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1.
Asian J Androl ; 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975058

ABSTRACT

Studies have investigated the effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use on the incidence and clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the results have been inconsistent. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from inception to March 2022; 13 studies covering 84 003 prostate cancer (PCa) patients with or without ADT met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. We calculated the pooled risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to explore the association between ADT use and the infection risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and severity of COVID-19. After synthesizing the evidence, the pooled RR in the SARS-CoV-2 positive group was equal to 1.17, and the SARS-CoV-2 positive risk in PCa patients using ADT was not significantly different from that in those not using ADT (P = 0.544). Moreover, no significant results concerning the beneficial effect of ADT on the rate of intensive care unit admission (RR = 1.04, P = 0.872) or death risk (RR = 1.23, P = 0.53) were found. However, PCa patients with a history of ADT use had a markedly higher COVID-19 hospitalization rate (RR = 1.31, P = 0.015) than those with no history of ADT use. These findings indicate that ADT use by PCa patients is associated with a high risk of hospitalization during infection with SARS-CoV-2. A large number of high quality studies are needed to confirm these results.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 865855, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952803

ABSTRACT

Background: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is considered to be a disease that mainly involves the respiratory system, an increasing number of studies have reported that COVID-19 patients had pancreatic enzymes (PE) elevation and even pancreatic injury. The study aims to determine the prevalence of PE elevation, and the relationship between elevated PE and prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted according to the PRISMA guideline in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for studies reporting PE elevation in patients with COVID-19 from 1st January 2020 to 24th November 2021. Results: A total of 13 studies (24,353 participants) were included in our review. The pooled prevalence of PE elevation in COVID-19 patients was 24% (18%-31%), the pooled odds ratio (OR) of mortality was 2.5 (1.7-3.6), the pooled OR of ICU admission was 4.4 (2.8-6.8), and the pooled OR of kidney injury, respiratory failure and liver injury were 3.5 (1.6-7.4), 2.0 (0.5-8.7), and 2.3 (1.4-3.9) respectively. In addition, the subgroup analysis revealed that although PE elevated to > 3 × upper normal limit (ULN) was significantly related to the mortality (OR = 4.4, 2.1-9.4), it seemed that mild elevation of PE to 1-3 ULN also had a considerable risk of mortality (OR = 2.3, 1.5-3.5). Conclusions: PE elevation was a common phenomenon in patients with COVID-19, and was associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, due to the limited numbers of included studies, the result of our study still needed to be validated. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=295630, identifier: CRD42021295630.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence
3.
Sex Transm Dis ; 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has coincided with an explosion of on-line platforms for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) testing using self-collected, mail-in specimens. Reports on the effect of COVID-19-associated restrictions on sexual behaviors have been mixed, but STI transmissions have continued during the pandemic. We sought to understand the pandemic impact on sexual habits associated with STIs among IWantTheKit (IWTK) users. METHODS: Users of IWTK, a free, on-line STI testing platform, were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe survey responses. Associations with reports of new sex partnerships were explored as a marker of STI risk. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze individual characteristics and reported behaviors associated with self-reported new sexual partnerships during the first two COVID-19 pandemic waves. RESULTS: Of the 3,462 users of the on-line STI testing platform between June 2020 and February 2021, 1,088 (31.4%) completed the on-line survey; 705 (66.2%) of 1,065 reported a new sex partner. One-quarter met their sex partners using Apps. Overall, 10% were symptomatic and almost 18% were concerned that their partner had an STI. White race in males (OR 1.81 [95%CI:1.04, 3.16]), female age < 25 years (OR 1.85 [95%CI:1.09, 3.14]), and increased condom use in both men and women were significantly associated with reports of new sexual partnerships in adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Despite pandemic restrictions on social gatherings, new sexual partnerships were common in this population, associated with common risk factors, and may help to explain ongoing STI transmission.

