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1.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Huashi Baidu Granules (HSBD) in treating patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant. METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted during COVID-19 Omicron epidemic in the Mobile Cabin Hospital of Shanghai New International Expo Center from April 1st to May 23rd, 2022. All COVID-19 patients with asymptomatic or mild infection were assigned to the treatment group (HSBD users) and the control group (non-HSBD users). After propensity score matching in a 1:1 ratio, 496 HSBD users of treatment group were matched by propensity score to 496 non-HSBD users. Patients in the treatment group were administrated HSBD (5 g/bag) orally for 1 bag twice a day for 7 consecutive days. Patients in the control group received standard care and routine treatment. The primary outcomes were the negative conversion time of nucleic acid and negative conversion rate at day 7. Secondary outcomes included the hospitalized days, the time of the first nucleic acid negative conversion, and new-onset symptoms in asymptomatic patients. Adverse events (AEs) that occurred during the study were recorded. Further subgroup analysis was conducted in vaccinated (378 HSBD users and 390 non-HSBD users) and unvaccinated patients (118 HSBD users and 106 non-HSBD users). RESULTS: The median negative conversion time of nucleic acid in the treatment group was significantly shortened than the control group [3 days (IQR: 2-5 days) vs. 5 days (IQR: 4-6 days); P<0.01]. The negative conversion rate of nucleic acid in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group at day 7 (91.73% vs. 86.90%, P=0.014). Compared with the control group, the hospitalized days in the treatment group were significantly reduced [10 days (IQR: 8-11 days) vs. 11 days (IQR: 10.25-12 days); P<0.01]. The time of the first nucleic acid negative conversion had significant differences between the treatment and control groups [3 days (IQR: 2-4 days) vs. 5 days (IQR: 4-6 days); P<0.01]. The incidence of new-onset symptoms including cough, pharyngalgia, expectoration and fever in the treatment group were lower than the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In the vaccinated patients, the median negative conversion time and hospitalized days were significantly shorter than the control group after HSDB treatment [3 days (IQR: 2-5 days) vs. 5 days (IQR: 4-6 days), P<0.01; 10 days (IQR: 8-11 days) vs. 11 days (IQR: 10-12 days), P<0.01]. In the unvaccinated patients, HSBD treatment efficiently shorten the median negative conversion time and hospitalized days [4 days (IQR: 2-6 days) vs. 5 days (IQR: 4-7 days), P<0.01; 10.5 days (IQR: 8.75-11 days) vs. 11.0 days (IQR: 10.75-13 days); P<0.01]. No serious AEs were reported during the study. CONCLUSION: HSBD treatment significantly shortened the negative conversion time of nuclear acid, the length of hospitalization, and the time of the first nucleic acid negative conversion in patients infected with SARS-COV-2 Omicron variant (Trial registry No. ChiCTR2200060472).

2.
Respirol Case Rep ; 11(6): e01165, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237074

ABSTRACT

Amiodarone is a commonly used antiarrhythmic agent but exhibits potential pulmonary toxicity. In this case series, we describe the clinical, radiographic, and histologic manifestations of three patients who developed interstitial lung disease (ILD) following amiodarone treatment for variable lengths of time with different dosages. The presentations on computed tomographic images and in pulmonary pathology differed among the three patients. All three had immediate discontinuation of amiodarone and received treatment with systemic corticosteroids. One patient eventually died from ventilator-associated pneumonia after an initial improvement. The other two patients recovered well but later experienced ILD recurrence following brief re-exposure to amiodarone. Through this case series, we aim to demonstrate the variable features of amiodarone-related ILD, and highlight the importance of timely amiodarone cessation and avoiding re-exposure to prevent the progression and recurrence of ILD.

