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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0271422, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053142

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogenic virus that belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus. In 2022, MPXV caused an unprecedented number of infections in many countries. As it is difficult to distinguish MPXV from other pathogens by its symptoms in the early stage of infection, a rapid and reliable assay for MPXV detection is needed. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the specific detection of MPXV and evaluated its application in simulated clinical samples. The A27L-1 and F3L-1 primer sets were identified as the optimal primers, and 63°C was the most appropriate reaction temperature for sequence amplification. The detection limits of the LAMP assay using primer sets A27L-1 and F3L-1 were both 20 copies/reaction mixture, which were >100-fold higher in terms of sensitivity, compared with conventional PCR. The LAMP assay findings were negative for all 21 non-MPXV pathogens, confirming the high specificity of our assay. All three types of simulated clinical samples were clearly identified by our LAMP assay, and the detection limits were consistent with the sensitivity results, indicating efficient clinical sample identification. Our rapid and reliable MPXV LAMP assay could be useful for MPXV detection and on-site diagnosis, especially in primary hospitals and rural areas. IMPORTANCE MPXV outbreaks rapidly grew in the first half of 2022, and this virus has been recognized as an increasing public health threat, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, developing reliable and fast detection methods for MPXV is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Humans , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology
2.
J Breath Res ; 16(4)2022 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017581

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a tremendous threat to global health. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antigen testing have played a prominent role in the detection of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals and disease control. An efficient, reliable detection tool is still urgently needed to halt the global COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, the food and drug administration (FDA) emergency approved volatile organic component (VOC) as an alternative test for COVID-19 detection. In this case-control study, we prospectively and consecutively recruited 95 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 106 healthy controls in the designated hospital for treatment of COVID-19 patients in Shenzhen, China. Exhaled breath samples were collected and stored in customized bags and then detected by high-pressure photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for VOCs. Machine learning algorithms were employed for COVID-19 detection model construction. Participants were randomly assigned in a 5:2:3 ratio to the training, validation, and blinded test sets. The sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), and other general metrics were employed for the VOCs based COVID-19 detection model performance evaluation. The VOCs based COVID-19 detection model achieved good performance, with a SEN of 92.2% (95% CI: 83.8%, 95.6%), a SPE of 86.1% (95% CI: 74.8%, 97.4%) on blinded test set. Five potential VOC ions related to COVID-19 infection were discovered, which are significantly different between COVID-19 infected patients and controls. This study evaluated a simple, fast, non-invasive VOCs-based COVID-19 detection method and demonstrated that it has good sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing COVID-19 infected patients from controls. It has great potential for fast and accurate COVID-19 detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Volatile Organic Compounds , Breath Tests/methods , Case-Control Studies , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 880154, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963456

ABSTRACT

Molecular assays on nasopharyngeal swabs act as a confirmatory test in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnosis. However, the technical requirements of nasopharyngeal sampling and molecular assays limit the testing capabilities. Recent studies suggest the use of saliva for the COVID-19 diagnostic test. In this study, 44 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in The Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen were enrolled. Saliva and serum specimens were obtained at different time points and the immunoglobulins against SARS-CoV-2 were measured. The results showed that saliva IgA presented a higher COI value than IgG and IgM. In matched saliva and serum samples, all saliva samples presented lower IgG levels than serum samples, and only one saliva sample presented a higher IgM level. The conversion rates of saliva IgA and the detection of viral nucleic acids were analyzed in the first and second weeks after hospitalization. The positive rates increased when combining saliva IgA and viral nucleic acid detection. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that saliva IgA could serve as a useful index for the early diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Saliva
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 854788, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952377