4.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(7): e0018722, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901919

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has brought unprecedented attention to the crucial role of diagnostics in pandemic control. We compared severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test performance by sample type and modality in close contacts of SARS-CoV-2 cases. Close contacts of SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals were enrolled after informed consent. Clinician-collected nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs in viral transport media (VTM) were tested with a routine clinical reference nucleic acid test (NAT) and PerkinElmer real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay; positive samples were tested for infectivity using a VeroE6TMPRSS2 cell culture model. Self-collected passive drool was also tested using the PerkinElmer RT-PCR assay. For the first 4 months of study, midturbinate swabs were tested using the BD Veritor rapid antigen test. Between 17 November 2020 and 1 October 2021, 235 close contacts of SARS-CoV-2 cases were recruited, including 95 with symptoms (82% symptomatic for ≤5 days) and 140 asymptomatic individuals. Reference NATs were positive for 53 (22.6%) participants; 24/50 (48%) were culture positive. PerkinElmer testing of NP and saliva samples identified an additional 28 (11.9%) SARS-CoV-2 cases who tested negative by reference NAT. Antigen tests performed for 99 close contacts showed 83% positive percent agreement (PPA) with reference NAT among early symptomatic persons, but 18% PPA in others; antigen tests in 8 of 11 (72.7%) culture-positive participants were positive. Contacts of SARS-CoV-2 cases may be falsely negative early after contact, but more sensitive platforms may identify these cases. Repeat or serial SARS-CoV-2 testing with both antigen and molecular assays may be warranted for individuals with high pretest probability for infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(7):985-989, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1898007

ABSTRACT

The Baltimore City Health Department (Baltimore, MD) promoted IWantTheKit for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV testing to city residents and clinic patients when COVID-19 restricted in-person clinic services. From April to October 2020, monthly online IWantTheKit orders increased by 645%. A high prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhea was detected, and 96% of users who tested positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea were successfully contacted for treatment. Uptake by Baltimore City Health Department priority populations and excellent treatment linkage demonstrated how a public health–academic partnership successfully addressed a service gap during the pandemic. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(7):985–989. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306835) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of American Journal of Public Health is the property of American Public Health Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Am J Public Health ; 112(7): 985-989, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865380

ABSTRACT

The Baltimore City Health Department (Baltimore, MD) promoted IWantTheKit for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV testing to city residents and clinic patients when COVID-19 restricted in-person clinic services. From April to October 2020, monthly online IWantTheKit orders increased by 645%. A high prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhea was detected, and 96% of users who tested positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea were successfully contacted for treatment. Uptake by Baltimore City Health Department priority populations and excellent treatment linkage demonstrated how a public health-academic partnership successfully addressed a service gap during the pandemic. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(7):985-989. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306835).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Chlamydia , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans
7.
Pharmazie ; 77(3): 125-130, 2022 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808671

ABSTRACT

Mental health disorders such as stress, anxiety, depression and insomnia caused by COVID-19 have attracted worldwide attention. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been proven to be a safe and effective option for treating mental health disorders. Recently, after assessing its efficacy and safety fully, the Netherlands Medicines Evaluation Board approved XiaoYao Tablets as a traditional herbal medicinal product (THMP), indicated for an alternative self-care for patients in Europe to relieve the symptoms of mental stress and exhaustion. Despite the fact that TCMs have gradually become one of the therapeutic choices worldwide, to-date, only a few TCMs have been successfully registered in the European Union (EU) as THMPs, and XiaoYao Tablets is the first successfully registered combination TCM from China. In this article, traditional use efficacy and clinical safety of XiaoYao Tablets in the treatment of mental health disorders were summarized and analyzed from the perspective of traditional use registration (TUR). Additionally a safety evolution pathway of combination TCMs was established. This article will not only seek to enhance our understanding about traditional use efficacy and clinical safety of XiaoYao Tablets, but also summarize the experience of XiaoYao Tablets as the first successfully registered combination TCM from China, which could serve as role model for the others to overcome registration difficulties in the EU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tablets
8.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 81: 103840, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740174

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is deemed as the most critical world health calamity of the 21st century, leading to dramatic life loss. There is a pressing need to understand the multi-stage dynamics, including transmission routes of the virus and environmental conditions due to the possibility of multiple waves of COVID-19 in the future. In this paper, a systematic examination of the literature is conducted associating the virus-laden-aerosol and transmission of these microparticles into the multimedia environment, including built environments. Particularly, this paper provides a critical review of state-of-the-art modelling tools apt for COVID-19 spread and transmission pathways. GIS-based, risk-based, and artificial intelligence-based tools are discussed for their application in the surveillance and forecasting of COVID-19. Primary environmental factors that act as simulators for the spread of the virus include meteorological variation, low air quality, pollen abundance, and spatial-temporal variation. However, the influence of these environmental factors on COVID-19 spread is still equivocal because of other non-pharmaceutical factors. The limitations of different modelling methods suggest the need for a multidisciplinary approach, including the 'One-Health' concept. Extended One-Health-based decision tools would assist policymakers in making informed decisions such as social gatherings, indoor environment improvement, and COVID-19 risk mitigation by adapting the control measurements.

