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1.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984391

ABSTRACT

Rapid, accurate and frequent detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) and of serological host antibodies to the virus would facilitate the determination of the immune status of individuals who have Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), were previously infected by the virus, or were vaccinated against the disease. Here we describe the development and application of a 3D-printed lab-on-a-chip that concurrently detects, via multiplexed electrochemical outputs and within 2 h, SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins in saliva spiked with blood plasma. The device automatedly extracts, concentrates and amplifies SARS-CoV-2 RNA from unprocessed saliva, and integrates the Cas12a-based enzymatic detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA via isothermal nucleic acid amplification with a sandwich-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on electrodes functionalized with the Spike S1, nucleocapsid and receptor-binding-domain antigens of SARS-CoV-2. Inexpensive microfluidic electrochemical sensors for performing multiplexed diagnostics at the point of care may facilitate the widespread monitoring of COVID-19 infection and immunity.

2.
Sci Immunol ; 7(73): eabl9464, 2022 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949935

ABSTRACT

CD4+ T cells are central to long-term immunity against viruses through the functions of T helper 1 (TH1) and T follicular helper (TFH) cell subsets. To better understand the role of these subsets in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) immunity, we conducted a longitudinal study of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses in convalescent individuals who seroconverted during the first wave of the pandemic in Boston, MA, USA, across a range of COVID-19 disease severities. Analyses of spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) epitope-specific CD4+ T cells using peptide and major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHCII) tetramers demonstrated expanded populations of T cells recognizing the different SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in most individuals compared with prepandemic controls. Individuals who experienced a milder disease course not requiring hospitalization had a greater percentage of circulating TFH (cTFH) and TH1 cells among SARS-CoV-2-specific cells. Analysis of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells responses in a subset of individuals with sustained anti-S antibody responses after viral clearance also revealed an increased proportion of memory cTFH cells. Our findings indicate that efficient early disease control also predicts favorable long-term adaptive immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Epitopes , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Memory T Cells , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Clin Immunol ; 237: 108991, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866980

ABSTRACT

Many studies have been performed in severe COVID-19 on immune cells in the circulation and on cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. Most studies have tended to provide relative information rather than a quantitative view, and it is a combination of approaches by various groups that is helping the field build a picture of the mechanisms that drive severe lung disease. Approaches employed to date have not revealed information on lung parenchymal T cell subsets in severe COVID-19. Therefore, we sought to examine early and late T cell subset alterations in the lungs and draining lymph nodes in severe COVID-19 using a rapid autopsy protocol and quantitative imaging approaches. Here, we have established that cytotoxic CD4+ T cells (CD4 + CTLs) increase in the lungs, draining lymph nodes and blood as COVID-19 progresses. CD4 + CTLs are prominently expanded in the lung parenchyma in severe COVID-19. In contrast CD8+ T cells are not prominent, exhibit increased PD-1 expression, and no obvious increase is seen in the number of Granzyme B+ CD8+ T cells in the lung parenchyma in severe COVID-19. Based on quantitative evidence for re-activation in the lung milieu, CD4 + CTLs may be as likely to drive viral clearance as CD8+ T cells and may also be contributors to lung inflammation and eventually to fibrosis in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Lung , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
4.
Elife ; 112022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742931