ABSTRACT

Objective: The long-term impact of COVID-19 on patient health has been a recent focus. This study aims to determine the persistent symptoms and psychological conditions of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 15 months after onset, that patients first developed symptoms. The potential risk factors were also explored. Methods: A cohort of COVID-19 patients discharged from February 20, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was recruited. Follow-ups were conducted using validated questionnaires and psychological screening scales at 15 months after onset to evaluate the patients' health status. The risk factors for long-term health impacts and their associations with disease severity was analyzed. Findings: 534 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The median age of the patients was 62.0 years old (IQR 52.0-70.0) and 295 were female (55.2%). The median time from onset to follow-up was 460.0 (451.0-467.0) days. Sleep disturbance (18.5%, 99/534) and fatigue (17.2%, 92/534) were the most common persistent symptoms. 6.4% (34/534) of the patients had depression, 9.2% (49/534) were anxious, 13.0% (70/534) had insomnia and 4.7% (25/534) suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that glucocorticoid use during hospitalization (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.12-11.44) was significantly associated with an increased risk of fatigue. The OR values for anxiety and sleep disorders were 2.36 (95% CI 1.07-5.20) and 2.16 (95% CI 1.13-4.14) in females to males. The OR value of PTSD was 25.6 (95% CI 3.3-198.4) in patients with persistent symptoms to those without persistent symptoms. No significant associations were observed between fatigue syndrome or adverse mental outcomes and disease severity. Conclusions: 15-month follow-up in this study demonstrated the need of extended rehabilitation intervention for complete recovery in COVID-19 patients.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 939573, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928445

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid worldwide spread of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has unleashed a new wave of COVID-19 outbreaks. The efficacy of molnupiravir, an approved drug, is still unknown in patients infected with the Omicron variant. Objective: Evaluated the antiviral efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, with symptom duration within 5 days. Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial involving patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. Patients were randomized to orally receive molnupiravir (800 mg) plus basic treatment or only basic treatment for 5 days (BID). The antiviral efficacy of the drug was evaluated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Results showed that the time of viral RNA clearance (primary endpoint) was significantly decreased in the molnupiravir group (median, 9 days) compared to the control group (median, 10 days) (Log-Rank p = 0.0092). Of patients receiving molnupiravir, 18.42% achieved viral RNA clearance on day 5 of treatment, compared to the control group (0%) (p = 0.0092). On day 7, 40.79%, and 6.45% of patients in the molnupiravir and control groups, respectively, achieved viral RNA clearance (p = 0.0004). In addition, molnupiravir has a good safety profile, and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Molnupiravir significantly accelerated the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron RNA clearance in patients with COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: [chictr.org.cn], identifier [ChiCTR2200056817].

6.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 842-844, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900503

ABSTRACT

Respiratory immune characteristics associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are currently unclear. We characterized bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immune cells from patients with varying severity of COVID-19 and from healthy people by using single-cell RNA sequencing. Proinflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were abundant in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe COVID-9. Moderate cases were characterized by the presence of highly clonally expanded CD8+ T cells. This atlas of the bronchoalveolar immune microenvironment suggests potential mechanisms underlying pathogenesis and recovery in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(15): 4911-4916, 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The indwelling nasogastric tube is commonly used for supplying enteral nutrition to patients who are unable to feed themselves, and accurate positioning is essential in the indwelling nasogastric tube in the body of the aforementioned patients. In clinical practice, abdominal radiography, auscultation, and clinical determination of the pH of the gastric juice are routinely used by medical personnel to determine the position of the tube; however, those treatments have proved limitations in specific cases. There are few case reports on the precise positioning of the nasogastric tube in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), for whom a supply of necessary nutrition support is significant throughout the process of treatment. CASE SUMMARY: A 79-year-old patient, diagnosed with COVID-19 at the stage of combined syndromes with severe bacterial lung infection, respiratory failure, multiple co-morbidities, and a poor nutritional status, was presented to us and required an indwelling nasogastric tube for enteral nutrition support. After pre-treatment assessments including observation of the patient's nasal feeding status and examination of the nasal septal deviation, inflammation, obstruction, nasal leakage of cerebrospinal fluid, and other disorders that might render intubation inappropriate, we measured and marked the length of the nasogastric tube to be placed and delivered the tube to the intended length in the standard manner. Then further scrutiny was conducted to ensure that the tube was not coiled in the mouth, and gentle movements were made to avoid damage to the esophageal mucosa. However, back draw of the gastric juice using an empty needle failed, and the stethoscope could not be used for auscultation due to the specific condition presented by the internal organs of the patient, and the end of the tube was placed in saline with no bubbles spilling out. Therefore, it was not possible to determine whether the nasogastric tube was placed exactly in the stomach and no nutrient infusion was performed for the time being. Subsequently, the ultrasound probe was utilized to view the condition of the patient's stomach, where the nasogastric tube was found to be translucent and running parallel to the esophagus shaped as "=". The pre-conditions were achieved and 100 mL nutritional fluid was fed to the patient, who did not experience any discomfort throughout the procedure. His vital signs were stable with no adverse effects. CONCLUSION: We achieved successfully used ultrasound to position the nasogastric tube in a 79-year-old patient with COVID-19. The repeatable ultrasound application does not involve radiation and causes less disturbance in the neck, making it advantageous for rapid positioning of the nasogastric tube and worthy of clinical promotion and application.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337236