9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327457

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives COVID-19 has brought unprecedented attention to the crucial role of diagnostics in pandemic control. We compared SARS-CoV-2 test performance by sample type and modality in close contacts of SARS-CoV-2 cases. Methods Close contacts of SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals were enrolled after informed consent. Clinician-collected nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs in viral transport media (VTM) were tested with a nucleic acid test (NAT). NP VTM and self-collected passive drool were tested using the PerkinElmer real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay. For the first 4 months of study, mid-turbinate swabs were tested using the BD Veritor rapid antigen test. NAT positive NP samples were tested for infectivity using a VeroE6TMPRSS2 cell culture model. Results Between November 17, 2020, and October 1, 2021, 235 close contacts of SARS-CoV-2 cases were recruited, including 95 with symptoms (82% symptomatic for < 5 days) and 140 asymptomatic individuals. NP swab reference tests were positive for 53 (22.6%) participants;24/50 (48%) were culture positive. PerkinElmer testing of NP and saliva samples identified an additional 28 (11.9%) SARS-CoV-2 cases who tested negative by clinical NAT. Antigen tests performed for 99 close contacts showed 83% positive percent agreement (PPA) with reference NAT among early symptomatic persons, but 18% PPA in others;antigen tests in 8 of 11 (72.7%) culture-positive participants were positive. Conclusions Contacts of SARS-CoV-2 cases may be falsely negative early after contact, which more sensitive platforms may identify. Repeat or serial SARS-CoV-2 testing with both antigen and molecular assays may be warranted for individuals with high pretest probability for infection.

10.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 58: 103278, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599483

ABSTRACT

AIM/OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess telehealth readiness among clinical nurses in China and explore the factors that affect their telehealth readiness and the relationships of telehealth readiness and telehealth practice-related variables. BACKGROUND: Telehealth is a new service model that uses information and communication technology to provide professional health care services for resource-poor areas. With the global spread of COVID-19, nurses urgently need to adapt and apply telehealth technology to replace conventional face-to-face treatment. However, nurse-led telehealth services in China are currently only in the pilot phase and the readiness of clinical nurses needs to be assessed to facilitate successful telehealth implementation. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, multicentre study was undertaken with the questionnaire survey method. METHODS: Data were collected in October-December 2020 used online questionnaires. A convenience sample of 3386 nurses from 19 hospitals in China completed the Chinese version of Telehealth Readiness Assessment Tools. RESULTS: The mean score of the telehealth readiness was in the category between 61 and 80 points (mean 61.23, SD 11.61). The percentages of nurses meeting the following levels of telehealth readiness were as follows: low (49.9%), moderate (42.0%) and high (8.1%). Significantly higher domain scores were recorded for nurses in the unmarried, head of responsible nursing group. Moreover, there were positive correlations between telehealth readiness level and service experience, service willingness, mode cognition, manpower allocation and policy guidance. CONCLUSIONS: There are still many factors hindering the successful implementation of telehealth. Nursing educators should formulate telehealth education curriculum and service standards to improve the telehealth readiness of nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(4): ofab121, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526172

ABSTRACT

In an outpatient cohort in Maryland, clustering of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity within households was high, with 76% of 74 households reporting at least 1 other symptomatic person and 66% reporting another person who tested SARS-CoV-2 positive. SARS-CoV-2 positivity among household members was associated with larger household size and bedroom sharing.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292322