3.
J Environ Manage ; 343: 118252, 2023 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328110

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the PM2.5 variations in different periods of COVID-19 control measures in Northern Taiwan from Quarter 1 (Q1) 2020 to Quarter 2 (Q2) 2021. PM2.5 sources were classified based on long-range transport (LRT) or local pollution (LP) in three study periods: one China lockdown (P1), and two restrictions in Taiwan (P2 and P3). During P1 the average PM2.5 concentrations from LRT (LRT-PM2.5-P1) were higher at Fuguei background station by 27.9% and in the range of 4.9-24.3% at other inland stations compared to before P1. The PM2.5 from LRT/LP mix or pure LP (Mix/LP-PM2.5-P1) was also higher by 14.2-39.9%. This increase was due to higher secondary particle formation represented by the increase in secondary ions (SI) and organic matter in PM2.5-P1 with the largest proportion of 42.17% in PM2.5 from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. A similar increasing trend of Mix/LP-PM2.5 was found in P2 when China was still locked down and Taiwan was under an early control period but the rapidly increasing infected cases were confirmed. The shift of transportation patterns from public to private to avoid virus infection explicated the high correlation of the increasing infected cases with the increasing PM2.5. In contrast, the decreasing trend of LP-PM2.5-P3 was observed in P3 with the PM2.5 biases of ∼45% at all the stations when China was not locked down but Taiwan implemented a semi-lockdown. The contribution of gasoline vehicle sources in PM2.5 was reduced from 20.3% before P3 to 10% in P3 by chemical signatures and source identification using PMF implying the strong impact of strict control measures on vehicle emissions. In summary, PM2.5 concentrations in Northern Taiwan were either increased (P1 and P2) or decreased (P3) during the COVID-19 pandemic depending on control measures, source patterns and meteorological conditions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Taiwan/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Environmental Monitoring
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1178041, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316346

ABSTRACT

Background: Bacterial coinfections have been widely recognized in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, bacterial coinfections in hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have not been sufficiently researched. This study aimed to determine the clinical presentations and risk factors for bacterial coinfections of pediatric inpatients during the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 variant pandemic. Methods: This retrospective, observational study included patients younger than 18 years of age who were hospitalized for COVID-19 confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antigen rapid tests during the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 variant pandemic. Data and outcomes of these patients with or without bacterial coinfections were compared. Results: During this study period, 161 children with confirmed COVID-19 were hospitalized. Twenty-four had bacterial coinfections. The most frequently reported concurrent diagnosis was bacterial enteritis, followed by lower respiratory tract infections. Children with bacterial coinfections had higher white blood cell (WBC) counts and PCR cycle threshold values. The bacterial coinfection group comprised a relatively greater proportion of patients who required high-flow nasal cannula oxygen and remdesivir. The length of stay in the hospital and that in the intensive care unit were longer for children with COVID-19 with bacterial coinfections. Mortality was not observed in either group. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, and comorbidity with neurologic illnesses were risk factors for bacterial coinfections with COVID-19. Conclusion: This study provides clinicians with reference points for the detection of COVID-19 in children and its possible association with bacterial infections. Children with COVID-19 and neurologic diseases who present with abdominal pain or diarrhea are at risk of bacterial coinfections. Prolonged fever duration and higher PCR test cycle threshold values, WBC levels, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels may indicate bacterial coinfections in children with COVID-19.

5.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) represent a major cause of clinical visits worldwide. Viral epidemiology of RTIs in adults has been less studied compared to children. FilmArray respiratory panel (FA-RP), a multiplex, real time polymerase chain reaction method can simultaneously detect the nucleic acids of multiple pathogens. The purpose of this study is to analyze the epidemiology and clinical presentations of an RTI cohort. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at China Medical University Hospital (CMUH) and China Medical University Children's Hospital (CMUCH), from January 2020 to June 2020. The FA-RP results were collected and analyzed according to upper versus lower RTIs. RESULTS: Among 253 respiratory samples tested, 135 (53.4%) were from adults and 118 (46.6%) from children. A total positive rate of 33.9% (86/253) was found, with 21.48% (29/135) in adults and 48.31% (57/118) in children. Human rhinovirus/Enterovirus (HRV/EV) was detected in most of the age groups and was more common in URIs. HRV/EV was found as a frequent co-detection virus. Among children, HRV/EV was the most detected pathogen of URIs, while the most predominant pathogen in LRIs was Mycoplasma pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: FA-RP has the potential to improve the detection rate of respiratory pathogens. The positive rate of FA-RP was higher in children compared to adults, which likely corresponds to the higher incidence of viral RTIs in children. Different pathogens may lead to different types of respiratory infections.