ABSTRACT

With the persistence of the COVID-19 pandemic caused primarily by constant viral mutations, rapid identification of different lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by large-scale screening at the point-of-care could be key to monitoring and assessing viral evolutions. Herein, we developed a Fluorescence Enhanced Microarray for Multiplex Analysis of Nucleic acids (FEMMAN) for detecting 8 SARS-CoV-2 variants simultaneously in ~ 3 hours without the need of RNA extraction, opening the possibility of point-of-care testing of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants while reducing the cost significantly to ~ $ 7 per sample from ~ $100 by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). Combined with isothermal amplification, the multiplexed RNA assay achieved single-copy detection sensitivity and single nucleotide variant (SNV) distinction owing to the nanotechnology based plasmonic gold (pGOLD) near-infrared fluorescence enhancing platform. Probing 10 targets of three mutational hotspots in S gene, we differentiated 8 viral lineages (Wild type, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Lambda, Mu, and Omicron) of SARS-CoV-2, validated using nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from 127 individuals, achieving a 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity in SARS-CoV-2 detection, and a 91.1% concordance with NGS in variant identification. The scalable, multiplexed FEMMAN assay could shift the paradigm of COVID-19 diagnostic and surveillance from positive/negative assessments to simultaneous lineage identification in large-scale screening, greatly facilitating the global monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 variants.

9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 751828, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775939

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite growing recognition of hearing loss as a risk factor for late life cognitive disorders, sex and gender analysis of this association has been limited. Elucidating this is one means to advocate for holistic medicine by considering the psychosocial attributes of people. With a composite Gender Score (GS), we aimed to assess this among aging participants (50+) from the 2016 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) cohort. Methods: The GS was derived from gender-related variables in HRS by factor analyses and logistic regression, ranging from 0 (toward masculinity) to 100 (toward femininity). GS tertiles were also used to indicate three gender types (GS tertile 1: lower GS indicates masculinity; GS tertile 2: middle GS indicates androgyny; GS tertile 3: higher GS indicates femininity). Univariate followed by multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cognitive impairment (assessed by adapted Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status) from hearing acuity, as well as to explore the interactions of sex and gender with hearing acuity. The risk of cognitive impairment among hearing-impaired participants was assessed using multivariable models including sex and gender as exposure variables. Results: Five variables (taking risks, loneliness, housework, drinking, and depression) were retained to compute the GS for each participant. The distribution of GS between sexes partly overlapped. After adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for cognitive impairment associated with hearing impairment was significantly higher (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.26, 2.15), and this association was not modified by female sex (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.27), but by androgynous gender (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.81). In the multivariable models for participants with hearing impairment, androgynous and feminine gender, as opposed to female sex, was associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment (OR of GS tertile 2 = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.84; OR of GS tertile 3 = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.87; OR of female sex = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.57, 1.08). Conclusions: Hearing impairment was associated with cognitive impairment among older people, and this association may be attenuated by a more feminine GS.


Subject(s)
Hearing Loss , Aged , Cognition , Female , Femininity , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retirement
10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325101

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China since Dec 2019 and cases of infection have been continuously reported in various countries. It is now clear that the COVID-19 coronavirus is transmissible from human to human. Nucleic acid detection is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19. In this case report, we describe our experience in detection of COVID-19 from a confirmed patient using nucleic acid test of bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid (BALF) samples but not nasopharyngeal swabs. Case presentation We present a case of severely ill COVID-19 infected 46-year-old man with fever, coughing and chest tightness. We performed viral detection using his BALF samples and imaging method (CT) for confirmation. The patient received combination of interferonalfa-1b and ribavirin, lopinavir and ritonavir for antiviral treatment at different stages. Other medication was also given to him in combination for anti-inflammation, intestinal microbial regulation, phlegm elimination, liver protection and pulmonary fibrosis prevention purposes. We provided oxygen supply to him using BIPAP ventilator and high-flow humidification oxygen therapy instrument to facilitate respiration. The patient was cured and discharged. Conclusion: This case report described an effective supportive medication scheme to treat COVID-19 infected patient and emphasized the necessity of detection of the viral genome using BALF samples and its significance in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324963