ABSTRACT

Background: Risk of severe COVID-19 increases with age, is greater in males, and is associated with lymphopenia, but not with higher burden of SARS-CoV-2. It is unknown whether effects of age and sex on abundance of specific lymphoid subsets explain these correlations. Methods: Multiple regression was used to determine the relationship between abundance of specific blood lymphoid cell types, age, sex, requirement for hospitalization, duration of hospitalization, and elevation of blood markers of systemic inflammation, in adults hospitalized for severe COVID-19 (n = 40), treated for COVID-19 as outpatients (n = 51), and in uninfected controls (n = 86), as well as in children with COVID-19 (n = 19), recovering from COVID-19 (n = 14), MIS-C (n = 11), recovering from MIS-C (n = 7), and pediatric controls (n = 17). Results: This observational study found that the abundance of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) decreases more than 7-fold over the human lifespan - T cell subsets decrease less than 2-fold - and is lower in males than in females. After accounting for effects of age and sex, ILCs, but not T cells, were lower in adults hospitalized with COVID-19, independent of lymphopenia. Among SARS-CoV-2-infected adults, the abundance of ILCs, but not of T cells, correlated inversely with odds and duration of hospitalization, and with severity of inflammation. ILCs were also uniquely decreased in pediatric COVID-19 and the numbers of these cells did not recover during follow-up. In contrast, children with MIS-C had depletion of both ILCs and T cells, and both cell types increased during follow-up. In both pediatric COVID-19 and MIS-C, ILC abundance correlated inversely with inflammation. Blood ILC mRNA and phenotype tracked closely with ILCs from lung. Importantly, blood ILCs produced amphiregulin, a protein implicated in disease tolerance and tissue homeostasis. Among controls, the percentage of ILCs that produced amphiregulin was higher in females than in males, and people hospitalized with COVID-19 had a lower percentage of ILCs that produced amphiregulin than did controls. Conclusions: These results suggest that, by promoting disease tolerance, homeostatic ILCs decrease morbidity and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and that lower ILC abundance contributes to increased COVID-19 severity with age and in males. Funding: This work was supported in part by the Massachusetts Consortium for Pathogen Readiness and NIH grants R37AI147868, R01AI148784, F30HD100110, 5K08HL143183.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Amphiregulin , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , T-Lymphocyte Subsets
5.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(12): 3002-3013, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549765

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in COVID-19 and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We investigated alterations in the urine metabolome to test the hypothesis that impaired nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis and other deficiencies in energy metabolism in the kidney, previously characterized in ischemic, toxic, and inflammatory etiologies of AKI, will be present in COVID-19-associated AKI. METHODS: This is a case-control study among the following 2 independent populations of adults hospitalized with COVID-19: a critically ill population in Boston, Massachusetts, and a general population in Birmingham, Alabama. The cases had AKI stages 2 or 3 by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria; the controls had no AKI. Metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 14 cases and 14 controls were included from Boston and 8 cases and 10 controls from Birmingham. Increased urinary quinolinate-to-tryptophan ratio (Q/T), found with impaired NAD+ biosynthesis, was present in the cases at each location and pooled across locations (median [interquartile range]: 1.34 [0.59-2.96] in cases, 0.31 [0.13-1.63] in controls, P = 0.0013). Altered energy metabolism and purine metabolism contributed to a distinct urinary metabolomic signature that differentiated patients with and without AKI (supervised random forest class error: 2 of 28 in Boston, 0 of 18 in Birmingham). CONCLUSION: Urinary metabolites spanning multiple biochemical pathways differentiate AKI versus non-AKI in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and suggest a conserved impairment in NAD+ biosynthesis, which may present a novel therapeutic target to mitigate COVID-19-associated AKI.

6.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(12): 3002-3013, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525779

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in COVID-19 and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We investigated alterations in the urine metabolome to test the hypothesis that impaired nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis and other deficiencies in energy metabolism in the kidney, previously characterized in ischemic, toxic, and inflammatory etiologies of AKI, will be present in COVID-19-associated AKI. METHODS: This is a case-control study among the following 2 independent populations of adults hospitalized with COVID-19: a critically ill population in Boston, Massachusetts, and a general population in Birmingham, Alabama. The cases had AKI stages 2 or 3 by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria; the controls had no AKI. Metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 14 cases and 14 controls were included from Boston and 8 cases and 10 controls from Birmingham. Increased urinary quinolinate-to-tryptophan ratio (Q/T), found with impaired NAD+ biosynthesis, was present in the cases at each location and pooled across locations (median [interquartile range]: 1.34 [0.59-2.96] in cases, 0.31 [0.13-1.63] in controls, P = 0.0013). Altered energy metabolism and purine metabolism contributed to a distinct urinary metabolomic signature that differentiated patients with and without AKI (supervised random forest class error: 2 of 28 in Boston, 0 of 18 in Birmingham). CONCLUSION: Urinary metabolites spanning multiple biochemical pathways differentiate AKI versus non-AKI in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and suggest a conserved impairment in NAD+ biosynthesis, which may present a novel therapeutic target to mitigate COVID-19-associated AKI.

