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2.
Journal of Personalized Medicine ; 11(11):1106, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1488658

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of myocarditis/pericarditis incidences has been reported after coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccination in adolescents and young adults. This study was designed to investigate the incidence rate of—and risk for—myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination in the United States according to age and vaccine type. This study used the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) from 11 December 2020 to 13 August 2021. A population-based data mining approach was performed based on the reporting odds ratio (ROR). Adverse events of myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination were rare, with an incidence rate of 5.98 (95% CI = 5.73–6.24) cases per million doses administered. The incidence rate was higher in adolescents and after the administration of the second dose of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines. Overall, two mRNA vaccines were significantly associated with increased risks for myocarditis/pericarditis (mRNA-1273 (Moderna): ROR = 2.91, 95% CI = 2.21–3.83;BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech): ROR = 5.37, 95% CI = 4.10–7.04) compared to all other vaccines from VAERS. The viral vector vaccine of Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen) was not associated with signals of myocarditis/pericarditis (ROR = 1.39;95% CI = 0.99–1.97). This study found increased risks for myocarditis/pericarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. For patients at high risk for myocarditis/pericarditis or with myocardial injuries, the viral vector vaccine may be an alternative for consideration.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 738579, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472407

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the efficacy and the role of engagement of an internet-based Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (iMBSR) for survivors of breast cancer (BC) during the COVID-19 period from January to March in 2020 in China. Methods: 48 survivors of BC were divided into the absentees group and the iMBSR groups according to their attending to the standardized, group-based, 8-week iMBSR. Based on practice time, survivors of BC in the iMBSR were categorized into three subgroups: group 1 (<30 min/day), group 2 (30-60 min/day), and group 3 (>60 min/day). In addition, participants were classified as partial attendees (<4 sessions) and completers (more than 4 sessions) of the iMBSR groups. All participants were evaluated for symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia at baseline, mid-intervention, and post-intervention. Results: After an 8-week iMBSR practice, at mid-intervention and post-intervention, participants in iMBSR group had significant improvement in scores and reduction rates of depression, anxiety, and insomnia compared to absentees. Scores of depression and insomnia, reduction rates of depression at post-intervention, scores of anxiety, reduction rates of anxiety and insomnia at mid-intervention and post-intervention, had significant differences among subgroups of practice time. Daily practice time was positively related to reduction rates of depression, anxiety and insomnia at post-intervention in the iMBSR group. Conclusion: Internet-based MBSR showed efficacy in reducing psychological symptoms among survivors of BC. For survivors of BC, iMBSR practice has a potential dose-response efficacy, with a threshold of >30 min daily practice for most optimal symptoms reduction. Trial Registration: Registration number is [ChiCTR2100044309].

4.
Journal of Documentation ; 77(6):1265-1285, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1462603

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to investigate the status quo of digital poverty among adolescents in China, analyze the characteristics and the causes, then propose countermeasures to provide reference for alleviating digital poverty among adolescents.Design/methodology/approachThe study developed an initial scale of digital poverty among adolescents and used survey data to revise the scale, on this basis, formed a questionnaire, which was distributed to nationwide adolescents. The study developed its findings from the 837 valid questionnaire respondents.FindingsThe digital poverty among adolescents is mainly shown in the poverty of digital ability, digital psychology and digital environment and presents the following characteristics, that is, insufficient information seeking ability and information selection ability needing to be improved;equipped with basic information awareness but lack of information evaluation ability;lack of patience in obtaining information and inclined to the principle of least effort;imperfect knowledge structure and immature psychological emotions and vulnerable to external interference;having a certain relationship with the information environment, but not significantly affected by regional economic differences. Finally, the study puts forward countermeasures to alleviate digital poverty among adolescents.Practical implicationsUnderstanding of the digital poverty among adolescents will likely demand rethinking into a number of issues ignored by information poverty studies.Originality/valueFew studies focus on digital poverty among adolescents. This study developed an initial scale of digital poverty among adolescents and revised it by survey data, then conducted an empirical study through questionnaire, which could expand the understanding of information poverty in the field of library and information science.