6.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 38(4): 584-589, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Dedicated studies evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on outcomes of pancreatobiliary IgG4 related disease (IgG4-RD) patients are scarce. Whether COVID-19 infection or vaccination would trigger IgG4-RD exacerbation remains unknown. METHODS: Pancreatobiliary IgG4-RD patients ≥ 18 years old with active follow-up since January 2020 from nine referral centers in Asia, Europe, and North America were included in this multicenter retrospective study. Outcome measures include incidence and severity of COVID-19 infection, IgG4-RD disease activity and treatment status, interruption of indicated IgG4-RD treatment. Prospective data on COVID-19 vaccination status and new COVID-19 infection during the Omicron outbreak were also retrieved in the Hong Kong cohort. RESULTS: Of the 124 pancreatobiliary IgG4-RD patients, 25.0% had active IgG4-RD, 71.0% were on immunosuppressive therapies and 80.6% had ≥ 1 risk factor for severe COVID. In 2020 (pre-vaccination period), two patients (1.6%) had COVID-19 infection (one requiring ICU admission), and 7.2% of patients had interruptions in indicated immunosuppressive treatment for IgG4-RD. Despite a high vaccination rate (85.0%), COVID-19 infection rate has increased to 20.0% during Omicron outbreak in the Hong Kong cohort. A trend towards higher COVID-19 infection rate was noted in the non-fully vaccinated/unvaccinated group (17.6% vs 33.3%, P = 0.376). No IgG4-RD exacerbation following COVID-19 vaccination or infection was observed. CONCLUSION: While a low COVID-19 infection rate with no mortality was observed in pancreatobiliary IgG4-RD patients in the pre-vaccination period of COVID-19, infection rate has increased during the Omicron outbreak despite a high vaccination rate. No IgG4-RD exacerbation after COVID-19 infection or vaccination was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease , Humans , Adolescent , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Prospective Studies , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccination , Hong Kong/epidemiology
7.
Journal of Research in Education Sciences ; 66(4):1-33, 2021.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2264895