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic presented severe challenges to emergency practice of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, poor evidence was shown on ACS in a non-hot-spot region. We sought to clarify the influence of the first-wave COVID-19 pandemic on emergency ACS from a non-epicenter region. Methods: : This retrospective multicenter study was conducted in emergency ACS patients during the pandemic (from 2020-01-23 to 2020-03-29) and the ones during the same period in 2019. Clinical characteristics, timeline parameters and treatment strategies were compared between different groups. Association of the pandemic with non-invasive therapy was further assessed. Results: : Compared with 2019, ACS had a drop in admission (267 cases vs. 475 cases) and invasive therapy (140 cases vs. 318 cases). Also, process delays were detected including the period from symptom onset to first medical contact (S-to-FMC, 5h vs. 2.5h), the period from FMC to electrocardiogram (ECG) completed (8min vs. 4min) and the period from FMC to dual antiplatelet therapy (FMC-to-DAPT, 25min vs. 19min). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) decreased by 54.9% in STEMI and early invasive therapy decreased by 59.2% in NSTE-ACS. The proportion of invasive therapy in NSTE-ACS decreased more than in STEMI (16.9% vs. 10.1%) with longer process delay. The pandemic was associated with increased non-PPCI in STEMI (OR=1.707, 95%CI 1.082-2.692, P=0.021) and elevated medication in NSTE-ACS (OR=2.029, 95%CI 1.268-3.247, P=0.003), respectively. Conclusion: Even in a non-epicenter region, the first-wave COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant reduction of invasive therapy and evident process delays in emergency ACS.

13.
World J Pediatr ; 17(6): 590-596, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A series of public health preventive measures has been widely implemented in Beijing to control the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic since January 2020. An evaluation of the effects of these preventive measures on the spread of other respiratory viruses is necessary. METHODS: Respiratory specimens collected from children with acute respiratory infections were tested by NxTAG™ respiratory pathogen panel assays during January 2017 and December 2020. Specimens characterized as rhinoviruses (RVs) were sequenced to identify the RV species and types. Then, the epidemiology results of respiratory pathogens in 2020 were compared with those from 2017 to 2019 using SPSS statistics 22.0. RESULTS: The positive rates of adenovirus (ADV), influenza virus (flu), RVs, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) dropped abruptly by 86.31%, 94.67%, 94.59%, and 92.17%, respectively, from February to May 2020, compared with the average level in the same period during 2017-2019. Positive rates of RVs then steeply increased from June 2020 (13.77%), to an apex (37.25%) in August 2020, significantly higher than the average rates (22.51%) in August 2017-2019 (P = 0.005). The increase, especially in group ≥ 3 years, was accompanied by the reopening of schools and kindergartens after the 23rd and 24th week of 2020 in Beijing. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas the abrupt drop in viral pathogen positive rates from February to May 2020 revealed the remarkable effects of the COVID-19 preventive measures, the sharp increase in positive rates of RVs from the 23rd week of 2020 might be explained by the reopening of schools and kindergartens in Beijing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Beijing/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Rhinovirus , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Water Res ; 204: 117606, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373297

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of COVID-19 has aroused people's particular attention to biosafety. A growing number of disinfection products have been consumed during this period. However, the flaw of disinfection has not received enough attention, especially in water treatment processes. While cutting down the quantity of microorganisms, disinfection processes exert a considerable selection effect on bacteria and thus reshape the microbial community structure to a great extent, causing the problem of disinfection-residual-bacteria (DRB). These systematic and profound changes could lead to the shift in regrowth potential, bio fouling potential, as well as antibiotic resistance level and might cause a series of potential risks. In this review, we collected and summarized the data from the literature in recent 10 years about the microbial community structure shifting of natural water or wastewater in full-scale treatment plants caused by disinfection. Based on these data, typical DRB with the most reporting frequency after disinfection by chlorine-containing disinfectants, ozone disinfection, and ultraviolet disinfection were identified and summarized, which were the bacteria with a relative abundance of over 5% in the residual bacteria community and the bacteria with an increasing rate of relative abundance over 100% after disinfection. Furthermore, the phylogenic relationship and potential risks of these typical DRB were also analyzed. Twelve out of fifteen typical DRB genera contain pathogenic strains, and many were reported of great secretion ability. Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter possess multiple disinfection resistance and could be considered as model bacteria in future studies of disinfection. We also discussed the growth, secretion, and antibiotic resistance characteristics of DRB, as well as possible control strategies. The DRB phenomenon is not limited to water treatment but also exists in the air and solid disinfection processes, which need more attention and more profound research, especially in the period of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Bacteria , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Advanced Intelligent Systems ; 3(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1371318