5.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1582-1589, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453469

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality. It is critical to find new treatments. Objective: To determine whether convalescent plasma transfusion may be beneficial in the treatment of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 5 critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who met the following criteria: severe pneumonia with rapid progression and continuously high viral load despite antiviral treatment; Pao2/Fio2 <300; and mechanical ventilation. All 5 were treated with convalescent plasma transfusion. The study was conducted at the infectious disease department, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital in Shenzhen, China, from January 20, 2020, to March 25, 2020; final date of follow-up was March 25, 2020. Clinical outcomes were compared before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Exposures: Patients received transfusion with convalescent plasma with a SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody (IgG) binding titer greater than 1:1000 (end point dilution titer, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and a neutralization titer greater than 40 (end point dilution titer) that had been obtained from 5 patients who recovered from COVID-19. Convalescent plasma was administered between 10 and 22 days after admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes of body temperature, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (range 0-24, with higher scores indicating more severe illness), Pao2/Fio2, viral load, serum antibody titer, routine blood biochemical index, ARDS, and ventilatory and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results: All 5 patients (age range, 36-65 years; 2 women) were receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of treatment and all had received antiviral agents and methylprednisolone. Following plasma transfusion, body temperature normalized within 3 days in 4 of 5 patients, the SOFA score decreased, and Pao2/Fio2 increased within 12 days (range, 172-276 before and 284-366 after). Viral loads also decreased and became negative within 12 days after the transfusion, and SARS-CoV-2-specific ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers increased following the transfusion (range, 40-60 before and 80-320 on day 7). ARDS resolved in 4 patients at 12 days after transfusion, and 3 patients were weaned from mechanical ventilation within 2 weeks of treatment. Of the 5 patients, 3 have been discharged from the hospital (length of stay: 53, 51, and 55 days), and 2 are in stable condition at 37 days after transfusion. Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary uncontrolled case series of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, administration of convalescent plasma containing neutralizing antibody was followed by improvement in their clinical status. The limited sample size and study design preclude a definitive statement about the potential effectiveness of this treatment, and these observations require evaluation in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 95:311-315, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409680

ABSTRACT

Objectives: As a global pandemic is inevitable, real-time monitoring of transmission is vital for containing the spread of COVID-19. The main objective of this study was to report the real-time effective reproduction numbers (R(t)) and case fatality rates (CFR) in Europe.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 700014, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344274

ABSTRACT

Background: Two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have received emergency use authorizations in the U.S. However, the safety of these vaccines in the real-world remains unknown. Methods: We reviewed adverse events (AEs) following COVID-19 vaccination among adults in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from December 14, 2020, through January 22, 2021. We compared the top 10 AEs, serious AEs, along with office and emergency room (ER) visits by age (18-64 years, ≥65 years) and gender (female, male). Results: There were age and gender disparities among adults with AEs following COVID-19 vaccination. Compared to younger adults aged between 18 and 64 years, older adults were more likely to report serious AEs, death, permanent disability, and hospitalization. Males were more likely to report serious AEs, death, and hospitalization compared to females. Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccines are generally safe but possible age and gender disparities in reported AEs may exist.

8.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 60, 2021 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343442

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often indicated by lymphopenia and increased myelopoiesis; however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear, especially the alteration of hematopoiesis. It is important to explore to what extent and how hematopoietic stem cells contribute to the impairment of peripheral lymphoid and myeloid compartments in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to assess bone marrow mononuclear cells from COVID-19 patients with peripheral blood mononuclear cells as control. The results showed that the hematopoietic stem cells in these patients were mainly in the G1 phase and prone to apoptosis, with immune activation and anti-viral responses. Importantly, a significant accumulation of immature myeloid progenitors and a dramatic reduction of lymphoid progenitors in severe cases were identified, along with the up-regulation of transcription factors (such as SPI1, LMO4, ETS2, FLI1, and GATA2) that are important for the hematopoietic stem cell or multipotent progenitor to differentiate into downstream progenitors. Our results indicate a dysregulated hematopoiesis in patients with severe COVID-19.