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been demonstrated as the cause of pneumonia. Nevertheless, it has not been reported as the cause of acute myocarditis or fulminant myocarditis. Case Presentation: A 63-year-old male was admitted with pneumonia and cardiac symptoms. He was genetically confirmed as COVID-19 by testing sputum on the first day of admission. He also had an elevated troponin-I (Trop I) level and diffuse myocardial dyskinesia along with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on echocardiography. The highest level of Interleukin 6 was 272.40pg/ml. Bedside chest radiograph had typical ground-glass changes of viral pneumonia. The laboratory test results of virus that can cause myocarditis are all negative. The patient conformed to the diagnostic criteria of Chinese expert consensus statement for fulminant myocarditis. After receiving antiviral therapy and mechanical life support, the Trop I reduced to 0.10 g/L, and Interleukin 6 was 7.63 pg/ml. Meanwhile the LVEF of the patient gradually recovered to 68%. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients may develop severe cardiac complications such as myocarditis and heart failure, and this is the first case of COVID-19 infection complicated with fulminant myocarditis. The mechanism of cardiac pathology caused by COVID-19 needs further study.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324811

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the relationships between viral clearance and blood biochemical index of 94 discharged patients with COVID-19 infection in Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, enrolled from Jan 5 to Feb 13, 2020. Methods: The clinical, and laboratory findings were extracted from the electronic medical records of the patients. The data were analysed and reviewed by a trained team of physicians. Information on clinical symptoms and signs, medical treatment, virus clearance and laboratory parameters including interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were collected. Results: COVID-19 mRNA clearance ratio was identified significantly correlated with the decline of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Furthermore, COVID-19 mRNA clearance time was positively correlated with the length of hospital stay in patients treated with either IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir or IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir+ ribavirin. Conclusions: Therapeutic regimen of IFN-α+lopinavir/ritonavir and IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin regimens might be beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. Serum LDH or CK decline may predict a favorable response to treatment of COVID-19 infection.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319472

ABSTRACT

Background: Effects of early rehabilitation therapy in severe and critical COVID-19 patients remains to be elucidated. Methods: We recruited 80 severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients in Chongqing from January 21 to March 15, 2020, who had received rehabilitation therapies or standard treatments within 72 h of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We analyzed mortality rates, length of stay in the ICU and hospital, ventilator-free days, and adverse events during hospitalization. Respiratory function, independent functional status, muscle strength, exercise capacity and life quality were measured at hospital discharge and during a three-month follow-up. Results: We found no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in terms of ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality rates, and lengths of stay in the ICU and hospital. Additionally, early rehabilitation enhanced the duration of ventilator-free days, with no increased adverse events and complications. Total lung capacity and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, Barthel index, and functional independence measure for patients in the intervention group were all higher than those in the control group at hospital discharge and one month after discharge. Compared to the control group, patients in the intervention group had significantly higher Medical Research Council scores and greater walking distance capacities within 6 min at hospital discharge, as well as one month and three months after discharge. The St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score was lower in the intervention group than in the control group at one month and three months after hospital discharge. Conclusions: Early physical and pulmonary rehabilitation is safe and effective for severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients to promote their functional, physical, and psychological recovery.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315567

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019, led to the ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19), which has claimed more than a half million lives in a few months. Enormous efforts are being made in developing vaccines and therapeutic treatment to fight against COVID-19. Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 viruses are currently used as vaccine candidates;therefore, it is important to understand the architecture of SARS-CoV-2. We have propagated and purified a clinical strain of SARS-CoV-2 and genetically and structurally characterized β-propiolactone inactivated viruses. We observed that the virus particles are roughly spherical or moderately pleiomorphic. Although a small fraction of prefusion spikes are observed, the majority of viral spikes appear nail-shaped resembling a postfusion state, where S1 protein of the spike has disassociated. Cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging of these spikes yielded a density map which closely matches the overall structure of SARS-CoV S2 spike and their corresponding glycosylation sites. Our findings have major implications in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design owing to the critical importance of prefusion immunogens.Funding: This work was supported by the Science and Technology Innovation Committee of Shenzhen Municipality(202002073000002), the National Institutes of Health grant P50AI150481 (P.Z.), the UK Wellcome Trust Investigator Award 206422/Z/17/Z(P.Z.), and the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council grant BB/S003339/1 (P.Z.). Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing financial or non-financial interests. Ethical Approval: The research received approval from the Research Ethics Committee of Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, China (approval number: 2020-038). The Research Ethics Committee waived the requirement informed consent before the study started because of the urgent need to collect epidemiological and clinical data. We analyzed the data anonymously.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315329