7.
JCI Insight ; 6(20)2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403154

ABSTRACT

Endothelial dysfunction accompanies the microvascular thrombosis commonly observed in severe COVID-19. Constitutively, the endothelial surface is anticoagulant, a property maintained at least in part via signaling through the Tie2 receptor. During inflammation, the Tie2 antagonist angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) is released from endothelial cells and inhibits Tie2, promoting a prothrombotic phenotypic shift. We sought to assess whether severe COVID-19 is associated with procoagulant endothelial dysfunction and alterations in the Tie2/angiopoietin axis. Primary HUVECs treated with plasma from patients with severe COVID-19 upregulated the expression of thromboinflammatory genes, inhibited the expression of antithrombotic genes, and promoted coagulation on the endothelial surface. Pharmacologic activation of Tie2 with the small molecule AKB-9778 reversed the prothrombotic state induced by COVID-19 plasma in primary endothelial cells. Lung autopsies from patients with COVID-19 demonstrated a prothrombotic endothelial signature. Assessment of circulating endothelial markers in a cohort of 98 patients with mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 revealed endothelial dysfunction indicative of a prothrombotic state. Angpt-2 concentrations rose with increasing disease severity, and the highest levels were associated with worse survival. These data highlight the disruption of Tie2/angiopoietin signaling and procoagulant changes in endothelial cells in severe COVID-19. Our findings provide rationale for current trials of Tie2-activating therapy with AKB-9778 in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Receptor, TIE-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiopoietin-2/metabolism , Aniline Compounds , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , Receptor, TIE-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Sulfonic Acids , Vascular Diseases/metabolism , Young Adult
10.
J Infect Dis ; 224(5): 777-782, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381012

ABSTRACT

We analyzed plasma levels of interferons (IFNs) and cytokines, and expression of IFN-stimulated genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 of varying disease severity. Patients hospitalized with mild disease exhibited transient type I IFN responses, while intensive care unit patients had prolonged type I IFN responses. Type II IFN responses were compromised in intensive care unit patients. Type III IFN responses were induced in the early phase of infection, even in convalescent patients. These results highlight the importance of early type I and III IFN responses in controlling coronavirus disease 2019 progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interferons/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Interferon Type I/blood , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferons/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373495

ABSTRACT

The hallmark of severe COVID-19 is an uncontrolled inflammatory response, resulting from poorly understood immunological dysfunction. We hypothesized that perturbations in FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Treg), key enforcers of immune homeostasis, contribute to COVID-19 pathology. Cytometric and transcriptomic profiling revealed a distinct Treg phenotype in severe COVID-19 patients, with an increase in Treg proportions and intracellular levels of the lineage-defining transcription factor FoxP3, correlating with poor outcomes. These Tregs showed a distinct transcriptional signature, with overexpression of several suppressive effectors, but also proinflammatory molecules like interleukin (IL)-32, and a striking similarity to tumor-infiltrating Tregs that suppress antitumor responses. Most marked during acute severe disease, these traits persisted somewhat in convalescent patients. A screen for candidate agents revealed that IL-6 and IL-18 may individually contribute different facets of these COVID-19-linked perturbations. These results suggest that Tregs may play nefarious roles in COVID-19, by suppressing antiviral T cell responses during the severe phase of the disease, and by a direct proinflammatory role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/physiology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Female , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Interleukin-18/genetics , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/genetics , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/virology , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism
12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab153, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371740

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) kinetics remain understudied, including the impact of remdesivir. In hospitalized individuals, peak sputum viral load occurred in week 2 of symptoms, whereas viremia peaked within 1 week of symptom-onset, suggesting early systemic seeding of SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir treatment was associated with faster viral decay.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 224(5): 777-782, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243489

ABSTRACT

We analyzed plasma levels of interferons (IFNs) and cytokines, and expression of IFN-stimulated genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 of varying disease severity. Patients hospitalized with mild disease exhibited transient type I IFN responses, while intensive care unit patients had prolonged type I IFN responses. Type II IFN responses were compromised in intensive care unit patients. Type III IFN responses were induced in the early phase of infection, even in convalescent patients. These results highlight the importance of early type I and III IFN responses in controlling coronavirus disease 2019 progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interferons/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Interferon Type I/blood , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferons/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1186-1199.e7, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207036