10.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 203, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thousands of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been discharged from hospitals Persistent follow-up studies are required to evaluate the prevalence of post-COVID-19 fibrosis. METHODS: This study involves 462 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Shenzhen Third People's Hospital from January 11, 2020 to April 26, 2020. A total of 457 patients underwent thin-section chest CT scans during the hospitalization or after discharge to identify the pulmonary lesion. A total of 287 patients were followed up from 90 to 150 days after the onset of the disease, and lung function tests were conducted about three months after the onset. The risk factors affecting the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis were identified through regression analysis and the prediction model of the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis was established. RESULTS: Parenchymal bands, irregular interfaces, reticulation and traction bronchiectasis were the most common CT features in all COVID-19 patients. During the 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and > 120 days after onset, 86.87%, 74.40%, 79.56%, 68.12% and 62.03% patients developed with pulmonary fibrosis and 4.53%, 19.61%, 18.02%, 38.30% and 48.98% patients reversed pulmonary fibrosis, respectively. It was observed that Age, BMI, Fever, and Highest PCT were predictive factors for sustaining fibrosis even after 90 days from onset. A predictive model of the persistence with pulmonary fibrosis was developed based-on the Logistic Regression method with an accuracy, PPV, NPV, Sensitivity and Specificity of the model of 76%, 71%, 79%, 67%, and 82%, respectively. More than half of the COVID-19 patients revealed abnormal conditions in lung function after 90 days from onset, and the ratio of abnormal lung function did not differ on a statistically significant level between the fibrotic and non-fibrotic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent pulmonary fibrosis was more likely to develop in patients with older age, higher BMI, severe/critical condition, fever, a longer viral clearance time, pre-existing disease and delayed hospitalization. Fibrosis developed in COVID-19 patients could be reversed in about a third of the patients after 120 days from onset. The pulmonary function of less than half of COVID-19 patients could turn to normal condition after three months from onset. An effective prediction model with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84 was established to predict the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 patients for early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Lung/virology , Patient Discharge , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , China , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 700072, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295661

ABSTRACT

Objective: As schools are preparing for onsite learning, it is urgently needed to characterize the extent of pandemic worry and to examine predictors of adopting preventive health behaviors of hand washing, face mask wearing, and maintaining social distance among student pharmacists. Methods: An online survey was sent to 326 student pharmacists in the United States. Pandemic worry was measured using a seven-point Likert scale ranging from extremely not afraid of, to extremely afraid of getting COVID-19. The health belief model (HBM) was the theoretical framework of this study. Preventive health behaviors and components of the HBM were also measured using seven-point Likert scales (one indicated extremely unlikely; seven indicated extremely likely). Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify predictors of each behavior. Results: A medium level of pandemic worry (M = 4.2, SD = 1.92) was identified and females reported a higher pandemic worry. Respondents reported that they were extremely likely to wash their hands (M = 6.8, SD = 0.48) and maintain social distance (M = 6.6, SD = 0.92), but were moderately unlikely to wear face masks (M = 2.2, SD = 1.51). Determinants of face mask wearing included pandemic worry, perceived benefits, cue to action, self-efficacy, and being of an Asian American. Perceived barriers were negatively associated with face mask wearing. Conclusion: Strategies should be implemented to reduce the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic among student pharmacists. Predictors identified in this study should be incorporated in efforts to improve face mask wearing. Continued monitoring of pandemic worry and preventive health behaviors is of great significance when universities and colleges are for onsite learning.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 673187, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285311

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding knowledge and behavioral responses to the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is important for appropriate public health interventions. Objectives: To assess knowledge of COVID-19 and to examine determinants associated with the adoption of preventive health behaviors among future health care providers. Methods: An anonymous online survey was sent out to pharmacy students in high and low-endemic areas of COVID-19 in China. Based on recommendations from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, preventive health behaviors examined in this study included washing hands, wearing a face mask, and maintaining social distancing. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used and measured by a seven-point Likert scale (one as extremely unlikely; seven as extremely likely). Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine predictors of preventive health behaviors. Results: Among 203 respondents who finished the survey, a medium level of knowledge (4.41 ± 0.95) of COVID-19 was reported. Respondents were extremely likely to wear a face mask (6.85 ± 0.60), but only moderately likely to engage in washing hands (5.95 ± 1.38) and maintaining social distancing (6.19 ± 1.60). Determinants of washing hands were cue to action, self-efficacy, knowledge, and gender; wearing a face mask were cue to action, self-efficacy, knowledge, and ethnicity; and maintaining social distancing were cue to action and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Public health interventions should consider incorporating cue to action, self-efficacy, and knowledge as factors to potentially improve the adoption of face mask-wearing, hand washing, and social distancing as appropriate individual preventive measures, especially if local and regional authorities are considering reopening schools sometime in future.