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose of Research Adolescents use their smartphones for various purposes, for example, following distance/online learning, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, staying in touch with friends, having fun using social media tools. According to the social ecological model, risk behaviors, like substance consumption, are regarded as behavior problems. Relatively, etiology is derived of youths' embeddedness surrounded by their social networks, mainly throughout sensitive development periods (Bishop et al., 2020). Given the prevalence of smartphone addiction among young students, previous studies have explored the relationships between smartphone addiction and students' learning and indicated there is negative outcomes of smartphone resulting from overuse of mobile phones, including poor sleep quality. However, there some antecedents of smartphone addiction which has not extendedly studied, for example, parenting style, thus, the present study aimed to explore the correlates between parenting styles, academic achievement and smartphone addiction. Parenting that reflects a combination of support and behavioral control has been linked to numerous indices of academic well-being and live functioning from early childhood through adolescence. In regarding the term helicopter parenting indicated that parents involve hovering behaviors and are potentially over-involved in the lives of their child or in their academic work (Padilla-Walker & Nelson, 2012). But empirical research has not adequately used these two construct from other controlling parenting practices to predict children's smartphone addiction, thus, the present study applied two types of helicopter parenting: live hovering and academic hovering of parenting for of emerging adults, to explain the prediction of children's smartphone addiction. According to Bronfenbrenner (1979) micro ecological system that discusses the association between person-process-content (PPC), who described "person-process-context model” (PPCM) that occurs variability in development procedure as considered in this paper as a functional context (mobile phone usage), person (parenting styles) and process (academic achievement). Not only has cultural ecology be likely to pursue its complications in issues originating from social and cultural topics, but intricate schools of understanding of culture-nature relationship have developed for certain risk behavior. For example, helicopter parenting is more obvious in Chinese families than Western ones, even though the parents want their children to grow up to be independent and think for themselves. Particularly, Chinese parents are more concerned about their children's schoolwork when they are teenagers, which leads to increased helicopter parenting problems, exacerbating issues such as lack of independence, lack of control, and not knowing how to self-manage smartphone use, which can in turn lead to smartphone addiction. If parents are in constant hovering of their children's lives or schoolwork, children develop dependent behaviors. Some studies have indicated that a child's dependent behaviors result in lower motivation to learn and reduced academic achievement. In line with this, drawn on PPCM to understanding the role of academic hovering and live hovering affect participants' smartphone addiction mediated by academic achievement, hypotheses are proposed as follows. Hypotheses (1) Live hovering has a negative effect on academic achievement. (2) Academic hovering has a negative effect on academic achievement. (3) Academic achievement has a negative effect on smartphone addiction. (4) Live hovering has a positive effect on smartphone addiction. (5) Academic hovering has a positive effect on smartphone addiction. Methodology Questionnaire was designed by adapting and translated from previous researched and gave to domain experts to ensure the content validity. Afterward, a purposive sampling was adapted in this study, a total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to 4 vocational senior high schools located in Taipei City. 354 of which were collected, resulting in a questionnaire collection rate of 88.5%. After 64 invalid questionnaires were excluded, 290 valid questionnaires remained, resulting in a valid questionnaire collection rate of 81.92%. Factor analysis was conducted on the valid questionnaires. Results First, helicopter parenting, live and academic hovering had a negative association with academic achievement, with an explanatory power of 20.8%. Second, academic achievement had a negative association with smartphone addiction, with an explanatory power of 38.6%. Third, helicopter parenting had a negative association with smartphone addiction. Fourth, academic hovering had a negative association with smartphone addiction mediated by academic achievement, with an explanatory power of 20.8%. The results of the study thus indicate that young people who are not independent in life or schoolwork tend to rely on their parents, are less able to control their smartphone use, and are more likely to develop smartphone addiction. By contrast, young people who are independent in life and schoolwork and do not need to rely on their parents have control over their smartphone use and are less likely to develop smartphone addiction. Conclusions and Recommendations The results of this study demonstrate that if vocational senior high school students are overly dependent on their parents in life or schoolwork, they may have lower academic achievement and therefore, they are not motivated to achieve strong academic results and will not restrain their desire to spend time on using smartphone, resulting in a tendency toward smartphone addiction. However, when vocational senior high school students do not have to rely on their parents to a great extent in life or schoolwork, they are able to act independently, attain high academic achievement, determine what they want to achieve, and arrange how they will accomplish their goals. Therefore, they have the ability to control the time they spend using their phones and will not develop smartphone addiction. This study suggests that parents should let their children learn to be independent and autonomous, which should help to effectively reduce the problem of smartphone addiction. Finally, conducting this study highlighted possibilities for future research. Some studies suggest that fathers and mothers do not necessarily share the same parenting style, and hence, it is suggested that in a questionnaire survey, the hovering styles of fathers and mothers could be differentiated and then analyzed through a differential analysis. In addition, some smartphone use can be designed with time of use to control using time (e.g., Chinese government limited the hours for children to use smartphone). However, how is the effect of the regulation to students' smartphone addiction should be further studied.Alternate : 隨著行動網路普及,人與人之間的通訊變得更加便利,也造成人們高度依賴手機。然而,手機使用失去控制已對健康造成嚴重危害,如成癮等。孩子的行為控制經常依賴於父母教養方式,尤其是華人父母在教養孩子方面與歐美國家的父母相比,會更加關注地自己的子女。這代表華人父母更關注於孩子的學業和生活,並形成更多按照父母親意志且欠缺獨立思考的媽寶,這將可能激起或停止孩子的手機成癮問題。本研究針對技術型高中學生進行問卷調查,有效問卷共290份,並對數據進行結構方程模式的驗證性因素分析。本研究採用生態系統理論,由AMOS 20建模,並從數據分析的結果進行分析。本研究發現:一、生活媽寶覺知與課業媽寶覺知對學業成就動機呈現負向影響;二、學業成就動機對手機成癮呈現負向影響;三、生活媽寶覺知與課業媽寶覺知對手機成癮呈現正向影響;四、生活媽寶覺知與課業媽寶覺知經由學業成就動機對手機成癮有正向的間接影響。研究結果證明,過分依賴父母的技術型高中學生有較低的學業成就動機,並無法控制手機的使用,因此造成手機成癮。換言之,父母應避免過多的日常生活與學業控制,以減少孩子手機使用的需求性。

8.
J Clin Med ; 12(6)2023 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263331

ABSTRACT

Door-to-balloon (DTB) time significantly affects the prognosis of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The effects of temporal differences in emergency department (ED) arrival time on DTB time and on different segments of DTB time remain inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study in a tertiary hospital between January 2013 and December 2021 and investigated the relationship between a patient's arrival time and both their DTB time and different segments of their DTB time. Of 732 STEMI patients, 327 arrived during the daytime (08:01-16:00), 268 during the evening (16:01-24:00), and 137 at night (00:01-08:00). Significantly higher odds of delay in DTB time were observed during the nighttime (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.50-5.51, p = 0.002) than during the daytime. This delay was mainly attributed to a delay in cardiac catheterization laboratory (cath lab) activation-to-arrival time (aOR: 6.25; 95% CI: 3.75-10.40, p < 0.001), particularly during the 00:00-04:00 time range. Age, sex, triage level, and whether patients arrived during the COVID-19 pandemic also had independent effects on different segments of DTB time. Further studies are required to investigate the root causes of delay in DTB time and to develop specific strategies for improvement.