ABSTRACT

A cardinal feature of COVID-19 is lung inflammation and respiratory failure. In a prospective multi-country cohort of COVID-19 patients, we found that increased Notch4 expression on circulating regulatory T (Treg) cells was associated with disease severity, predicted mortality, and declined upon recovery. Deletion of Notch4 in Treg cells or therapy with anti-Notch4 antibodies in conventional and humanized mice normalized the dysregulated innate immunity and rescued disease morbidity and mortality induced by a synthetic analog of viral RNA or by influenza H1N1 virus. Mechanistically, Notch4 suppressed the induction by interleukin-18 of amphiregulin, a cytokine necessary for tissue repair. Protection by Notch4 inhibition was recapitulated by therapy with Amphiregulin and, reciprocally, abrogated by its antagonism. Amphiregulin declined in COVID-19 subjects as a function of disease severity and Notch4 expression. Thus, Notch4 expression on Treg cells dynamically restrains amphiregulin-dependent tissue repair to promote severe lung inflammation, with therapeutic implications for COVID-19 and related infections.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions , Immunity, Cellular , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Receptor, Notch4/metabolism , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Amphiregulin/pharmacology , Animals , Biomarkers , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Influenza A virus/physiology , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptor, Notch4/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Notch4/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(3): 434-445, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986168

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with adverse outcomes, including need for invasive mechanical ventilation and death in people with risk factors. Liver enzyme elevation is commonly seen in this group, but its clinical significance remains elusive. In this study, we calculated the Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score for a cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and assessed its association with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA, inflammatory cytokine levels, and clinical outcome. A total of 202 hospitalized participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal sampling were included in this analysis. FIB-4 was calculated for each participant using the alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, age, and platelet count. We evaluated the association between FIB-4 and mortality using both multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards model. Correlations between FIB-4 and SARS-CoV-2 RNA and cytokine levels were evaluated using the Spearman test. Among the 202 participants, 22 died. The median FIB-4 in participants who survived and died were 1.91 and 3.98 (P < 0.001 by Mann-Whitney U test), respectively. Each one-unit increment in FIB-4 was associated with an increased odds of death (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.36, 2.35; P < 0.001) after adjusting for baseline characteristics including sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and history of liver diseases. During hospitalization, FIB-4 peaked and then normalized in the survival group but failed to normalize in the death group. FIB-4 was positively correlated with the level of SARS-CoV-2 viral load and monocyte-associated cytokines, especially interleukin-6 and interferon gamma-induced protein 10. Conclusion: FIB-4 is associated with mortality in COVID-19, independent of underlying conditions including liver diseases. FIB-4 may be a simple and inexpensive approach to risk-stratify individuals with COVID-19.

18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2030455, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985883

ABSTRACT

Importance: Biological data are lacking with respect to risk of vertical transmission and mechanisms of fetoplacental protection in maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Objective: To quantify SARS-CoV-2 viral load in maternal and neonatal biofluids, transplacental passage of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody, and incidence of fetoplacental infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among pregnant women presenting for care at 3 tertiary care centers in Boston, Massachusetts. Women with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results positive for SARS-CoV-2 were recruited from April 2 to June 13, 2020, and follow-up occurred through July 10, 2020. Contemporaneous participants without SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled as a convenience sample from pregnant women with RT-PCR results negative for SARS-CoV-2. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, defined by nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 viral load in maternal plasma or respiratory fluids and umbilical cord plasma, quantification of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in maternal and cord plasma, and presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the placenta. Results: Among 127 pregnant women enrolled, 64 with RT-PCR results positive for SARS-CoV-2 (mean [SD] age, 31.6 [5.6] years) and 63 with RT-PCR results negative for SARS-CoV-2 (mean [SD] age, 33.9 [5.4] years) provided samples for analysis. Of women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 23 (36%) were asymptomatic, 22 (34%) had mild disease, 7 (11%) had moderate disease, 10 (16%) had severe disease, and 2 (3%) had critical disease. In viral load analyses among 107 women, there was no detectable viremia in maternal or cord blood and no evidence of vertical transmission. Among 77 neonates tested in whom SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were quantified in cord blood, 1 had detectable immunoglobuilin M to nucleocapsid. Among 88 placentas tested, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any. In antibody analyses among 37 women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, anti-receptor binding domain immunoglobin G was detected in 24 women (65%) and anti-nucleocapsid was detected in 26 women (70%). Mother-to-neonate transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was significantly lower than transfer of anti-influenza hemagglutinin A antibodies (mean [SD] cord-to-maternal ratio: anti-receptor binding domain immunoglobin G, 0.72 [0.57]; anti-nucleocapsid, 0.74 [0.44]; anti-influenza, 1.44 [0.80]; P < .001). Nonoverlapping placental expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 was noted. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, there was no evidence of placental infection or definitive vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Transplacental transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was inefficient. Lack of viremia and reduced coexpression and colocalization of placental angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 may serve as protective mechanisms against vertical transmission.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Fetal Blood/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Infant, Newborn , Influenza A virus/immunology , Male , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load
19.
ACS Nano ; 15(1): 665-673, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940874