13.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 2269-2277, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282356

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic with sharp rises in the number of confirmed cases and rapid spread across the world. Here, we looked at the effects of geographic differences on clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Methods: A total of 114 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in this study. The epidemiological, demographic, clinical, as well as laboratory findings were extracted from the electronic medical records of these patients. Results: We report the observation that patients from overseas residents diagnosed with COVID-19 were mildly symptomatic with cough and presented with lower inflammatory response and attenuated virus clearance rate, as well as correspondingly prolonged days of hospital stay than local Chinese patients. Moreover, the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, performed to provide a measure of the difference between two groups, showed that serum albumin had the highest area under the curve value (0.81, p < 0.001). Discussion: Our results suggested that blood albumin level acted as a predictive value in distinguishing clinical features between local and overseas Chinese. This work underscores the need to identify distinguishably prognostic factors of geographical dissimilarity in COVID-19 patients.

14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 638201, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264342

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been used to alleviate hypoxemia and dyspnea, but there is no consensus on the application of NIV in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Some staff use NIV as the rescue therapy which might lead to the adverse outcomes. This study was to identify early factors associated with intubation to help the medical staff select appropriate patients for receiving NIV treatment. Methods: Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were treated with NIV in emergency department or ICU of the Third People's Hospital (the only designated hospital for treating COVID-19 in Shenzhen) between January 1 and August 31, 2020, were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Thirty-nine patients with COVID-19 treated with NIV were included; of them, 16 (41%) received endotracheal intubation and 3 (8%) died. Significant differences were observed between intubated and non-intubated patients in PaO2/FiO2 before NIV initiation, hospitalization duration, NIV as the rescue therapy, and PaO2/FiO2 of ≤200 mmHg after 1-2 h of NIV initiation. Notably, 1-2 h after NIV initiation, a PaO2/FiO2 of ≤200 mmHg (odds ratio [OR], 9.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84-47.62; P = 0.007) and NIV as the rescue therapy (OR, 5.43; 95% CI, 1.09-27.12; P = 0.039) were the risk factors for intubation. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19-related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure receiving NIV, close attention should be paid to PaO2/FiO2 after 1-2 h of NIV initiation. Also, using NIV as rescue therapy should draw our awareness that it might delay escalation of respiratory support and lead to adverse outcomes.

15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 670370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247878

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergency use authorization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines brought both hopes and concerns to the Americans and others. We aimed to estimate the mortality rate of COVID-19 vaccination and presented characteristics of deaths following COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: Data on deaths following COVID-19 vaccination were obtained from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from December 11, 2020 through January 8, 2021. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) COVID Data Tracker was used to identify the total number of people receiving COVID-19 vaccines during the same period to estimate the mortality rate. Stratified analysis was conducted by the location of vaccination. Results: As of January 8, 2021, 55 deaths were reported, and the mortality rate of COVID-19 vaccination was 8.2 per million population. A total of 37 deaths were reported among long-term care facility residents, and the mortality rate was 53.4 per million population. Top reported comorbidities associated with deaths included hypertension, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, and heart failure. In addition, dementia was more likely to be associated with deaths vaccinated at long-term care facilities than at other locations. Conclusion: The benefits of COVID-19 vaccines outweigh the potential risks in older frail populations, and our findings do not support actions to exclude older adults from being vaccinated. However, continued monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination is still warranted.

16.
Virulence ; 12(1): 1209-1226, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242086

ABSTRACT

New SARS-CoV-2 mutants have been continuously indentified with enhanced transmission ever since its outbreak in early 2020. As an RNA virus, SARS-CoV-2 has a high mutation rate due to the low fidelity of RNA polymerase. To study the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) dynamics of SARS-CoV-2, 158 SNPs with high confidence were identified by deep meta-transcriptomic sequencing, and the most common SNP type was C > T. Analyses of intra-host population diversity revealed that intra-host quasispecies' composition varies with time during the early onset of symptoms, which implicates viral evolution during infection. Network analysis of co-occurring SNPs revealed the most abundant non-synonymous SNP 22,638 in the S glycoprotein RBD region and 28,144 in the ORF8 region. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 variations differ in an individual's respiratory tissue (nose, throat, BALF, or sputum), suggesting independent compartmentalization of SARS-CoV-2 populations in patients. The positive selection analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 genome uncovered the positive selected amino acid G251V on ORF3a. Alternative allele frequency spectrum (AAFS) of all variants revealed that ORF8 could bear alternate alleles with high frequency. Overall, the results show the quasispecies' profile of SARS-CoV-2 in the respiratory tract in the first two months after the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Quasispecies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alleles , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Female , Gene Frequency , Genome, Viral , HEK293 Cells , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
17.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233260

