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1.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 93: 103784, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238628

ABSTRACT

National resilience is a consensus benchmark to characterize the ability of disaster resistance of a country. The occurrence of various disasters and the ravages of COVID-19 have created urgent needs in assessing and improving the national resilience of countries, especially for countries along the Belt and Road (i.e., B&R countries) with multiple disasters with high frequency and great losses. To accurately depict the national resilience profile, a three-dimensional assessment model based on multi-source data is proposed, where the diversity of losses, fusion utilization of disaster and macro-indicator data, and several refined elements are involved. Using the proposed assessment model, the national resilience of 64 B&R countries is clarified based on more than 13,000 records involving 17 types of disasters and 5 macro-indicators. However, their assessment results are not optimistic, the dimensional resilience are generally trend-synchronized and individual difference in a single dimension, and approximately one-half of countries do not obtain resilience growth over time. To further explore the applicable solutions for national resilience improvement, a coefficient-adjusted stepwise regression model with 20 macro-indicator regressors is developed based on more than 19,000 records. This study provides the quantified model support and a solution reference for national resilience assessment and improvement, which contributes to addressing the global national resilience deficit and promoting the high-quality development of B&R construction.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 892: 164496, 2023 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327808

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has notably impacted the world economy and human activities. However, the strict urban lockdown policies implemented in various countries appear to have positively affected pollution and the thermal environment. In this study, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) data were selected, combined with Sentinel-5P images and meteorological elements, to analyze the changes and associations among air pollution, LST, and urban heat islands (UHIs) in three urban agglomerations in mainland China during the COVID-19 lockdown. The results showed that during the COVID-19 lockdown period (February 2020), the levels of the AOD and atmospheric pollutants (fine particles (PM2.5), NO2, and CO) significantly decreased. Among them, PM2.5 and NO2 decreased the most in all urban agglomerations, by >14 %. Notably, the continued improvement in air pollution attributed to China's strict control policies could lead to overestimation of the enhanced air quality during the lockdown. The surface temperature in all three urban agglomerations increased by >1 °C during the lockdown, which was mainly due to climate factors, but we also showed that the lockdown constrained positive LST anomalies. The decrease in the nighttime urban heat island intensity (UHIInight) in the three urban agglomerations was greater than that in the daytime quantity by >25 %. The reduction in surface UHIs at night was mainly due to the reduced human activities and air pollutant emissions. Although strict restrictions on human activities positively affected air pollution and UHIs, these changes were quickly reverted when lockdown policies were relaxed. Moreover, small-scale lockdowns contributed little to environmental improvement. Our results have implications for assessing the environmental benefits of city-scale lockdowns.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Hot Temperature , Temperature , East Asian People , Nitrogen Dioxide , Environmental Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
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