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic, posing a serious threat to public health worldwide. Whether survivors of COVID-19 pneumonia may be at risk of pulmonary fibrosis is still unknown.Methods: This study involves 462 laboratory confirmed patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital. A total of 457 patients underwent thin-section chest CT scans during the hospitalization or after discharge to identify the pulmonary lesion. A total of 287 patients were followed up from 90 days to 150 days after the onset of the disease.Finding: 397 (86.87%), 311 (74.40%), 222 (79.56%), 141 (68.12%) and 49 (62.03%) patients developed with pulmonary fibrosis during the 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and >120 days after onset, respectively. Reversal of pulmonary fibrosis were found in 18 (4.53%), 61 (19.61%), 40 (18.02%), 54 (38.30%) and 24 (48.98%) COVID-19 patients during the 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and >120 days after onset, respectively. It was observed that Age, BMI, Fever, and Highest PCT were predictive factors for sustaining fibrosis even after 90 days from onset. Only a fraction of COVID-19 patients suffered with abnormal lung function after 90 days from onset.Interpretation: Long-term pulmonary fibrosis was more likely to develop in patients with older age, high BMI, severe/critical condition, fever, long time to turn the viral RNA negative, pre-existing disease and delay to admission. Fibrosis developed in COVID-19 patients could be reversed in about a half of the patients after 120 days from onset. The pulmonary function of most of COVID-19 patients with pulmonary fibrosis could turn to normal condition after three months from onset.Funding Statement: Shenzhen Science and Technology Research and Development Project (202002073000001 and 202002073000002), Shenzhen Fund for Guangdong Provincial High-level Clinical Key Specialties (SZGSP011).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was conducted at Shenzhen Third People's Hospital and approved by the Ethics Committees, each patient gave written informed consent.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315328

ABSTRACT

Background: Thousands of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been discharged from hospitals, persistent follow-up studies are required to evaluate the prevalence of post-COVID-19 fibrosis. Methods: : This study involves 462 laboratory confirmed patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital from January 11, 2020 to April 26, 2020. A total of 457 patients underwent thin-section chest CT scans during the hospitalization or after discharge to identify the pulmonary lesion. A total of 287 patients were followed up from 90 days to 150 days after the onset of the disease, and lung function tests were conducted in about three months after the onset. The risk factors affecting the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis were identified through regression analysis and the prediction model of the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis was established. Results: : Parenchymal bands, irregular interfaces, reticulation and traction bronchiectasis were the most common CT features in all COVID-19 patients. During the 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and >120 days after onset, 86.87%, 74.40%, 79.56%, 68.12% and 62.03% patients developed with pulmonary fibrosis and 4.53%, 19.61%, 18.02%, 38.30% and 48.98% patients reversed pulmonary fibrosis, respectively. It was observed that Age, BMI, Fever, and Highest PCT were predictive factors for sustaining fibrosis even after 90 days from onset. A predictive model of the persistence with pulmonary fibrosis was developed based-on the Logistic Regression method with an accuracy, PPV, NPV, Sensitivity and Specificity of the model of 76%, 71%, 79%, 67%, and 82%, respectively. More than half of COVID-19 patients revealed abnormal condition in lung function after 90 days from onset, and the ratio of abnormal lung function did not differ on a statistically significant level between the fibrotic and non-fibrotic groups. Conclusions: : Persistent pulmonary fibrosis was more likely to develop in patients with older age, high BMI, severe/critical condition, fever, long time to turn the viral RNA negative, pre-existing disease and delay to admission. Fibrosis developed in COVID-19 patients could be reversed in about a third of the patients after 120 days from onset. The pulmonary function of less than half of COVID-19 patients could turn to normal condition after three months from onset. An effective prediction model with an average Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.84 was established to predict the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 patients for early diagnosis.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314470