ABSTRACT

Facing with COVID-19 epidemic such a catastrophic health emergency, the mental health status of medical staff deserves attention. We conducted a two-stage of psychological status monitoring after the end of the assistance and 14 days of isolation, further targeted the vulnerable groups in need of intervention. The study is a cross-sectional survey on 1156 Yunnan medical staff aid to Hubei. Used Cluster sampling method to collect data at 2 time points (at the end of returning from Wuhan and the 14th day of isolation), from March 18, 2020 to April 6, 2020. Female and nurse had higher rates of depressive symptoms than male and doctors and other occupations. The proportion of female with mild and above moderate anxiety levels (22.91%, 2.61%) was higher than male (17.35%, 1.03%) (p < 0.05). Female had a better impaired sleep quality (45.06%, 17.49%) more than male (28.57%, 7.94%). Medical staff supported in Wuhan and with junior professional titles reported a higher proportion of sleep quality impairment. At the 14th isolation day stage, the proportion of nurses changed from depression to health (9.15%) and from health to depression (6.1%) better than doctors. The front-line medical staffs had suffered greater psychological pressure in the treatment process of major public health emergency. Researches on the dynamic monitor for the change of psychological status after aiding epidemic areas were still in relatively blank stage. Targeting the vulnerable characteristics of aiding medical staff is significant for effective psychological intervention and sustainable operation of health system.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2230-2232, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233842

ABSTRACT

We report the observation that 14.5% of COVID-19 patients had positive RT-PCR testing again after discharge. We describe correlations between laboratory parameters and treatment duration (P = .002) and time to virus recrudescence (P = .008), suggesting the need for additional measures to confirm illness resolution in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Patient Discharge , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Adolescent , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Child , China , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
19.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(3): 100061, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164618

ABSTRACT

The worldwide epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ongoing. Rapid and accurate detection of the causative virus SARS-CoV-2 is vital for the treatment and control of COVID-19. In this study, the comparative sensitivity of different respiratory specimen types were retrospectively analyzed using 3,552 clinical samples from 410 COVID-19 patients confirmed by Guangdong CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). Except for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the sputum possessed the highest positive rate (73.4%-87.5%), followed by nasal swabs (53.1%-85.3%) for both severe and mild cases during the first 14 days after illness onset (d.a.o.). Viral RNA could be detected in all BALF samples collected from the severe group within 14 d.a.o. and lasted up to 46 d.a.o. Moreover, although viral RNA was negative in the upper respiratory samples, it was also positive in BALF samples in most cases from the severe group during treatment. Notably, no viral RNA was detected in BALF samples from the mild group. Despite typical ground-glass opacity observed via computed tomographic scans, no viral RNA was detected in the first three or all upper respiratory tract specimens from some COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, sputum is most sensitive for routine laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19, followed by nasal swabs. Detection of viral RNA in BALF improves diagnostic accuracy in severe COVID-19 patients.

20.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 595773, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158348

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic carriers contribute to the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), but their clinical characteristics, viral kinetics, and antibody responses remain unclear. A total of 56 COVID-19 patients without symptoms at admission and 19 age-matched symptomatic patients were enrolled. RNA of SARS-CoV-2 was tested using transcriptase quantitative PCR, and the total antibodies (Ab), IgG, IgA, and IgM against the SARS-CoV-2 were tested using Chemiluminescence Microparticle Immuno Assay. Among 56 patients without symptoms at admission, 33 cases displayed symptoms and 23 remained asymptomatic throughout the follow-up period. 43.8% of the asymptomatic carriers were children and none of the asymptomatic cases had recognizable changes in C-reactive protein or interleukin-6, except one 64-year-old patient. The initial threshold cycle value of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic carriers was similar to that in pre-symptomatic and symptomatic patients, but the positive viral nucleic acid detection period of asymptomatic carriers (9.63 days) was shorter than pre-symptomatic patients (13.6 days). There were no obvious differences in the seropositive conversion rate of total Ab, IgG, and IgA among the three groups, though the rates of IgM varied largely. The average peak IgG and IgM COI of asymptomatic cases was 3.5 and 0.8, respectively, which is also lower than those in symptomatic patients with peaked IgG and IgM COI of 4.5 and 2.4 (p < 0.05). Young COVID-19 patients seem to be asymptomatic cases with early clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and low levels of IgM generation but high total Ab, IgG, and IgA. Our findings provide empirical information for viral clearance and antibody kinetics of asymptomatic COVID-19 patients.

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