dietary intake, improve subjective wellbeing among women. Evidence on the impact of social care programmes on gender equality outcomes is needed. Authors' Conclusions Although effectiveness gaps remain, current programmatic interests are not matched by a rigorous evidence base demonstrating how to appropriately design and implement social protection interventions. Advancing current knowledge of gender-responsive social protection entails moving beyond effectiveness studies to test packages or combinations of design and implementation features that determine the impact of these interventions on gender equality. Systematic reviews investigating the impact of social care programmes, old age pensions and parental leave on gender equality outcomes in low and middle-income settings are needed. Voice and agency and mental health and psychosocial wellbeing remain under-researched gender equality outcome areas.

9.
Chinese General Practice ; 25(14):1741-1748, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863322

ABSTRACT

Background: Based on the current prevalence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), early diagnosis, isolation, and treatment are important methods to prevent and control infectious diseases. The establishment of convenient and efficient immunochromatographic detection techniques is essential for the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic. Objective: To establish a method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 anti-N protein IgG antibody by immun of luorescence chromatography method based on quantum dots labeling technology in August, 2020. In order to determine whether the detected persons had been infected with COVID-19 or been injected with SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine. Methods The prepared rat anti-human secondary antibody and anti-N protein antibody were immobilized on a Nitrocellulose (NC) membrane as detection line (T) and quality control line (C), respectively. Then the SARS-CoV-2 N protein labeled by quantum dots was evenly sprayed on glass fiber, which was assembled, cut and packaged into test strips after drying. The test strips were used to detect the clinical serum of 35 COVID-19 patients and 50 healthy individuals, the results of the initial screening of the ELISA kit were used as a control to calculate the detection specificity and sensitivity of quantum dots fluorescence immunochromatography. The sensitivity of the test strip was detected by using the N protein antibody standard. Results The specificity and sensitivity of the strip were 100.00%, 94.29%, and the susceptibility was 8.53-17.06 ng/ml antibody concentration. Conclusion: The detection of anti-N protein IgG antibody in serum by quantum dots labeling is simple, fast, with strong sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2022 by the Chinese General Practice.

10.
Aera Open ; 8:26, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1770160

ABSTRACT

Colleges and universities have increasingly worried in recent decades about college students' well-being, with the COVID-19 pandemic aggravating these concerns. Our study examines changes to undergraduate emotional sentiments and psychological well-being from before to after the onset of the pandemic. In addition, we explore whether certain risk factors (i.e., prior mental health impairments, trait emotional stability) and protective factors (i.e., subjective socioeconomic status, parental education, household resources) predicted students' emotions and their intraindividual changes due to the pandemic onset. We compared experience sampling method data from 120 students from before and after the pandemic onset, examining intraindividual trajectories. There was only little change in students' emotions. Prior mental health impairment and trait emotional stability predicted students' emotions, averaged across time points, but not emotion changes. Few associations with emotions were found for subjective socioeconomic status and parental education, but study-related household resources predicted levels and changes in emotions.

11.
30th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, CIKM 2021 ; : 4880-4881, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1528569

ABSTRACT

Web search is one of the most ubiquitous online activities and often used as a starting point to learn, i. e., to acquire or extend one's knowledge about certain topics or procedures. When learning by searching the Web, individuals are confronted with an unprecedented amount of information in various forms and varying quality. Thus, successful learning on the Web requires high degrees of self-regulation and should be supported by the adequate design of search, recommendation, and training tools. This creates a highly interdisciplinary research area at the intersection of information retrieval, human-computer interaction, psychology, and educational sciences. Search as Learning (SAL) research examines the relationships between querying, navigation, media consumption behavior, and the learning outcomes during Web search, how they can be measured, predicted, and supported. Building on the growing SAL research community, IWILDS provides an interdisciplinary forum in a workshop that includes keynotes, paper presentations, and discussion. This year, IWILDS'21 specifically invites submissions focussing on challenges caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, investigating, for instance, health-related information acquisition on the Web and the pandemic-induced digitalization of formal learning. © 2021 Owner/Author.

12.
27th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD 2021 ; : 4104-4105, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1430235

ABSTRACT

The 4th epiDAMIK@SIGKDD workshop is a forum to discuss new insights into how data mining can play a bigger role in epidemiology and public health research. While the integration of data science methods into epidemiology has significant potential, it remains under studied. We aim to raise the profile of this emerging research area of data-driven and computational epidemiology, and create a venue for presenting state-of-the-art and in-progress results-in particular, results that would otherwise be difficult to present at a major data mining conference, including lessons learnt in the 'trenches'. The current COVID-19 pandemic has only showcased the urgency and importance of this area. Our target audience consists of data mining and machine learning researchers from both academia and industry who are interested in epidemiological and public-health applications of their work, and practitioners from the areas of mathematical epidemiology and public health. © 2021 Owner/Author.

14.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental ; 298, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1330633

ABSTRACT

With the worldwide pandemic of COVID-19, a tremendous amount of face masks have been consumed and discarded, resulting in serious environment pollution and infectious hazards. Herein a green and high-yield route has been developed to recycle waste masks (WMs) into CNTs/Ni hybrids via catalytic carbonization. Our results exhibited that the yield of carbon was as high as 64.4 g/100 g WMs. Furthermore, the as-fabricated CNTs/Ni hybrids were applied for microwave absorption, which displayed superior performances, including a strong reflection loss of -56.3 dB and an absorption bandwidth of 4.3 GHz with absorber thickness of only 2.0 mm. The mechanism was mainly ascribed to the favorable synergistic effects of CNTs and Ni on conduction and magnetic losses, dipolar polarization, interfacial polarization and impedance matching. Thus, this work provides an environmentally friendly, scalable and cost-effective strategy for recycling waste masks into high-valuable carbon nanomaterials, and exploits their potential application for microwave absorption. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.