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing pandemic of COVID‐19 has led to an unprecedented global crisis with problems of fragmentation in healthcare services in many severely affected countries. A key issue is distinguishing the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious disease, especially in children and teens. Methods: : To provide precise and comprehensive information on SARS-CoV-2 infected children, a total 62 hospitalized patients, aged from 1 to 14 years old and confirmed with the infection of either SARS-CoV-2 or influenza A virus, were enrolled from September 2019 to February 2020. The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics, as well as the outcomes of these pediatric patients were collected, followed by comparisons and regression analysis on clinical features and hematological parameters among the COVID-19 patients and the flu patients. Results: : We reported that SARS-CoV-2 infected children showed less fever (43.33% vs 100%, p<0.001) with mild elevation of the body temperature (p<0.001), as well as attenuated inflammatory responses in comparison with patients with influenza A infection. We further showed the significant correlations between initial body temperature and multiple immune parameters (white blood cell counts and inflammatory markers) among SARS-CoV-2 infected children. Conclusions: : Children with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to have mild symptoms and relatively slow progression with a hypo-inflammatory response. Furthermore, the correlation results suggested that distinct immune responses were involved during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

18.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(3): 423-433, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671570

ABSTRACT

Elucidating the dynamics of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescents is crucial in controlling the pandemic and informing vaccination strategies. Here we measured nAb titres across 411 sequential plasma samples collected during 1-480 d after illness onset or laboratory confirmation (d.a.o.) from 214 COVID-19 convalescents, covering the clinical spectrum of disease and without additional exposure history after recovery or vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, using authentic SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization (MN) assays. Forty-eight samples were also tested for neutralizing activities against the circulating variants using pseudotyped neutralization assay. Results showed that anti-RBD IgG and MN titres peaked at ~120 d.a.o. and subsequently declined, with significantly reduced nAb responses found in 91.67% of COVID-19 convalescents (≥50% decrease in current MN titres compared with the paired peak MN titres). Despite this decline, majority of the COVID-19 convalescents maintained detectable anti-RBD IgG and MN titres at 400-480 d.a.o., with undetectable neutralizing activity found in 14.41% (16/111) of the mild and 50% (5/10) of the asymptomatic infections at 330-480 d.a.o. Persistent antibody-dependent immunity could provide protection against circulating variants after one year, despite significantly decreased neutralizing activities against Beta, Delta and Mu variants. In conclusion, these data show that despite a marked decline in neutralizing activity over time, nAb responses persist for up to 480 d in most convalescents of symptomatic COVID-19, whereas a high rate of undetectable nAb responses was found in convalescents from asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 816745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662588

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients show heterogeneous and dynamic immune features which determine the clinical outcome. Here, we built a single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) dataset for dissecting these complicated immune responses through a longitudinal survey of COVID-19 patients with various categories of outcomes. The data reveals a highly fluctuating peripheral immune landscape in severe COVID-19, whereas the one in asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 is relatively steady. Then, the perturbed immune landscape in peripheral blood returned to normal state in those recovered from severe COVID-19. Importantly, the imbalance of the excessively strong innate immune response and delayed adaptive immunity in the early stage of viral infection accelerates the progression of the disease, indicated by a transient strong IFN response and weak T/B-cell specific response. The proportion of abnormal monocytes appeared early and rose further throughout the severe disease. Our data indicate that a dynamic immune landscape is associated with the progression and recovery of severe COVID-19, and have provided multiple immune biomarkers for early warning of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interferons/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
20.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 60, 2021 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541177

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often indicated by lymphopenia and increased myelopoiesis; however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear, especially the alteration of hematopoiesis. It is important to explore to what extent and how hematopoietic stem cells contribute to the impairment of peripheral lymphoid and myeloid compartments in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to assess bone marrow mononuclear cells from COVID-19 patients with peripheral blood mononuclear cells as control. The results showed that the hematopoietic stem cells in these patients were mainly in the G1 phase and prone to apoptosis, with immune activation and anti-viral responses. Importantly, a significant accumulation of immature myeloid progenitors and a dramatic reduction of lymphoid progenitors in severe cases were identified, along with the up-regulation of transcription factors (such as SPI1, LMO4, ETS2, FLI1, and GATA2) that are important for the hematopoietic stem cell or multipotent progenitor to differentiate into downstream progenitors. Our results indicate a dysregulated hematopoiesis in patients with severe COVID-19.

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