ABSTRACT

Leukocyte differential test is a widely carried out clinical procedure for screening infectious diseases. Existing hematology analyzers require labor‐intensive work and a panel of expensive reagents. Herein, an artificial‐intelligence‐enabled reagent‐free imaging hematology analyzer (AIRFIHA) modality is reported that can accurately classify subpopulations of leukocytes with minimal sample preparation. AIRFIHA is realized through training a two‐step residual neural network using label‐free images of isolated leukocytes acquired from a custom‐built quantitative phase microscope. By leveraging the rich information contained in quantitative phase images, not only high accuracy is achieved in differentiating B and T lymphocytes, but also CD4 and CD8 T cells are classified, therefore outperforming the classification accuracy of most current hematology analyzers. The performance of AIRFIHA in a randomly selected test set is validated and is cross‐validated across all blood donors. Due to its easy operation, low cost, and accurate discerning capability of complex leukocyte subpopulations, AIRFIHA is clinically translatable and can also be deployed in resource‐limited settings, e.g., during pandemic situations for the rapid screening of infectious diseases.

16.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab195, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sustained molecular detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in the upper respiratory tract (URT) in mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common. We sought to identify host and immune determinants of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. METHODS: Ninety-five symptomatic outpatients self-collected midturbinate nasal, oropharyngeal (OP), and gingival crevicular fluid (oral fluid) samples at home and in a research clinic a median of 6 times over 1-3 months. Samples were tested for viral RNA, virus culture, and SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronavirus antibodies, and associations were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Viral RNA clearance, as measured by SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in 507 URT samples occurred a median (interquartile range) 33.5 (17-63.5) days post-symptom onset. Sixteen nasal-OP samples collected 2-11 days post-symptom onset were virus culture positive out of 183 RT-PCR-positive samples tested. All participants but 1 with positive virus culture were negative for concomitant oral fluid anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The mean time to first antibody detection in oral fluid was 8-13 days post-symptom onset. A longer time to first detection of oral fluid anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; P = .020) and body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 (aHR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18-0.78; P = .009) were independently associated with a longer time to SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA clearance. Fever as 1 of first 3 COVID-19 symptoms correlated with shorter time to viral RNA clearance (aHR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.02-4.18; P = .044). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that delayed rise of oral fluid SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, elevated BMI, and absence of early fever are independently associated with delayed URT viral RNA clearance.

17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(2): ofaa648, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic control will require widespread access to accurate diagnostics. Salivary sampling circumvents swab supply chain bottlenecks, is amenable to self-collection, and is less likely to create an aerosol during collection compared with the nasopharyngeal swab. METHODS: We compared real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction Abbott m2000 results from matched salivary oral fluid (gingival crevicular fluid collected in an Oracol device) and nasal-oropharyngeal (OP) self-collected specimens in viral transport media from a nonhospitalized, ambulatory cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at multiple time points. These 2 sentences should be at the beginning of the results. RESULTS: There were 171 matched specimen pairs. Compared with nasal-OP swabs, 41.6% of the oral fluid samples were positive. Adding spit to the oral fluid percent collection device increased the percent positive agreement from 37.2% (16 of 43) to 44.6% (29 of 65). The positive percent agreement was highest in the first 5 days after symptoms and decreased thereafter. All of the infectious nasal-OP samples (culture positive on VeroE6 TMPRSS2 cells) had a matched SARS-CoV-2 positive oral fluid sample. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of nonhospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected persons, we demonstrate lower diagnostic sensitivity of self-collected oral fluid compared with nasal-OP specimens, a difference that was especially prominent more than 5 days from symptom onset. These data do not justify the routine use of oral fluid collection for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 despite the greater ease of collection. It also underscores the importance of considering the method of saliva specimen collection and the time from symptom onset especially in outpatient populations.

18.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5280

ABSTRACT

A review. This report reviewed the treatment of SARS, H1N1 and COVID-19 with traditional Chinese medicine.

19.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-3575

ABSTRACT

A review. At present, the diagnosis and treatment of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has entered a critical period. The treatment of complex and changeable disease requires the cooperation of doctors, nurses and pharmacists. Therefore, from the perspective of pharmaceutical service, this article introduced some important aspects to improve the treatment of COVID-19, including the formulation of pharmaceutical care standards, prescription and medical order review, remote pharmaceutical care for COVID-19, pharmaceutical care for COVID-19 patients in the hospital and science popularization of COVID-19. As an important part of the prevention and control of epidemic disease, clin. pharmacy service has played an active role in ensuring the safety and effectiveness of patients′ medication, thereby making contribution to the effective control of the epidemic.

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