9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(9): 2983-2995, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268637

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is considered to be the most effective countermeasure to prevent and combat the global health threats of COVID-19. People with obesity are at a greater risk of hospitalization, life-threatening illness, and adverse outcomes after having COVID-19. Therefore, a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine for obese individuals is urgently needed. In the study, the vaccine composed of the ISA 51 adjuvant and the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor-binding domain (RBD) in conjugation with the human IgG1 Fc fragment (named as ISA 51-adjuvanted RBD-Fc vaccine) was developed and inoculated in the regular chow diet (RCD) lean mice and the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The S protein-specific IgG titers were largely induced in an increasing manner along with three doses of ISA 51-adjuvanted RBD-Fc vaccine without causing any harmful side effect. In the HFD mice, the S protein-specific IgG titers can be quickly observed 2 weeks post the first inoculation. The antisera elicited by the ISA 51-adjuvanted RBD-Fc vaccine in the RCD and HFD mice exhibited potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing activities in the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) assays and showed similar specificity for recognizing the key residues in the RBD which were involved in interacting with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. The immune efficacy of the ISA 51-adjuvanted RBD-Fc vaccine in the HFD mice can be sustainably maintained with the PRNT50 values of 1.80-1.91×10-3 for at least 8 weeks post the third inoculation. Collectively, the RBD-Fc-based immunogen and the ISA 51-adjuvanted formulation can be developed as an effective COVID-19 vaccine for obese individuals. KEY POINTS: • The ISA 51-adjuvanted RBD-Fc vaccine can induce potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in the obese mouse • The antibodies elicited by the ISA 51-adjuvanted RBD-Fc vaccine can bind to the key RBD residues involved in interacting with ACE2 • The immune efficacy of the ISA 51-adjuvanted RBD-Fc vaccine can be sustainably maintained for at least 8 weeks post the third inoculation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Mice, Obese , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
arxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2303.09279v2

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 epidemic, video conferencing has evolved as a new paradigm of communication and teamwork. However, private and personal information can be easily leaked through cameras during video conferencing. This includes leakage of a person's appearance as well as the contents in the background. This paper proposes a novel way of using online low-resolution thermal images as conditions to guide the synthesis of RGB images, bringing a promising solution for real-time video conferencing when privacy leakage is a concern. SPADE-SR (Spatially-Adaptive De-normalization with Self Resampling), a variant of SPADE, is adopted to incorporate the spatial property of a thermal heatmap and the non-thermal property of a normal, privacy-free pre-recorded RGB image provided in a form of latent code. We create a PAIR-LRT-Human (LRT = Low-Resolution Thermal) dataset to validate our claims. The result enables a convenient way of video conferencing where users no longer need to groom themselves and tidy up backgrounds for a short meeting. Additionally, it allows a user to switch to a different appearance and background during a conference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 100, 2023 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The need to belong is a fundamental human desire that provides the basis for relationships and community; it provides a sense of security that enables growth and development. This sense of belonging is pivotal to new University students, indeed, without it, students are at greater risk of failing or withdrawing from their studies. Yet developing a sense of belonging within a new cohort is complex and multi-faceted and further complicated by a sudden shift away from in-person to online learning. Using the situated-learning framework, our study explores first year clinical health students' sense of belonging in the context of the rapid transition to online learning because of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We utilised a current mixed-method approach including a survey incorporating previously validated tools, demographic and open-ended qualitative questions. Data was also gathered from three focus groups: two dedicated student groups and one academic focus group. Qualitative data was subjected to thematic analysis whilst descriptive statistics were used to describe the quantitative data. RESULTS: 179 first year students complete the survey and four students, and five academics were involved in the focus groups. All participants were from clinical health science courses at an Australian university. Our qualitative results indicated a global theme of: Navigating belonging during the COVID-19 crisis: a shared responsibility; with four organising themes describing (1) dimensions of belonging, (2) individual experiences and challenges, (3) reconceptualising teaching and learning, and (4) relationships are central to belonging. CONCLUSION: While the rapid transition to online learning did not greatly impact knowledge acquisition of first-year students in this cohort, the lack of sense of belonging highlights the need for further research into development of this essential aspect of learning in the online domain. Although contextualised in the COVID-19 pandemic, it became clear that the findings will remain relevant beyond the current situation, as a student's need to belong will always be present in the face of challenges or change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Students
12.
Eur J Pediatr ; 182(3): 1155-1162, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174148