ABSTRACT

Deep-learning (DL)-based image processing has potential to revolutionize the use of smartphones in mobile health (mHealth) diagnostics of infectious diseases. However, the high variability in cellphone image data acquisition and the common need for large amounts of specialist-annotated images for traditional DL model training may preclude generalizability of smartphone-based diagnostics. Here, we employed adversarial neural networks with conditioning to develop an easily reconfigurable virus diagnostic platform that leverages a dataset of smartphone-taken microfluidic chip photos to rapidly generate image classifiers for different target pathogens on-demand. Adversarial learning was also used to augment this real image dataset by generating 16,000 realistic synthetic microchip images, through style generative adversarial networks (StyleGAN). We used this platform, termed smartphone-based pathogen detection resource multiplier using adversarial networks (SPyDERMAN), to accurately detect different intact viruses in clinical samples and to detect viral nucleic acids through integration with CRISPR diagnostics. We evaluated the performance of the system in detecting five different virus targets using 179 patient samples. The generalizability of the system was confirmed by rapid reconfiguration to detect SARS-CoV-2 antigens in nasal swab samples (n = 62) with 100% accuracy. Overall, the SPyDERMAN system may contribute to epidemic preparedness strategies by providing a platform for smartphone-based diagnostics that can be adapted to a given emerging viral agent within days of work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Deep Learning , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Telemedicine/methods , Antigens, Viral/isolation & purification , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Communicable Disease Control , Disaster Planning , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Neural Networks, Computer , Platinum , Point-of-Care Testing , Public Health , Reproducibility of Results , Smartphone
20.
Am J Med ; 134(4): 542-546, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a high prevalence of detectable troponin and myocardial injury. In addition, a subset of patients with COVID-19 has detectable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral loads. The objective of this study was to understand the relationship among SARS-CoV-2 viremia, detectable troponin, and myocardial injury in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 plasma viral load was measured in plasma samples drawn from patients hospitalized for COVID-19 at 2 academic medical centers. Baseline characteristics and clinically obtained high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) values were abstracted from the medical record. The main outcome was detectable hs-cTnT (≥6 ng/mL) and  myocardial injury (hs-cTnT ≥14 ng/mL; >99th percentile for assay). RESULTS: A total of 70 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included in this study, with 39% females and median age 58 ± 17 years; 21 patients (30%) were found to have detectable SARS-CoV-2 viral load and were classified in the viremia group. Patients with viremia were significantly older than those without viremia. All of the patients with viremia (100%) had detectable troponin during hospitalization compared with 59% of patients without viremia (P = 0.0003). Myocardial injury was seen in 76% of patients with viremia and 38% of those patients without viremia (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with SARS-CoV-2 viremia have a significantly higher prevalence of detectable troponin and myocardial injury during their hospitalization compared with patients who did not. This first report of the relationship among SARS-CoV-2 viremia, detectable troponin, and myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 points to additional mechanistic pathways that require deeper study to understand the complex interplay among these unique findings, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Myocardium/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Troponin/blood , Viremia , Age Factors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology , Viral Load/methods , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/epidemiology , Viremia/etiology
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