15.
Acta Medica Mediterranea ; 37(4):1969-1978, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1326085

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The present study aims to explore the potential antiviral and lung or kidney tissue-protecting mechanisms of Fangyi Qingfei Decoction (FYQFD) on COVID-19 based on network pharmacology and molecular docking method. Materials and methods: Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) was used to search the compounds and targets of FYQFD, and GeneCards database was used to search the pathological targets of acute lung or kidney injury;The intersection method was used to obtain the targets related to the therapeutic effect of FYQFD. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by Search Tool For Recurring Instances of Neighbouring Genes (STRING) database and the hub target genes were identified by calculating node degree. Molecular docking was performed based on the hub compounds and hub target genes and the SARS-CoV-2 3CL hydrolase (SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro) and angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), respectively. Results: Total 159 potential active components, corresponding to 203 targets associated lung and kidney injury, were screened from FYQFD. GO function enrichment analysis revealed 123 biological process (BP) items (P < 0.05), 75 signal pathways (P < 0.05) were screened out after KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Furthermore, molecular docking indicated that main active compounds kaempferol, quercetin, wogonin, luteolin and acacetin in FYQFD exhibited higher affinity among AKT1, ALB, IL6, TP53, VEGFA, TNF, JUN, CASP3, EGFR, MAPK1 with SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and ACE2. Conclusion: By this procedure, the present study enhanced the understanding of the potential therapeutic mechanism of FYQFD, that the partial compounds in FYQFD can bind with SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and ACE2, and acting on many targets to regulate multiple signaling pathways, thus exerting the therapeutic effect on COVID-19.

16.
International Medicine ; 3(3):101-104, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1325940

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 vaccines are usually safe, effective, and well-tolerated by the general population. After the COVID-19 vaccines are widely used, rare and potentially severe vaccine complications become more manifest. Here reported is a case of rapid and severe worsening of diabetes after the Johnson & Johnson's Janssen COVID-19 vaccine (J&J COVID vaccine) administration. A 55-year-old male heart transplant recipient with metformin (500 mg twice daily)-controlled mild diabetes started to have flu-like symptoms a few days after receiving the J&J COVID vaccine. His fasting glucose levels had ranged between 130-150 mg/dL (normal 65-99) before he received the J&J COVID vaccine. The fasting glucose rose to ~200 mg/dL one day after the vaccine administration and gradually rose to ~400 mg/dL over the next few weeks. He presented to the endocrine clinic urgently. Point-of-care fasting glucose was 382 mg/dL and A1c 13.0 (which was 6.7 six months before). Bicarbonate and anion gap were normal, insulin and C-peptide in the low normal range, and β cell autoantibodies negative. Multi-dosing insulin treatment was immediately started and the doses titrated up to insulin glargine 30 units daily and insulin lispro 10 units before each meal. He improved clinically with well-controlled glycemia. The rapid and severe worsening of his diabetes after the vaccination suggests that the J&J COVID vaccine could severely deteriorate diabetes control in some patient populations.

17.
Proc. ACM SIGSPATIAL Int. Workshop Adv. Resilient Intell. Cities, ARIC ; : 29-38, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-972263

ABSTRACT

Agent-based models (ABM) play a prominent role in guiding critical decision-making and supporting the development of effective policies for better urban resilience and response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, many ABMs lack realistic representations of human mobility, a key process that leads to physical interaction and subsequent spread of disease. Therefore, we propose the application of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), a topic modeling technique, to foot-traffic data to develop a realistic model of human mobility in an ABM that simulates the spread of COVID-19. In our novel approach, LDA treats POIs as "words"and agent home census block groups (CBGs) as "documents"to extract "topics"of POIs that frequently appear together in CBG visits. These topics allow us to simulate agent mobility based on the LDA topic distribution of their home CBG. We compare the LDA based mobility model with competitor approaches including a naive mobility model that assumes visits to POIs are random. We find that the naive mobility model is unable to facilitate the spread of COVID-19 at all. Using the LDA informed mobility model, we simulate the spread of COVID-19 and test the effect of changes to the number of topics, various parameters, and public health interventions. By examining the simulated number of cases over time, we find that the number of topics does indeed impact disease spread dynamics, but only in terms of the outbreak's timing. Further analysis of simulation results is needed to better understand the impact of topics on simulated COVID-19 spread. This study contributes to strengthening human mobility representations in ABMs of disease spread. © 2020 ACM.

18.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(3): 325-329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To document the trend in a quality of life indicator for the older Hong Kong population as an assessment of the impact of age friendly city policies, political conflicts and the covid-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Random telephone survey and collection of government data over four years (2017-2020). SETTING: Community living older people. PARTICIPANTS: People aged 50 years and over. MEASUREMENTS: The Hong Kong Quality of Life Index covering four domains of in income security, health status, capability and enabling environment. RESULTS: From 2017-9, improvements were seen in various domains in parallel with the adoption of the World Health Organization's Age Friendly City concept by government policy together with a territory wide initiative supported by a major philanthropic organization. However scores of all domains dropped markedly as a result of political conflicts as well as the onset of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The documentation of the trend in HKEQOL shows that while it may be used as a macro indicator that is able to reflect policies affecting the well-being of older people, it is also able to reflect the impact of societal unrest and pandemics, and that the latter may override the effect of existing ageing policies. It also follows that during social unrest and pandemics, specific policies targeting older people may be needed to maintain well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Healthy Aging/psychology , Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Policy , Politics , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone
20.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(9): 673-676, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729667
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