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to determine the ECG parameter change and the efficacy of ECG screening for cardiac adverse effect after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine in young population. In December 2021, in cooperation with the school vaccination system of Taipei City government, we performed a ECG screening study during the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccines. Serial comparisons of ECGs and questionnaire survey were performed before and after vaccine in four male-predominant senior high schools. Among 7934 eligible students, 4928 (62.1%) were included in the study. The male/female ratio was 4576/352. In total, 763 students (17.1%) had at least one cardiac symptom after the second vaccine dose, mostly chest pain and palpitations. The depolarization and repolarization parameters (QRS duration and QT interval) decreased significantly after the vaccine with increasing heart rate. Abnormal ECGs were obtained in 51 (1.0%) of the students, of which 1 was diagnosed with mild myocarditis and another 4 were judged to have significant arrhythmia. None of the patients needed to be admitted to hospital and all of these symptoms improved spontaneously. Using these five students as a positive outcome, the sensitivity and specificity of this screening method were 100% and 99.1%, respectively.  Conclusion: Cardiac symptoms are common after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine, but the incidences of significant arrhythmias and myocarditis are only 0.1%. The serial ECG screening method has high sensitivity and specificity for significant cardiac adverse effect but cost effect needs further discussed. What is Known: • The incidence of cardiac adverse effects was reported to be as high as 1.5 per 10 000 persons after the second dose BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine in the young male population based on the reporting system. What is New: • Through this mass ECG screening study after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine we found: (1) The depolarization and repolarization parameters (QRS duration and QT interval) decreased significantly after the vaccine with increasing heart rate; (2) the incidence of post-vaccine myocarditis and significant arrhythmia are 0.02% and 0.08%; (3) The serial ECG screening method has high sensitivity and specificity for significant cardiac adverse effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Electrocardiography , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
EMBO Rep ; 24(3): e55286, 2023 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204063

ABSTRACT

An increasing amount of evidence emphasizes the role of metabolic reprogramming in immune cells to fight infections. However, little is known about the regulation of metabolite transporters that facilitate and support metabolic demands. In this study, we found that the expression of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3, encoded by solute carrier family 29 member 3, Slc29a3) is part of the innate immune response, which is rapidly upregulated upon pathogen invasion. The transcription of Slc29a3 is directly regulated by type I interferon-induced signaling, demonstrating that this metabolite transporter is an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG). Suprisingly, we unveil that several viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, require ENT3 to facilitate their entry into the cytoplasm. The removal or suppression of Slc29a3 expression is sufficient to significantly decrease viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Our study reveals that ENT3 is a pro-viral ISG co-opted by some viruses to gain a survival advantage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Interferons/metabolism , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Immunity, Innate , Genome, Viral , Nucleoside Transport Proteins/genetics , Nucleoside Transport Proteins/metabolism
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1023797, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199497

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to provide a basis for epidemic prevention and control measures as well as the management of re-positive personnel by analyzing and summarizing the characteristics of re-positive patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant infections discharged from a hospital in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in 2021. Methods: This case-control study included a total of 45 patients with Delta variant infections diagnosed in the Fourth People's Hospital of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region between October 17 and November 28, 2021. Based on the nucleic acid test results post-discharge, the patients were dichotomized into re-positive and non-re-positive groups. Based on the time of the first re-positive test, the re-positive group was further divided into <7 and ≥7 days groups to compare their clinical characteristics and explore the possible influencing factors of this re-positivity. Results: Of the 45 total patients, 16 were re-positive (re-positivity rate: 35.6%), including four patients who were re-positive after 2 weeks (re-positivity rate: 8.8%). The median time of the first re-positive after discharge was 7 days (IQR: 14-3). The re-positive group was younger than the non-re-positive group (35 vs. 53, P < 0.05), had a higher proportion of patients who were not receiving antiviral therapy (56.2 vs. 17.2%, P < 0.05). The median CT value of nucleic acid in the re-positive group was considerably greater than that at admission (36.7 vs. 22.6 P < 0.05). The findings demonstrated that neutralizing antibody treatment significantly raised the average IgG antibody level in patients, particularly in those who had not received COVID-19 vaccine (P < 0.05). The median lowest nucleic acid CT value of the ≥7 days group during the re-positive period and the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody level at discharge were lower than those in the <7 days group (P < 0.05). When compared to the non-positive group, patients in the ≥7 days group had a higher median virus nucleic acid CT value (27.1 vs. 19.2, P < 0.05) and absolute number of lymphocytes at admission (1,360 vs. 952, P < 0.05), and a lower IgG antibody level at discharge (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, this study found that: (1) The re-positivity rate of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infection in this group was 35.6%, while the re-positivity rate was the same as that of the original strain 2 weeks after discharge (8.0%). (2) Young people, patients who did not use antiviral therapy or had low IgG antibody levels at discharge were more likely to have re-positive. And the CT value of nucleic acid at the time of initial infection was higher in re-positive group. We speculated that the higher the CT value of nucleic acid at the time of initial infection, the longer the intermittent shedding time of the virus. (3) Re-positive patients were asymptomatic. The median CT value of nucleic acid was > 35 at the re-positive time, and the close contacts were not detected as positive. The overall transmission risk of re-positive patients is low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Aftercare , COVID-19 Vaccines , Patient Discharge , Antiviral Agents , Immunoglobulin G
15.
Cancer Med ; 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157715

ABSTRACT

The mRNA vaccine has provided a promising approach for cancer immunotherapies. However, only a few mRNA vaccines have been developed against colon adenocarcinoma (COAD). Screening potential targets for mRNA vaccines from numerous candidates is a substantial challenge. Considering the tumor heterogeneity, only a subset of patients might respond to vaccinations. This study was conducted to identify potential candidates for mRNA vaccines, and distinguish appropriate subgroups of COAD patients for vaccination. A total of five tumor antigens with prognostic values were identified, including IGF2BP3, DPCR1, HOXD10, TRIM7, and ZIC5. The COAD patients were stratified into five immune subtypes (IS1-IS5), according to consensus clustering analysis. Higher tumor mutation burden (TMB) was observed in IS1 and IS5 subtypes. The IS1 and IS5 subtypes have shown the baseline of immune-hot tumor microenvironment, while other subtypes displayed immune desert phenotype. Distinct expressions of immune checkpoints (ICPs)-related genes and immunogenic cell death (ICD) modulators were observed among five immune subtypes. Finally, the immune landscape was conducted to narrow the immune components for better personalized mRNA-based vaccination. The IFIT3, PARP9, TAP1, STAT1, and OAS2 were confirmed as hub genes, and COAD patients with higher expressions of these genes might be more appropriate for mRNA vaccination. In conclusion, the IGF2BP3, DPCR1, HOXD10, TRIM7, and ZIC5 were identified as potential candidates for developing mRNA vaccines against COAD, and patients in IS1 and IS5 subtypes might respond better to mRNA vaccination.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123707

ABSTRACT

To explore the mechanistic origin that determines the binding affinity of SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD) to human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), we constructed the homology models of RBD-ACE2 complexes of four Omicron subvariants (BA.1, BA.2, BA.3 and BA.4/5), and compared them with wild type complex (RBDWT-ACE2) in terms of various structural dynamic properties by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding free energy (BFE) calculations. The results of MD simulations suggest that the RBDs of all the Omicron subvariants (RBDOMIs) feature increased global structural fluctuations when compared with RBDWT. Detailed comparison of BFE components reveals that the enhanced electrostatic attractive interactions are the main determinant of the higher ACE2-binding affinity of RBDOMIs than RBDWT, while the weakened electrostatic attractive interactions determine RBD of BA.4/5 subvariant (RBDBA.4/5) lowest ACE2-binding affinity among all Omicron subvariants. The per-residue BFE decompositions and the hydrogen bond (HB) networks analyses indicate that the enhanced electrostatic attractive interactions are mainly through gain/loss of the positively/negatively charged residues, and the formation or destruction of the interfacial HBs and salt bridges can also largely affect the ACE2-binding affinity of RBD. It is worth pointing out that since Q493R plays the most important positive contribution in enhancing binding affinity, the absence of this mutation in RBDBA.4/5 results in a significantly weaker binding affinity to ACE2 than other Omicron subvariants. Our results provide insight into the role of electrostatic interactions in determining of the binding affinity of SARS-CoV-2 RBD to human ACE2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19 , Mutation , Protein Binding , Static Electricity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
18.
Indian J Dermatol ; 67(4): 477, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118315

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacted medical education worldwide. Online lecture is increasingly prevalent in higher education, but students' completion rate is quite low. Aims: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the student response system (SRS) in the online dermatologic video curriculum on medical students. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 176 undergraduate fourth-year medical students. The online video lecture was integrated with SRS. Results: A total of 173 students completed the pre-test, and the attendance rate (pre-test/total) was 98.3%. A total of 142 students completed the post-test, and the completion rate (post-test/pre-test) was 82.8%. The post-test score (83.69 ± 4.34) was found to be significantly higher than that of the pre-test (62.69 ± 6.08, P =0.0002). A total of 138 students completed the questionnaire, and 92% of students opined that SRS was easy to operate. 86% of students agreed with the fact that the use of SRS could increase their learning performance by interacting with teachers. In the open-ended question, students stated that SRS offered opportunities for student-faculty interaction, allowed them to get immediate feedback, and promote active participation. Conclusions: These results highlight that the integration of SRS in the online video curriculum increases students' completion rates and learning outcomes. Moreover, the SRS is easy to operate for the students and enhances student-faculty interaction. The SRS may be adopted in online learning during this challenging time.

19.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604958, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065659

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to assess the trade-offs between vulnerability and efficiency attributes of contact tracing programmes based on preferences of COVID-19 contact tracing practitioners, researchers and other relevant stakeholders at the global level. Methods: We conducted an online discrete choice experiment (DCE). Respondents were recruited globally to explore preferences according to country income level and the prevailing epidemiology of COVID-19 in the local setting. The DCE attributes represented efficiency (timeliness, completeness, number of contacts), vulnerability (vulnerable population), cooperation and privacy. A mixed-logit model and latent class analysis were used. Results: The number of respondents was 181. Timeliness was the most important attribute regardless of country income level and COVID-19 epidemiological condition. Vulnerability of contacts was the second most important attribute for low-to-lower-middle-income countries and third for upper-middle-to-high income countries. When normalised against conditional relative importance of timeliness, conditional relative importance of vulnerability ranged from 0.38 to 0.42. Conclusion: Vulnerability and efficiency criteria were both considered to be important attributes of contact tracing programmes. However, the relative values placed on these criteria varied significantly between epidemiological and economic context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Choice Behavior , Humans , Logistic Models , Patient Preference , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Nurs Manag ; 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052809

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to investigate scheduling in COVID-19-designated hospitals, including working hours, rest days, adverse nursing outcomes and their relationship. BACKGROUND: Hospitals are at the forefront of COVID-19 prevention and control, and nurses are the main force on the frontline of the epidemic. Nursing shift is one of the most relevant and pressing issues for frontline nurses. However, there is a lack of national, large-sample surveys on scheduling and adverse nursing outcomes in COVID-19-designated hospitals. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional online survey, we used nurse-reported data to measure the characteristics of the work setting, samples and work schedule. A descriptive analysis was performed to assess the shift status and adverse outcomes of designated hospitals and frontline nurses. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between them. RESULTS: Basic data were collected from 217 departments of 69 COVID-19-designated hospitals in 31 provinces in China. Nurses in the severe isolation ward worked mainly for 4 h per shift, whereas those in the fever clinic and observation ward worked mainly for 6-8 h. Half of the nurses had only 1 day of rest per week. Long working hours, lack of adequate rest time and overtime can seriously affect the quality and safety of nurses' work, resulting in adverse outcomes. Frontline nurses hope that scheduling guarantees the time to rest while ensuring fairness. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence showed that frontline nurses were faced with long working hours, insufficient rest and overtime, which has a negative impact on nurse satisfaction, physical and mental health and quality of care. The government, hospitals and administrators still face many problems to overcome in their nursing schedules. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Governments and hospitals should take these factors, such as the work setting characteristics and demographic features of the frontline nurses, into account when selecting nurses to fight COVID-19. Nurses have different working hours in different types of coronavirus unit; therefore, nursing managers should consider the working environment and nursing schedule needs, and in the future, we should pay attention to the fairness of nurses while ensuring their rest.

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